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> /^?. 6 3 



Harvard College 




(BrroM Of THE scries: 

Umt. W. H. WtTHROW. U-JL. HO, r.K.S.C 



Development of Military Science 


■'«•■- ■• Modtt* Emttnd' ' Modtn Fraaa," " Bngtamd and Kaf^ 
^M im tU3,' "A MlOory cf EmgUtrnd,' 4 Voli^ - Lijt ^ 
Gmtf nU,* - DamUf Ufi and Worta^ "lAft^f 
Pttar llu Gmt,' Sic 



Vr. & R. CHAMBERS, Limited 


[an- »<^ 9*03 

nntered. aewirdinn to Act ot CoDgreB. In the Tflftr One Thon-wnil NTue 
Hundred and One. by tbe Bradtey-QnrreUoa Co.. Limited, la the OlDcs 
of the Librarian at CooKress, at WaihinKlao. 

EBterrd, oocordlni; to Act of Pariiameot ot Canndft, In Ibe Year Ooe 
Thousand Nine IIuBdred and One, by the BradleT-OarnitEaa Co., Limited, 
Id tbe Offlceoftbe Mlniiterot Aeiiculture. 


"So acoonnt of the Nineteenth Oentuty woold be 

ecAiplcte withoQt s narrative of its wars which are 

not inferior in interest to any which History records. 

The campaigns of Napoleon are not oalj replete with 

instruction for the military student, but are full of 

striking dramatic incidents, and from the marvellous 

personality of the principal actor in them exercise a 

fascination over the mind of the reader independent 

of his sympathies. The War of Secession in 

America touches ua nearly both from the science 

•nd heroiem displayed in it, and from the fact that 

the two combatants were of the same race and 

Isiitniage, while the great War of 1870 must remain 

i-T many years the classical example of every brani^ 

of the military art 

It is humiliating to reSect that after bo many cen- 
turies of civilisatioa war should still hold so largo 
a place in the annals of a nation, but although war 
it thf- cause of incalculable suffering and the product 
■A pauioa and folly, yet it gives abundant op- 
I'jrtunity for endurance and self-devotion, and is the 
part-Dt of many of the noblest qualities of man. lu 
the ninclceDlh century we may at least comfort our- 
selves with the contemplation of long periods of peace. 
TLu pnoent work coutaius the history of no war 



between 1815 and 1854, and there is a long stretch 
of peace between 1878 and 1898. Undoubtedly, 
also, in the progress of military scitnce wars tend to 
become short, and a Thirty Years' War, or even a 
Seven Years' War, is hardly possible in our time. 

The present writer has had to cover a large field in 
a small compass. He has endeavoured to make his 
book intelligible to those unfamiliar with professional 
military phraseology, and for this reason he has 
preferred to indicate the progress of military science 
rather by what is implied in the narrative than by a 
special treatment which could hardly fail to be- 
come unduly technical. His qualifications for the 
task he has undertaken are, mainly, that for many 
years be has given great attention to the campaigns 
of Napoleon, and that the later wars which he has 
described have fallen within his own recollection. 
Schoolfellows of his own fought in the Crimea, and 
the succeeding struggles of the century recall to him 







Bou^rtcu Fint ConmL— His Letter to King Oftoi^ 
HL at EngUod.— Boiuparta'B Hatch on Italy.— The 
MBnilUea Enoonntered during theMarob.— ArriTol of 
tht French Troops at the Hoepioe.— The Condition of 
U» Troopa — Napoleon's AdTance Stopped by the Fort 
of Bard.— Bernkopf Tricked. 1 



BooaparU'i Entrauca into Milan and How he was Re- 
r«Ted. — Genoa Captured by the Auatrlann and their 
8n)aiequ«nt Defeat— The Battle of Hontebello and It«- 
Mtba.- Afmid HbUb would Escape Him S 



ll^Ui Explains the Condition of AETaira to bis Brother 
GrnenUs.- How the Austrian Army was Comporod.— 
T»» Frmioh DrlTSU Back.— Where the Hardest Struggle 
Touk Plao*.— The Austrian* Q&in Marongo.- Th« Ap- 



pearsnceof Bonaparte.— The Frenoh Again Driven Back. 
, — The Arrival of Desaix and Subsequent Defeat of the 
Austrians. — Death of Desaix. — Bonaparte's grief IS 



French Suocess in Small Engageraenta.— How Moreaa 
Drove Kray North. — The Meeting of Joseph Bonaparte 
and Colxuitzl at Lun^ville. — Bunnparte's CondiliooB of 
Peace. — Tbe Austrians Reject the Tenna 20 



The War Renewed. — Where Bonaparte's Armies were 
Posted. — Disaatroua Retreat.— A Figlit in the Woods. — 
The Danube Valley and the Tyrol Surrendered to the 
French. — Macdonald's Marvellous Pamage of the Splii- 
gen SI 



lAUtw. — Bow the French Armj was Mobilized.— The 
AiMCiteBs' Histake and Weoknesa.— How the French 
Dawttvd ib«ir Euemy.— Like the Kabbii Before the 
CWsm.— Tb« BtttUu of Elchiugeo.— A Triumph of Mililarf 
^HL—Bmr Piu Beceived the News of ihe Defeat of the 

ifttUUn. „., 85 



1 on Vienna, — Tli« Dangere and Difllcul- 

Dtered. — French Saccesa How Napo- 

hem Aetad.— nu Plan for the Entering of Vienna 
tfoUl bf Hurat's Impatience.— The French Buffer 
Bm*T I<VBH^— ^*P»I<^n*» Delight at their Defence.- 
Hia Aacer with Murnt.— How the Tabor Bridge was 
WoB.— What Proved Kutuaov'a Bain.— The Russians 
OrtMVlM to A.t*aok the French 46 




PufUoa.— How he InvigoraLed the Courage 
•f Uw Af^.— Bafora the Itnttlo.— The Austrian 0«n- 
•nft BkbonlM Plan o( &«ttle.~It« Failure.— How the 
&ttUa at AnalarUU was Fought.— Napoleon Surveja 
tkm Sttmmj^ UoretnniiU.— The Tactios of the Allied 
Tminm — Napoleon's Counter Moves. — How the Allied 
Armj wma t^it In Two. — Thu Compoailion of the French 
AtmfMod How it was Armed 

m UTTLD or jwni. xxo aukbstXdt. 

n% Aim aad What ha Did.— The Mobilization of 
Arm; and Whnt it was Compoood of. — A 

OoMtnal An UUimatum to Franc*.— French Victor^ 

taa— lUpolaaB'a Plan.— The Frendi Defend nmvcly.— 
WHlHlaadUMAMauUoraTboaaanaCavalrT.- Deatruo- 
tiaa of tba Pniaalan Arm;.— Napoleon En tan Burlin.. . 






NapoleonThreatensto Eitinguish Prussia.— PniBsia Raises 
Another Army. — Summonmg the Poles to Freedom. — 
Napoleon Bntere Warsaw. —BenningHen's Bold Move.— 
Napoleon Del«niilDes to Fight a DecisiTe Battle.— The 
Poeitioa of the Rival Armies. — Napoleon's Situation 
CritioaL— The King o( Pruaaia Refuses Napoleon's Offer 
of Peace. — Determines to Crush the Enemy ( 





Austria's Desire to Wipe out the Disgrace of the Treaty 
of Preeeburg. — Reorganization of the Austrian Army. 


n« AtwtrJMirf Opinion of Napolean'a IntentlaiiB.— Hia 
PrapuUioo Cor k Big Battle.— How he CroBsed the 
Biwr 89 



TW Ftench ono« mora Ctcm the Rirer.— Bow the Frecoh 
AdTkoood OQ Enseradoif. — The PoaJtlon of the Austri* 
lot.— The Two Oenenla befora the Battle.— Bow N&po- 
Imd Surrered the Battle.— The Peace of Vienna and 
bd of the CHnfwign W 



At Different Bmnchee of the Hilltarr Service of th« 
World and How tber Fought.— The Different Hethodfl 
ofRghting 98 





^•polaoo^ Deaira to Force Rusiia into a Cloaer Obaerv> 
tnoe of the Continental STiteni. — Napoleon Wishes to 
Call Back Into Life Ital^ and Spain.— The Greatest 
Hilitarr Enterpriae of the World. — Emperor Alex- 
ta^«T iMaea a Proclamation. — NajioleoD'B Entrance into 
Tilaa.— The Effect of Kosxian Weather on the French 
ArH(. — Balaaho* and Napu I eon. —Napoleon'* Movementa. 
^Tbr Ra—iaaa Retire, Devuitating the Country.- Failure 
tl Xapoleoo'i Plan, — Hia Entrance into Smolenalc. — Tlie 

lof UiG«i«TaU 10* 




The March upon Mohcow. — Tho French Suffer through 
Li^ok of Food and Water. — Kutuaov Commaiids the 
Eussiuns.— What the French Saw when they Arrived 
at the Kolotsa. — Tho Simple Plans. — Heavy Lossea, 
70,000 Dead and Wounded 118 



The Goal of their Wanderings.^How the French Found 
Moscow. — The Burning of Moscow, — Why Alexander 
Refused to Negotiate for Peace. — Napoleon Detenujnea 
to Leave Moscow. — The Battle of MaloyaroslavetE aa 
the Turning Point of Napoleon's Career. — Napoleon 
Abandons the Project of Retreating by Kaluga.— How 
Kapoleou Found Borodino. — The State of the French 
Army.— Soldiers Dying from Fatigue.— The Retreat on 
Smolecak. — The Hardahipa Encountered. — The Diaos- 
tera to Napoleou's Armies 117 



'KBM faf Hm Oowcta and PeaRanU.— Nothing Com- 
lo Ite CMMtnphA of this Campaign.— The Dia- 
d HaU a UilUon Human Bciuga.— At- 
itba ImpOMdbUr anJ Failed U8 

THE WAR OF 1813. 



1 Worin with uOnnt Energy a» Etct.— Had to 
Data Ibe BMMtrma of his Empire Even to Exhaus- 
UM/— How ba Raiavl liia Armj.— Locking in Haterial 
U— Tta nUriotto Zeal of the PrussianB.— Mur- 
I «r ttsTolt fnxB Iha Rhine U> tlio Elbe.— What 
Lost threngh the Russian Campaign.— Tlie 
Uwaatt ai tba AIUm.— Napoleon's Stren^h and his 
flwif. BIHcfcw Betake* Rohna.— Bliiober Forced to 
MmImi.— Bath SIdOT Ctoltn the ViotoTT. 181 




FUlmra tbo AUiod Armies to DreRden.— Bia 

Mkd Praanlation with the Keys.— Feared 
a. — Tba(i«niiau Elbe in the Hands of Napo- 
k— To Deal a Fraefa Blow on tho Alliiu.- The Head- 
tot titm Thne Chiefa.— The Battle Beoomea Oen- 
«aL— Tbe Poeitfaii of tbo Rlral Annlea.— Ne^ doea not 
Chny oat lUpoleoB'a Ordera— The Anniitice of Plei- 



ll Bpw to toB d i the Analea of hia Dnmlntana.— 
WwyalioB PoM—uJ upoB th« Kibe and bla 



Strength.— Hts Plan to Recover his Former PoeHifm.— 
Ti)e Force of the Allies and their PI an. ^Napoleon's 
Forcfls. — He Re(;eive8 Newa o( an Attack on Dreeden. — 
Unheard-of Rapidity. --The Cry of Anguish Loud and 
Bitter. — How the Battle waa Fought.— Napoleon Sur- 
Tey B the Ground from a Tower.— A Colossal Figure. . . . 144 


The Allies' Suecewful Plan. — The Emperor's Hist&ke. — 
Bliicher's Victory. — Disastrous French Retreat. — Napo- 
leon's Dreaded Attack .^Failure of his Design to Seize 
Berlin, — The Grand Army Reduced to One-half. — Con- 
tents Himself with a Defensive Position. ^How He 
Placed his Forces.— The Plan of the Allied Forces.— 
Napoleon Forced to Quit Dresden IGl 



A Six Daj-8' Battle.— Called the Battle of the Nations.— 


TTiiiiMiij 'TTliit Napoleon CBlled upon the GoTero- 
nenl <rf lisbon to do.— Not Unwilling so Long aa their 
Ci>«fMfBtion did not Implj a Breach with England. — 
How Portngal wu to be Partitioned.— The House of 
Brapuiza CeBMa to Raign.— A Revolution Breaks Out. 
—Napoleon Throws off the Haak. — Insurrection in 
Madiid.— Napcdeon'B first Great Check.— The Battle ot 
Vimiso Ml 



Xtpolcon Determines to Take the Affairs of the Peninsula 
tato hb Own Hands.— He Croenea the Frontier.— Nej to 
Follow QutaSos and Not to Leave a Han of his Army 
All re. — Napoleon*! OrderH.— He Attacks the Bnemr'a 
PoeJtion.- A Panic Sefsea the Spanish Troopa.— Austria 
ArmiDg. — Napoleon's Resolution. — The Elnglish Betreat. 
—Death of Sir John Hoore 168 



The War waa not of Such n Nature that it Could be Ter- 
BunsU' 1 by Victoriea.— The French Harassed by the Con- 
ttnoal Attacks of the GueriUeroe.- The Siege of Sara- 
CO^— The Corpeee Pilled the Cellars and Choked the 
Sireeta.— Capitulation a Hatter of Necessity. —The 
French Mored by Pity.— French Generals Unable to Aot 
ToKethrr.— Their Ambition.— The Ehity Imposed upon 
8o«U by Napoleon.— Why Victories Meant but Little. . 178 



Bonh's Dream of Perfect Security.— The English Surprise 
Soalt.- His Retreat Disastrous.— Well esiey Determines 
lo Carry the War to Spain.- Wellesley'sMarch on Tsla- 
'ira. — Assailed by the United French Armies. — A Fieroe 
fiayotwt Charge Hurks tha Enemy Down the HUL— 



BaiMd the Hilitaiy Reputation of England to a Height 
Whioh it hod Never Reached Since the Campaign of 
HarlboTough. — Wellington's Warning Unheeded and 
the Bcflolt.— The Taotics of the French Oenerala.— Na- 
poleon Changea hia System in Spain 178 


Wellington Retires Before Maas^na.— The Position Wel- 
lington Took up Behind Coimbra. — How the French At- 
tacked the English Poeitfon.— How they were Met by 
the Defendeis.—The English Foroed to Retreat.— The 
Celebrated Lines of Torres Tedras.— What they Consist- 
ed of. — Hoped to have Driven the English to their 
Ships. — Hasstaa Obliged to Retreat. — Moss^na Onoe 
More Attacks Wellington.— The English Made a Gallant 
Reeistanoe. — Hass^na Returns to France in Disgrace. — 
The Battle of Albnera. 183 



UM OB Bouh.— Obliged to R«caU a Number of Officen 
MdaMMOedSoldittre.— Bow th« Battle of Yittoriawas 
Hrw^t. Jnwiili BaaaJled [o France in Disgrace and 
FlMMd wMat AmsL— Wellington Narron-ly Escapes 
(^fCon.— nunplona Bturenden to Wellington.— The 
t << tha Pwainwilar W>r IM 

THE WAIt OF 1814. 



A Foritkn ftfter the Battle of Letpdg.— Ko 
' IQ fteaial tlMM I&fasions.— Lost tiie Power of 
bUMiT*.— Tha Object of the AnuieB of Bohemia and 
^h^b— Napoboft Worked with all the Resources of hia 
tamgy . — Dafandipg the Soil of hi« Country Against 
Ifea hOMiaa of an Inrailing Foe. — How Napoleon 
Ttoufct to Supplr the DeSciencjr.— The Design of 
tAmnwKab&tf KOd BlUo her. —Strength of the Imperial 
A(^.*-IlipalMa1iPUn of Attack.— Fort^ to Retreat. 
— TWIbtiJw DBt«nni»eto March on Paris. — IIow Na- 

itWMtodBltiobar's Troops. —Cut them Down and 
I vpfn ODoftMlon. — Napoleon's Intentions. 
— IW AUm' Onad Armr Arranged in Order of Battle. 
-TtoOMMml Bnrftfon of the Armies 1» 




TW l^sltlan ot AITain.— The Alliw Form Importut 
taatDttaM.— Btttafarr'a March oa Pula.— DeaMed 
Um PiuMiil of the Aiartiiana.— BKoher*! Soldlen 




In tha 'Worst Extremity of Fatigue and Misery. — 
Marched Barefooted and in Bags. — All the Fruita of 
Napoleon's Brilliant MajKBOvres Lost. — The Bags of the 
Emperor.— The Battle of Craonne.— Bliioher Batabliahea 
Himself at Laod and is Attack«)d hj Napoleon.— The 
French Dispersed Looking for Food. — Paralyzed by Cold 
and Slept like Sheep in a Pen. — Cut to Pieces in their 
First Sleep. — QimnBra Killed at their Post. — Napoleon 
Defeats the Russians at Rheims 




Napoleon's Wliole Scheme Rendered Impossible and How, 
— Napoleon Decides to March to Troyes. — The Allies in 
Contusion and EmbaiTassment. — Sohwarzenberg Passed 
from the Heights of Confidenoe to the Depths of PueiI- 
lanimity. — The French Driven Back in Confusion.— Na- 





CHAPTER xxivm. 
Thk Rmnui from xlba. 

ol tliB lioarixinii.— I.ooked Dpon the An- 
tUgfam wtdi Hornir.— Tba Mutalcw of the Bour- 
OB tbctr S«turn to FarU.— Took Every Pains to 
Mwnory of the BerolutJon &ad the Em- 
|fa«^-Tto amnstli of thA Army R«duoeil.— Tlie Lon^ 
lac Cor llM Bstnnt of the Emperor.— Napotpon Pollowi 
itn with A Watchful Eye.— ReoBona Why 
BOC Kammln where he wa>.~-Napoleoa 
BAik— t<kp<ri<oti'« Boaatful Prophecy Fuiniled. 
I -9mt^ PnmiM to Bring Qaok Napoleou in ui Iron 
^fl^~8HW ft DUratent Nol«. 829 


P coAtajaun. 
At Ife* Oaacravof VIsnna Kapoloon Oeolared mn Outlaw, 
fliiMalhrif rTi[iiitiifiii'i liiiij vrhiii "•illiii|i,iiiii Till 
Amilsi to InvBtlo France SimulUmeoaely. 
. Heeit«te«. — Napoleon's Phu] to Coniiuer the 
I UwPraMiu)!.— Felt Confident Ono DwUi™ 
TlolMf woaUDMHoy the Coalition.— To Aim Htmight 
MttaTtotMof Um Jonetvnof thoTwo Armlee.— No- 
jihiw >iftiiMMliliniili11iiiii Tl the French Army 
I.^The Alllceilid not BolieTS Napoleon 
the Attarii. — OnnerAl Bourmont Desert* oa 
fit the Butle.— PnuuUni Visible In Forott 
It OtMiltaa.— Whftt NapoiMn Decided upon.— On* ot 
iheCUifCuMof hkUtrooceae. IM 

ma aATTLK or liokt. 
I Tbnwa HluMlf Into the Centre of the Allied 
IMka.— Hit Onlen to Orouohy and N*y — BlUuhor 



FbU of Ardor.— Wellington at the Ducheas of Rich- 
mond's Bail. — Wellington and Blucher View the Posi- 
tion from a Windmill.— What Wellington Arranged, — 
TheBattie-fieldof Ligny.— Napoleon's Plan. —The Prus- 
sians Lose, but Regain Bt. Amand.— The Prussian 
Army Mutilated, hut not Destroyed S38 



Had Key Acted with Promptitude he would have been in a 
Position to Attack Quatre-Braa.— What Quatre-Bras 
ConBistod of. — The Centre of the Enemy Forced.- The 
Allies Began to Yield.— Death of Duke Frederick Wil- 
liam. — Tlie English Retire Gallantly.- How Picton Ral- 
lied the 38th Regiment. — D'Erlon Misreads his Order. — 
Ney Prays that he maybe Killed by an English Bullet. — 
Eellermann'.s Charge Paralleled hy the Charge of the 
Light Brigade. — Ney's Face Suffused with Blood, Bran- 
dishing his Sword Like a Madman. — Napoleon's Orders. 



Ift* Bail on ft Slated Soof.— Unable to Break the 
*<— rM. — W ellington Becomes Anxious.— The Defeat 
■f lb* French Made Almost CerUin.— Tlie Guards of 
Ityited Slood like a Red Brick WaU.— The French 
OmH OIt« Way.— a General Rout-— The Old French 
Ovardc Cnkbl« to Hake Headvay Against the English 
Cvnlrf 258 





1U AlW AmiMS of Eagliah and French Land at Galll- 
rstt.— A Coandl of War.— Best Method of Annihilating 
Iht KaTsl Puwen of Russia.— StreD^h of the Allied 
>f»lw.— Bow tiw Amies Advanced.- The Russianit' 
riwillll niiii Willi a Want of Tactical Skill.— The Fire 
rf iW Ruaan Batteries Cauae Much Loos.- The Ad- 
at Um Guards and Highlanders Decided tha 
.—A Flank March Determioed upon.— A Fruitful 
OumvllMmaimr. sea 



hritlMirfaibMlapol Harbor.— Where the Allied Armiea 
ftMad.— Tbe Hialorical Famous Redan.— Tlie De- 
af Brfwalnpo). Dow it wtui Built np.— Sir John 
< Otracta Um Siege Operations of the English.— 
Tba Ptandb Baturiaa SlteiuKod.— The English Fire More 
memt^vL — Thm Bombard ronnt of Canroiwrt'i Uill, — 
IW iMriu Kmi 0**« Waf and Flfd Behind the Uill. 
—IW Two Ortea S«tt lo Lord Lucan.— The Famous 
CtM|p.— AMwa^ tlMjr Knew the Charge to be Desper* 
aia. Iht7 did not Bealtatb.—Rode Back Singly or In 
tvMUdTfarM. sn 





A Russian Force Marcliea agaicst the Camp of theSecood 
Diviaion — The Sand -Bag Battery. — A Crisis Impending. 
— Menchitoff's Plan. — How the Battle was Started. — 
15,000 Russians Bepulsed by Less than a Fourth of their 
Number. — Captured aud Spiked some English Guns.... 377 



To Winter in the Crimea. — Sick and Wounded left Bate 
of Protection, — Twenty-one Vessels Dashed to Pieces. — 
The Sick and Wounded Reposed in Mud,— Nearly 8,000 
Men in Hospital, — Condition of the Hospital. — Great Ef- 
forts Made to Remedy these Disasters. — Tlie French in 
Better Condition.— Arrival of Miss Florence Nightin- 
gale.— Refused the Conditions of Peace. — The Russians 
Repulsed at Eupatoria. — Death of the Emperor Hi cholas. 
— The French Repulsed. — A Truce Agreed upon. — The 
Hillside Crowded with Spectators. — The Cannonade Be- 



liHllliii Forow in Italy Conauted of.— Hovr tlief Ad- 
L — Tho Sardiuiaa Aimy. — Ita Strength. — The 
I of llMFreocli- — TheConduct oftheAusLrianB Re- 
I Itwrplioable. — ThttFint Meeting of the Ene- 
mim.—'nm Austrians OcKMipj- Gen estrel I o.— Conditions 
it Ika BmU« CbuigAd.— The Auatrians Fall Back on 
MoBtabaOo.— Tli« Fr«ucli Ad ranee.— Obliged U> Fighl 
Bkad loIUad.— The AaatrianB Betreat.— Wh&tOener&l 
Fan? kad AocoupUabftd 



rALiBTBO ijn> luoKirrA. 

1W AWarfc en I^estro.— T)ic Austrians Prepare to Hake 
■■AaBnlt. — TlieBaitstion of J il(^rB Com polled toTield. 
— AaaUtelM Drown«Kl in the CanaL— 'l%e Result of the 
In F^TOBT of the Allies,— The Auatriana in Full 
.— Diabautened bj- Betreat.— The FoBition of 
k— A Fonnidnbln Defensive Position. — Befon 
Ik* BhsUa.— Tha Franch Driven Back across the CarnU. 
— Tha Ifiil'i SwajMl Biiukwarda and ForwariJs. — T)ie 
Saihsf Ptottfil'i) Culuiuun Irretiifitible. — Tlie Emperor's 
NrfUoA^— Bowtbo AoaUiaun met UaoUahon'a Attack. 






plan bo Inipado Gialaji'B Withdrnwnl to 
Vtmmnao.—Pmtaemoi Um Battleflald of Snirprlno.— 
Tba lOlterr InpQftanea of Otridinolo.— The Htrviigth 
flf ih» AlUad Amy.— TIm Aastrlwia' Intcntiomi.— Tho 
Kb a( Ife* rmtrh.— DeaaHiidaii of tlio Battle. —Th« 
JLM*riaaOa*ab7 Dri**n Back.— Tlie MovemeDlaor NH 
■aj Cterahart.- TIm Op^ratkmii of tbn SnrdiDiana.— 
llBi^[faaa BMIwr SMaTVrrtAc— Tha Auatiianri Retreat 
b sU EMtMtfou.— TIh toMoa at Uw BaltU of Solfarino. 
-n* bi of Iba War. 






How the War Started.— Seven States Declars their Union 
with the Other States Dissolved. — The Formation of a 
Confederate OovBrnment. — The Captnre of Fott Suniter. 
—The Pint Blood waa Shed at Baltimore.— How Ells- 
worth Became the Hero of the National Movement . — To 
Increase the Strength otthe Federal Army.— The Plans 
of the Opposing Generals. — The Federal Armj Drive the 
Confederatee Back.^A Rout and a Race for Washing- 
ton, — One of Prince Consort's Idut Public Acts 820 



The Blockade of the Southern Ports.— Giant's Reply to 
Bufkner's Application for Terms of Capitulation. — Tlie 



to c( Ball Ron. — 0«iiei»I Lee Pushed into Maryland. — 
■oCMImi'i March U) Cover Woshtngtoii and Baltimore. 
— Tta btllc of Antietam.—Tlie Ctinfedemte Arni7 
Oigbt to have been AmiihilaMd. — Buruside Succeeds 
MoOtlhw in CommAnd. — Buruside Aims at Hichmond. 
— n* Attack on th« Heights Held by Le«.— Nearlj Half 
rf tfa* Attackios fonv Shot Down.— I'he End of th« 


_ 33S 


^KM^ liBOoIn's Letter to General Hooker on his Suo- 
^PaittBg Bumalde In Command. — Hooker Itcgins by Ito- 
'^Maridgllie Diacdplitis of the Arm; of the Polomne,— 
Bl> Mow OB Riofanoad.— Lee's MoTcments.— I>«aili of 
"SMMWaU'Jaokaon.— Booker Driven Baok.— The Fed- 
■■1 Aimj CacraM the Rappahannock. —AdmirableOeo- 
•aMdp PH laa Saperior Numbers.— The South Demands 
tk»lmwmdaa at the North.— Ilookor Kf^signa his Com- 
-— TW BiMtnle* Ue*-t.— The Toeition of Ihe Battle- 
L— Both Siile* Klght with Det«nniD&tion.— The 
iDrfvAnBaokby Superior Forces.— A Murderous 
■tnigSlM (or tlwPowomioD ut LSIlIe Hound Top.— Ewell s 
Tntfm Driwn out of Gulp's nill.— Lee Determined to 
I Centre of Meade's Line.— An Artillery Duel. 
e'a FlHnaiu Attack.— Stuart'? Cavalry Unable to Co- 
> with the Hbvement. — A General Advance of the 
i UiM brlDRs the Battle ton Close.— Lee's Retreat 
• nUfnl OiM^— The Low of the Federals and the Con- 

P"^"""^ " 



PnoMds is Panult of Bragg. —Tlte 

^■toMCgbbrtvoM BtacgaiulRoaecran&.— The Battle Ri>' 

aa a C^onfMUm* Victory.— Tiie FMcnl Torfrt 

B«-Wfula»d.— Grmnl^ Plan to Attack Bn«s.— The 

■utla above the Cloodi.- Bmgg'g Amijr Cooi^etdjr 



Defeated.— OfantQlTeti the Title of Uentenaat-GcBeiaL 
—What the Cosfederata Army Coiuisted of .^Lae A.t- 
taoks Qrant in tba Wildernen.— A Hand-to-E[uid En- 
gagement.— No Deoisive Advantage Qained on Eitbat 
8iile.~-Tha Battle Rasumed.— The FedanlH Retire .—The 
Aaaault on the Confederatea' Entrenohmente. — Lee'i 
Attempt to Recapture the Salient Angle.— The Two 
Anaiee Oppoeed to Each Other at Cold Harbour. — 
Grant's Reputation Suffers. — Qrant'e HoTements to In- 
veat Richmond and Qala Petenburg. S59 



To Capture Atlanta. — Sherman'a Foroe Cornea into Con- 
tact with that of Johnston at New Hope Church. — 
Sherman Gradually Drawing Nearer to Atlanta. — Hi* 
Attempt to Capture Jolineton'e Position in the Battia 
of Keneeaw a Failure.— The Battle of Atlanta.— Atlanta 
Won by Hard Fighting and Clever Strategy. — Sherman 
Bends Away all the Civil Inhabitants of the City.— His 
Great March from Atlauta to Savannah. — The Nt 



Aartdtta Amy.— Tha Btren^fa of the Italian Armj.— 
Whil Um SftxoDy Atmj Coiuisted of.— Pnusia Declares 
Wv a^lnrt Hkaoier, Herae-CiuncI and Snxouy.—Tlie 
IlHtar BMiltt Friunerof War— The Invwion of Snxoiiy. 
— Bw tb« PriMiian Troops were Received by the Pop- 
vklun.— Benadek's Sobeoio U> Striki-a Doadlj- Blow to 
th* ll«ftrt of tli« PnusiAQ Kingdom Rendered Impos- 



Hh* Hsfrh of Prlciot) Frederick Charles. —The Battle at 
' fti Ji J .— Tha PruMUns Victorious.— A Combat Takea 
» ai MaDobmKTitx.— Prince Frederick Charles with 
I e< oalf 100 lC«n Oains 1 2 Miles of Country and 
I/)00 PrfMKwn.— A More Serious Battle at 
GtaUs.— Th« Stntcgtc Ohjeot nt the Movements uf tlie 
Tw Praaiiaa Amiei Aehiev«l.— The Pruuiana Cap- 
tmm Kailglabirf alMr a Hot CunUnk— The Iteaiilt uf tha 
ritlfn ol SkkltUandSetiweiDachkdeL- BoneiUk Retire* 
Tm>idiXAnicsi*tx.— ^rera Acrtions Fought bj Prinoe 
Trmiariek Charii tnd the Crown Prince.— How tliQ 
Pnariaai AtlMlwd Beiwdek.— Tht> Auatrian Batt«riea 




IkBdtlMAiMltlau Forced to R«tire.~Benedek 
KaCtred Co KOtilgsrilU with the Fragmenta of his Beaten 

E' — 7v— Th« LcMMt «r Uio Two Armiea Engaged. 
tkm SMticlh of tl)» Aotitriiuts I.a7 In Italy.— What 
LaHamofs ItatartBlBed.- TheTwu ArmlaaltMt.- Tha 
Aartriana Oain a Brilliant Viotor}- at OuMtow.— Pari- 
biMl Twkw Wo CTl ad la Small EagaganMnts.— Cialdini 
B aCP w ia iMHuToan In Command of tlia Italians.— The 
fmlUuaof tbaTWM>pa.-'TliuIta]iaui' AinirJ alOocapy- 
Im| all TarrllArica to which thv Italian lAni;uag* waa 
u— Tbair Anloui Ctieckad \ij the Result uf tLa 




Naval Battle of LIbbb.— The Austriaiu Ceded Venetia 
to the Ecaperor Napoleon, who Made it Orer to lb* 
ItaUana SM 



The Effloienoy of the Bavarian Army was Spoiled by the 
Vacillation of Prince Charles.— A Want of Energy in 
the Leaders on Both Sides. — The Battle of Langenaalsa. 
—The Prussians Retreat— The Hanoveriana Uasters of 
the Field. — King of Hanover Hemmed in by an Army of 
40,000 Enemiea.— Determines not to Sacrifice hia Soldiers 
and Accepts the Terms Previously Proposed by Prussia. 
—The Poeition of Qeneral Vogel von FUckeoBtein after 
the Capitulation of the Hanoverians. — The Cause of the 
Unity of the Federate not being Attained.— The Plan 
Conceived by Falokenetein. — The Battle of Domfaach 
had no Decteive Conclusion, — The Prussians Oain the 
Passage of the Saale at Ebmmelburg. — The Prussians 
Surprise the Bavarians. — Prince Alexander's Action to 



L— 111* Contnst between the Organisation of the 
Two Anulea Mom A.[>pareat in their Mobilisation.— King 
WaHan o< Ptuhia Arrives st Beilin and Sanctions the 
{Mm* n«|«red bj Oeneral Moltke.— The Operation of 
BMagtag R GraM Anny from a Peace to a War Footing 
Ontad Out In the Short Period of Eighteen daj-s.—The 
Itanttfta Arm]' Reated on Solid Foundation and Noth' 
ta( Left to CtuMcu. — The French Army Ijooeely put 
r.— Tha Di^KMtion of the Two Armies. — The 
I of the French Anuy aa Entire Contrast to 
IkU of llM Antkgoniat 



wttani A.vD eAARBHt^cKEir. 

LcMves St. Cloud.— Tlio Empress Railianl 
wttkjojr and Hope.— It ismy Wor.She Proudly Ctnimed. 
—The FVandi Plaa.— The First Engagement.— The Gen- 
•nl Abel OD*nr Ooouplw Weiasenburg.- The Prussian 
Taitm.—Tbu Town of Weiasenburg Stormed and Taken 
«(l«r a Gallant Re«i«tance.— The First Victory gained 
bf OwBUi TroofM on French Soil.— The Battle of Worth. 
— Tha B upari ority of the Prusnian Artiltcrj- had Become 
riMwil TTiiUli Carried by Storm.— The Storming of 
tta nrifhf Eaat of Proechweiler.— The French Fought 
wllk fMiTnnarii Ooan^. — The Prussians Gain Possee- 
riaaof A*CbT«t«dQrciianJ. — The French Broke and Fled 
altar til* LoM ot FWiKhweiler.^Tlie Germana Gain a 
TUerr at SaarhrUpken.- Two Attacks of the PrtitBians 
BepnlMd.— With Rein fnrce men tH the PniHBiane Make 
AM(h#r Attack.— The French Driven Biirk.— Oeneral 
vtn Oolta TalHW th« Kanlnchenberg. ^Marshal Bniuiine 
OSera Ua Ck>-opmal<on to Frossard but it !• Deotined. 

Iha Bauta VM Won <1S 



» Oate of nwDoe Opened to the Oanoan Armiea wlth- 
, Fnrtbar Stniggte.— Oeo«nU Oonatanutton Felt at 


PaHi.— G«Benl UaoUfthon Entrnstod with Om Fornix 
tioD of a New Gsbinet. — The Pnmun Army March into 
Lomuue and Take Posseaaioii of Nano;.— The King b- 
Buea a Prool&mattoD to the F^aoh Fteple. — The War 
Rapidlj Aanuned an IntemeaJDe Charaoter.— Oeiman 
Oovernon Appointed In Alsaoe and Lorraine.— OenenU 
Ton der Qoltz'a Aim and MovementK. — HJa Advanoe 
Brought to a Chaok at ColDmbeT. — The Pnualana in a 
vetj Critioal Position. — General Eameke Tamed the 
Fortune of tho Day .—The French Withdrew to Mete.— 
The F^enoh Armj Set Out from Hete towarda Verdnn. 
—The Poaitions of TronTJIle, Mara-U-Tonr and Vion- 
viUe Reached. — Alvenaleben Determlnee to Attack the 
French.- A Terrible Struggle,- The French Compelled 
to Betreat. — BoEoine Nearly Taken Priaoner. — The Bril- 
liant Charge of Bredow's Corps.— The tiosses in the 
Battle.- The Result not so Much a Tactical as a Honl 
Victory. — The French Ordered to Retire towards Hets. 
— Basaine Announces to hia GoTemmeut the Battle of 
Tionville aa a French Victory.- Why he Withdrew.. . . 418 




»Daflmt«lT8hut up in M»ti.— The German Armj's 
It Tuk.— Tba Kins'a ?Un.— The Crown Prinoe to 
I upon Pftrii. — Tlie Army of the Siei^e Invests tlie 
aafmBo*ittUdmQtth» MomUo.— The Whole Length 
«f A* Una o(Inv«Mmaat about Thirty Miles. —Baznine'a 
ObjHl to |«t Powwdon of Tluonvillo.^After a Few 
I Coovlitoed thai the PtusbI&ii Oenoral 
(Haater. — Bocsloe Uakod a Powerful Sortie. — 
b> DrfTing tlM Uermans out of their PobI- 
. by a Night Attack.— The Surrander of 
Mtmy in MoU only a Matter of Time.— Tiie Em- 
to ProoMd to Pari* and Resume the Reins of 
Ou« vunrnt. — MacMahon '■ Army to U&rch ou Paris and 
Aoovpt • Battle Uiar« If Neoenary.— The Opposition of 
I and th* Uiniatry to Both.— It wu Insisted 
in iihould Make an Offensive Ad- 
taaea !• Iha Dlrwtlon of Verdun. — MaoMahon's Mnrcb 
to MoMnUr.— Thu Army of Ch&lons Gradually Lost 
) ftt UmIt Leaden.— Dejeot ion and lii«uborJI- 
I Baoan* BUb.— The Hantvurr^n of the Germans to 
Oa*iBj KaoMalw iwtm been Equalled (n the His- 
tary of War.— Tba French Forced to Accept lifttllo 
■■far 11(MC UnfaTourable Circuimitiuicea. — Tlie French 
IVvofB w«n Enjoying their Eaae when SbelU Fell into 
Uw Ou^— Tb* Battle of Ileaumont had a Decisive Ef- 
(■Ar— Th* Enpafor of Ihe French Refused to Lvave the 
A««y.— 'Ta EMBpa Being Surrounded a Night Marob 
Xaai^^^y. — HaclCalM»% Daaign RontlnrrdNuifatary by 
OaBvUt Ad*«K« o( UiaOemian Truupa.— Thu tVenoh 

llakflnara witbout anyCbanoaof Eacsapa... 427 


I Amy at fladan ConRnod within a dfrncn of 
• Half UUm ftom Nortb to South and Two 



HIlea from Eaat to West.— The Battl« Bepm befonD^- 
bieftk.— The Bavarians Attsok Baisillea.— Captured 
kfter a Hard Struggle.— Marshal MacMahon Several 
Wounded. — He Appoints Duorot as Conunander. — 
Wimpffen Claims the Positioii. — The Bavarians Beoome 
Masters of Baieilles after Six Houre' Fighting.— The 
PmisiansDiTeot a Terrible Artillery Fireoa the Frenoh 
Division Defending Floiiig and Illy. — Tlie French had 
only Two Meani of Escape.— The Boldest General might 
well Hesitate before Aoc«ptiug Either Coarse.— Broken 
Bodies of the Frenoh Flying in all Direotlona.- Hie 
Prussians Succeed In Gutting off tho Retreat from a 
Number of Frenoh Detachments. —Oeneial Duorot^ 
Entrance into the Town.— The Streets and Squares 
Blocked with Ouns. — Nothing before him but a Chaotic 
Mob. — Found the Emperor in a Btate of Deep Dejectioa 
and Perfectly Hopeless.— King of Prusda Calls on the 
French Commandant to Capitulate.— The Emperor De- 
livers his Sword to the King.— The King Deeply Moved 
—The Capitulation Sifted.- The French Prisoners of 
War Taken to a Tongue of lAnd at Iges. — Bivouacked in 




■BOtalnala RMiatuioe.—CoinmuiiicAtioDB between the 

Chftal aad thn Prorini^es Supplied bj Carrier- Pigeons 

tad BkDocxm. — Buaine Capitulates.— Oeneral von Wer- 

te kas t« D««l with s Ouerilla Warfare.— Prince Wil- 

Hia Vl B»d*n Oapturm Dijon.— Oambetta Succeeds in 

brnMnc Ike Wbole of the French Nation.— Making the 

of Um Enemj a National Duty.— The 

Ooaip«ll«d to t'iglit in the FoTeat of Orleans.— 

Depriveilof his Command. -—A Severe Battle 

■I OanLnten.— The French Successful —Tlie Indecisive 

Bi*tl»a< BM im e U HoUoile.— The Battle of Loigny.- 

IMnehCooipelledtoRelteaC iSO 


lm BUDOE OF PAttlS. 

iTUlitoStwiid tin* Efforta Made to Relieve Paris 
I SoTtI**.— The Freouh Curopelled to Retira 
I Sovth.— Th« OennMU Enter Orleans.- The Pu- 
' Kffortt of the French.— Resembled the 8ti-ugglM 
tt • TleUm la lh« Anus of the Murderer who waa , 
^^^gt-t Un.— The Seat of Oovernmont Itemuved 
ta^Tfloni to Bordeaux.— French Suoceaaes. — Chanx; 
QmAaKDy Drino Skdc— All Hopes of Relieving Paris 
nn^fmuwA. — &Mrt«Ua Sorties from Within Paris.— 
Owanl Daunt Compels the Germans to Evacuule Brie 
■■dChanplcBj.— But were Recovered theNext Day. — 
MAMto8aiI«ra » BMtvy Defeat at St. Quentin.— Tlie 
■I of nwli B«KiiD.— Trochu Hakes one LAst 
L— Tiao) \ Oolamn Gaina Posaewion of the Oer- 
— iTiill— iliiiiwiUal Mmiliiiliinl — Gambeltn Kurnis a 
fWa fbr Um Dwtrsctioti of the Germans. — The Frenc^h 
r.— An Amur of K.OOO in the Most Miseruble 
iLs^down ibelr Artos. — The Preliniinnrieaof 
pSciMd at VatwiillM between Bismarck and Julsa 
Ph*t«L— 0«* of ttwi Uoxt Romarkablo Wan in Biatorr. 
— 5*v« hafor* had such lArg* Hmom) of Hen been 
MAtai Owfltot MT 

zxzir CX>MT13nS. 


f ffTAT TWIt IJLVIli. 


The EbnperoT Alexander IL Issues k Proolamatloii, — To 
Secure for hia Suffering Fellow-Chriatituu on Tnrkiah 
Soil the Safeguards Neceeaur for their Future Weltkre, 
— PrinoeCh&rtea of Boumania Assista the Bussiftus. — 
The RoMians Croes the Dwiabe at Oalatz with but Little 
Difflcultj. — The Important Fortress of Nicopolis Falls 
into their Hands.— England Offered to the Forte to 
Send Men of War into the Boephomo.— The Turks Su- 
perior to the Eusaians in Armaments. — Two Attempts of 
the Rosaians to Capture Plevna EUl.— ^The Roasian Ad- 
vance Brought to a Standstill. —The Russiaus had Under- 



ITW Otwid Dnln AttMkM b^ Ounan.—The liussiana 
C^tan Lcotoba.— Dead and Wounded Piled up Six 
FM dMp ueoad Its Approach.— Oimaii FortifiM 
ntm*. — Tba Ru»i>na Atta<-k and Bombard the Re- 
I. — A OreM DtsMter (or the Russiau Army. — In 
the Tnik> Force the Bussiaiis to EvacuBta 
Armj of the Caucasus Redress thU De- 
I Puhft Drires Oenerkl Oourko Back to 
Ami. — Qi-nuut Paaba R«ftuM to Burrender 
I Third of his Army Sick «id Wounded.— Do- 
laenMalnic srerr Day.- His Army Defeated. — 
IhtUagljtIl bat to Snrrrnder.—Tbc Turk« Retrtutt To- 
^■^ lb* VU.— The B«ireat Turn^ into a Rout.— Os- 
kCndJted witli a Brilliant 0(>re»o«.— Oufibt to 
to UailonitK. — Could bare Sftved bis 
cram Ml ImfMnble DiiMter iS4 



n> TtarUah Cmmm Fw frtitn being QopttleeL— War X>e- 
AnA i^unak Um Tnrfce by Serria.—Tho Grand Duko 
ll*iha DetanniBM to Cpoh the Balkans before the 
IkrtiladTlBtet') RwxiTvr tbMnMltes.— The Attack on 
.— TlMTnrki E^aotttta the City.— Tu Retire « itli 
■eraw the Honntaliii ef Bbodopo the Turks 
to Acetpt ft Battle.— Suleiman Runs Away Ito- 
k BMIIb.— The Rtaafaoa Sncreesfnl.— Tlie Turks 
■p tb* Uuiuitaiita thivugli the tinow. — Oourko 
lBd9«e«M4edinBiiUrp]y Defraying Suleiman's Army. 
-flalatnMiwMAitiMt«d and Tried by Court-MartUl,— 
TW Pawa^a of the Skfpka Pa*.- The Turkish RwduuhU 
OaMlnaBraUanllfaaiiU'.—BiuTMiderortbi) Wliolo 
TWUrfi Fenm at M.O00.— The IMaBco of the Italkmu 
kttMtr CBlkfMd.— The AucUot Capital of Turkey FaU 


axxvi CONTENTS. 





The News oF War between Bpain and Amerioa Received 
with Great Joy in New York.— The Northern Coast of 
Cuba Blockaded. — Spanish Gunboats Succeed in Break- 
ing through tbs Blockade of HaTana, — A Squadron Left 
Cadiz under Admiral Cervera. — Castle Morroat Havana 
Bombarded by the American Fleet.— Cervera might At- 
tack the E^t Coast of North America. — Mines Laid as 
a Preoautionary Measure in the Harbour of New York, 
— Admiral Dewey Ordered to Sail for the Philippine 
Islands. — He Destroys the Spanish Fleet Lying in the 
Bay of Manilla.— The Spaniards Defend themseWes 
with Heroic Courage. — Consternation in Madrid. — The 



fMTtan of an Hour is Entirelr Deatroyed.— Tha Ameri- 
ewi Fleet Three Times Superior in Niuaber and Armed 
with Exo e ll cn t Artiller?.— Cerrera Taken Prisoner.— 
The Town and Piorinoe of Bantiago de Cub» Surren- 
derad. — Hanhal Blanco Befnsed to Beoogniaa the 
fhritnlarion of San t iago.— The Spanish Troope in Ripa, 
CUmaiMra and Qnantaaamo l^j Down their Arms. — 
Onat DejeotioD in Spain.-— Might have Conqnered if 
ibtj had Sent 4,000 Men to Florida.— OoTemor-Qeneral 
lafoati'aPropoaiticHi to the Oerman Vice- Admiral von 
DMikteat ManilU, that the Nentral Powerm ihoald Tak« 
Maailla Mndei tbsir Proteotitm.— The Offer Befosed.- 
The ft iiMi Imn Flag Hoisted in the lAdrons Islands.— 
TkaSBmadar of Manilla Demanded by Admiisl Dewey. 
—Tba SomnuMM Be jeoted — The Capture of the Island of 
PmiIo Bioo.— a Striking Contrast to the Operations in 
Ckfaa. — A Protest against the Attack of the Americans 
on Paarto Bioo.— The Armj in Puerto Rioo Advanced 
wiih the Preoialon of a Set of Chessmen.— The Spanish 
Corcrameot Declares itself Beaten and Asks for Condi- 
■ioas of Peace.- The Definite Treaty Signed 008 

Prkt Sm. todi rut. 

LkttmLiiTfl Dr the Cquturr. 

JCoiicLiip, HrnvTy. luiki TirfiAiir III Uiei>ntiiEy. 

^j FrofHiDr A B d* ■Ulc. H.ih. 
J^r OeDr^B He'CiOI Tkxtl, D Lit. U,Tl. 
By Fjr« HnrlliiUt rtUlT<.nl, M Dr 
by blr Ukhuil TeiDpla. fiul-, LL.LJ, i 

m™iPfttntJnlUUrtUI*-i-f AniBric*lnlh*C«.tarj- HiFru^Wiu. rctcrfl^LJ Tnnl. M A.. LLP. 

OaIIdhUI ftlll«n lit iUf L4]LlLtiy. 
arflJ^bv«i>(gnilD i1j# CtitiiiF}. 
PluCIVM of Brltialk £inpLra hi lbBC«UtUI7, 
Pr«|r*H nrf l^snDdn In tkta rexLluTTn 
PrTHfinicif Autl^lmiln Id Lhi CdrtDTTr 
Ptmbt™! hjI fmir ZcnUni! La th« CmitiaT- 

Ej T, JL H E«mU. M a. 

Bf J. Cvtf II Uopklia, F «.i. 
Bf T A. rofbEuL P,Aa, vd ThDlbuT. S>Ul» 
Bj H. F. Ir-lufl. W,A.. wl O. T. J. *lp*n. Hl^ 

Br l'njrt«iH>F COT* hfllH^rl*, M.j" 

iDWntliinii^r IlieCix^liirr. Bf Wtllljiku H }^na:ilU*. 






BoiTAPABTB left EgTpt on August 24, 1799, and 
Inded is France on October 8. By the events of 
Kovember 9 of the same year, better known as 
Bnunairc 18, the government of the Directory was 
otvrthruwn and Bonaparte became First ConBul,with 
CambaiHTt-a and Lcbnin as his coUeagucn. His first 
art was to address on Christmas Day, 1799, a letter 
written in his own hand to George III., King of Eng- 
land, in the following terma: 

" Called by the wishes of the French nation to 
«*npy the first magistracy of the republic, I think it 
pmper, on entering into office, to make a direct com- 
mnni'^ation of it to your majesty. The war which 
for eight years has ravaged the four quarters of tlio 
world, must it be eternal — are there no means of 
eoaing to an nnderetandingl 

" Uow can the two most enlightened nations ui 


Europe , powerful and strong beyond what their 

safety and independence require, sacrifice to ideas of 
vain greatness the benefits of commerce, internal 
prosperity and the happinesa of families! How is 
it that they do not feel that peace is of the first 
necessity as well as of the first glory? 

" Tbeae sentiments cannot be foreign to the heart 
of your majesty, who reigns over a free nation, and 
with the sole view of rendering it happy. Your 
majesty will only see in this overture ray sincere 
desire to contribute efficaciously, for the second time, 
to a general pacification, by a step speedy, entirely of 
confidence, and disengaged from those forms which, 
necessary perhaps to disguise the dependence of 
weak states, prove only in those which are strong 
the mutual desire of deceiving each other. 

" France and England, by the abuse of their 
strength, may still for a brief time, to the misfor- 
tune of all nations, retard the period of their being 
exhausted. But. I will venture to sav. the fate of 


FrsDOd, and the country armed itself with entlmaiasm 
lo extort by force the settlement which it could not 
ihtiiii bj persaaaioii. General Moreau, who was 
wmmjfyuig the valle; of the Ubine from Strasburg to 
BUt^ raesived orders to cross the stream and to ad- 
naee ftgmiiist the army of the Black Forest under 
Ifel aoamiand of Eniy. Massena and Suohet were 
thnnedto protect the aea-coast of Nice and Genoa and 
to |a«iuit tbc Austrian General Melas from crossing 
lite Apeniunes. In the centre General Lecourbe, 
vitli hit luMidquarters at SchafFhausen, was to main- 
tUB bia oooneotion with both armies and to lend his 
aflMtawa ntlMr to the Xorth or South, according to 
aiwiiiiitanreH An army of reserves was formed at 

On May 8, 1800, Bonaparte, enveloped in a long 
Bf ooat, left his apartmcnU in the Tuillerica, 
jmpti into a travelling carriage and passed through 
rarii at a pillop accompanied by Bourrionne. Duroc 
had left the capital two days before to prepare relays. 
At lialf-paat aeven in the evening the First Consul 
MM^ad AvalloD, hftf iitg travclle<l about one hundred 
■d Uiifty miles in fifteen hours. He worked till 
miiaif^ left before dawn and reached Dijon at 
■Udaj. In the afternoon he held a review and 
ipab to tba aereral soldiers about their terma of 
lie fotmd many of them badly clothed and 
bat promised them abundance of everything in 
paradise of Italy. At midnight Im entered 
gay and in high spirits. He examined his 
aod fisatly determined to invade Italy by the 
Onat St. Bernard. 

Hk arrmogemeDta were rapidly made. The Italian 
lipm was to proceed by pawtea now familiar to touT^ 
ii^ fron Gioo np the valley of Saos, vvir the Moate 


Moro to Ponte Grande, and then bj the Col de Ran- 
Eola to Gressonay, distracting the attention of the 
Austriana, and facilitating the passage of the St. 
Gothard by General Moncey. Tor the army of re- 
serve the route was traced from Villeneuve, at the end 
of the Lake of Geneva, to Aosta, in Piedmont, the 
principal halts being Martigny, twenty-five miles; 
Saint Pierre, twenty milee; Etroubles, twenty miles, 
which is ten miles distant from Aosta. Out of the 
whole distance ten miles was across a mountain track. 
The first corps was placed under Lannes, the second 
corps under Duheame; the cavalry waa committed 
to Murat, the artillery to Marmont. 

On May 23 Bonaparte reviewed his troops at Villo- 
neuve. Here he received bad news from Genoa, in 
which city Mass^na was blockaded by Melas, while 
the English Qeet prevented all relief by sea. Bona- 
parte answered the message : " Report to ilaaaena 
that you have seen me close to the Great St. Bernard. 


At tut Sl Pierre was reacbed, where a largo camp 
had baen formed. 

Omt difficulties were found in the transport of 
Ae artiUerT. Tbo road betweon Martigtiy and 
Oitttiv had to be made afrosb. In some places uo 
Mooe wu to be found and the trunks of trees were 
ONd iactwd. Each cannon was taken to pieces and 
As parta were numtierod in legible figures in yellow 
tArfc A numl>er of pine trees were cut down, sawn 
an&der and hollowed out. The gun itself was de- 
itad in tbo hollow tree, the carriage was secured 
pUnka of wood six inches thick, the ramrods, 
utd olhcr implements were placed in another 
hoDow tree, and the wheels were carried by thein- 
frina. The whole mass was lashed to the backs of 
mmitm and thoa tran»]iorted in aafctv. Twenty-four 
poooda wrre paid for the portajie of an entire cannon 
to tbe Grvat St. Iteriiard, nnd the pcnaants did their 
Wt in hope of reward. The transit from St. Pierre 
to the Hoapicc, ■ distance of less than eiglit miles, 
Nerapicd nine hours. The artillery was drawn up in 
•fdar ea tbe other side of the lake, on the road to St. 

TTnfftftunatMly soiDe of the peasants who wore en- 
gigad in hauling the artillery were frostbitten. This 
i others from following their example and 
waa difficult to procure. At last all ob- 
e aormotinted. Altiiough the line of march 
nvQpied threw miles, and progress was impeded by 
■kavftonna aod KTalanches, the advanced guard under 
^nnea at length reached the IIoBpico with cries of 
[■^f© Bonapartel" " Vii-a la Republique!" The 
Freorh troops had arrived at the Hospice on May 
IS, at ton o'clock in the evening, after just escaping 
intraeCion hj an avalanche. The moukB oseiated the 


wounded, and tflie soldiers slept along the corridora 
on straw. Lamies and the advanced guard made their 
appearance on May 16. The brethren recruited the 
troops witih bread, cheese and white wine, gave fresh 
shoes to the soldiers whose feet were bleeding, and 
bandaged the wounded. The passage of fifty thousand 
men occupied, as may be imagined, many days. Six- 
teen large tables were spread out before the Hospice 
at which the soldiers could refresh themselves, and 
wood fires were lighted which burned day and night. 
Bonaparte himself crossed before the rear-guard. 
His countenance was sombre, hia voice harsh, his 
every word sounded like a command ; he rode on im- 
mersed in thought. The expense of the passage to 
the monks was nearly a thousand pounds, and the 
debt was not paid till several years had passed. 

At the Hoapice Bonaparte had visited the library 
and asked for a copy of Livy in order that he might 
Btudy the description of Hannibal's passage of the 
Alps, the only enterprise in history similar to his 


wreeted from the enemy, but the fort still 
—*'**^ Rod the commaDdaDt refused to capitulate. 
Bonaparte, reaching Bard on May 34, found that if 
W began a regnlar siege, he could only reduce the 
pbee by famine, and the garrison was provided with 
nod anil wntrr for nix months. At the same time he 
drteratined to attack the fort from three aides : from 
Sonnax lower don^i the river, from the town itself, 
tod fnxtt tlie other aide of the stream. !A11 branches 
•f the aannlt were repulsed, two hundred men were 
laM, and a raft which was crossing the river was sunk 
fcy die explmion of a flholl. It was absolutely necea- 
mrj to Hod oa the artillery to Laimes, who com- 
■"■■■**^ the van-guard. For this purpose the wheels 
•f (ha gan carriages were enveloped in hay and straw, 
tbe road along the river was covered with a thick 
i»j«r of dunj^, and fifty trumpeters were sent to tbe 
HBmit of Albaredo to divert attention. Sixty men 
van hameMed to each cannon, and a reward of 
tmaty-bmr pounds was promised for each gun which 
mcked Sonnaz in safety. A terrible thunder- 
^arm deluged the town with rain ; the river rose in 
iood, the dmmn and trumpets sounded from Albaro- 
4» and canaed an additional bcwitdcrniont to the gnr- 
aaan. The men dragging the guns advanced steadily 
aad ta gind order. When it was too late, Bernkopf, 
ik« commandant, discovered the trick, but the four- 
and tbe eigbt-pounders were already out of 
and his masketa only inflicted a slight losa on 
At rear-guard. On the following morning the hill 
•f Albarwlo was paaaed by three thousand cavalry. 
iManm aneoeeded in entering Ivrea and reviewed bis 
KtUWrj. In the middle of the suei'eoding night 
*IMr"*r crowed the Alharedo on foot Tlie fort 
ti Bard, after Uui heroic resistance, eventually 



capitulated on June 3. Bonaparte had already 
entered Milan on the evening of the previous day. 
Thus had the difficulty been overcome of marching 
an army acrosB the Alps, when the enemy wasnoteven 
aware of ita existence, and when that army waa 
stopped by the resistance of an obstinate fortreaa in 
a narrow pass, of convoying the artillery secretly to 
the advanced guard, and eventually securiug the 
passage of the troops. 




Th» Firti Consul had wished to enter Milan in 
tnvBipb, bat the clementa were opposed to him. At 
^nti^ be nKnmti*d « golden coach, drawn by six 
vUlB bo T »ai, but on the way a terrible storm of rain 
Infe* through the roof of the vehicle and deluged 
the occDpftnta ; not till half -past six did the proeeasioii 
tJw gate. The streets were filled with people 
nainUined a stubborn silence; they bolieve<l 
1 the roU Bonap«rt« was dead or was a prisoner of 
I Ei^iab, and they were aoxiouB to know who hail 
hia sama. Uo found in the streets caricatures 
rf the anny of rworvc, which was now conquering 
Lnahaniy, representing the cavalry as mounted on 
■Ha, and tbo infantiy composed of decrepit old men 
■d duldrai playing with bayonets. Bt)naparl« 
Nforted to Paris that Milan had greeted him with a 
— M ftat ioo Bpootanooua and touching. One of 
Ub fint pnbUe acts was to order the completion of 
Ih* catbadra), the marble shrine which still recalls his 
gnhn and hta glory. 

Ob Jane 6 Bouaparto announced the re-catahtiab- 
■at nf the Oiaalpine Republic and hia own devotion 
Mlba Roman Catlinlic n>lig!i>n ; but on the day before 
defended by Maaa^a and besieged by MeUa. 
eapitnlatcd through faniine, after torrible snf- 
It baa I<een aaid that Bonaparte might hare 
Qanoa by simpler metliods, and that iu fol- 


lowing the course which he pursued be had thought 
more of his own aggrandisement than of anything 
else. A little examination will show that this charge 
was unfounded, and that Bonaparte in the plan of 
his campaign not onlj followed the dictates of pru- 
dence, but left an example to all students of the art 
of war. 

His plan was that while Moreau, operating from 
the Rhine, attacked the Austrians on the Danube, the 
First Consul should assail them in Italy. The Atia- 
trians were at this time besieging Genoa; they were 
occupying all the passea of the western Alps, and they 
had a force ready to cross the Var into France, which 
was defended by Sue bet with inferior numbers. 
Bonaparte had two objects in view: to relieve Genoa 
and to deal the Austrians a decisive blow. He saw, 
with marvellous sagacity, that if he occupied the 
roads between Milan and Piacenza, he would cut the 
Austrians from their base of operations, deliver Genoa 



WMJdgred impoesible favoured his designs. He bt- 
imd at Milan before tlie Austriaus knew that he was 
IB Italy at all. He was joined in the capital of Loin- 
Wtdjr by the detueliments which he had expected; 
ht yoarded lb« passes of the Ticino ^vith half his 
SaxaH, and with the rc^t occupied the road to Pia- 
«Bi& He loet Genoa, but the capture of that city 
had dftlarrd the Auslriiins so as to deprive them of 
OM diance of escape. Tlioir commuDications 
est off, tboy were forced to fight at Marengo 
with tfanr faces to thoir line of retreat, and when they 
■■• dafeaCed nothiiig remained for them but to 

On Juno 12 General Moncey arrived from Como. 
Biriag waited nntil the array of Moreau was on the 
■obit of foreiijg the Austrian General Kray as far as 
C}m, be had croaacd the St. Gothurd in storms of 
tun aad had driven the enemy from tlie castle of 
BdtsKma. Ho brought to Bonaparte a reinforce- 
of weU^taaoned soldiers, fifteen thousand in 
Bonaparto left Milan ou June 9, at eight 
WUoek in the monung, and proceeded to Pavia. On 
y» load towards tha Fo he heard the sound of artil- 
imy from morning to evening. Not knowing what 
kadoecamd, bo hAStenrd to 8tradel1a, and found tho 
fartteaa fnll of wounded soldiers. It was Laones, 
vha hail been fluting the battle of Montehello ai^ainst 
iha AtBtrian General Ott, who had commanded in thn 
Mwlaila of Ooooa. Lannes had crossed the Po in 
tfilm of oofuidtmble resigtanefi and had encamped op* 
fBla tbe AnctrJan army which occupied Montebcllo 
Md CmtHeg^o. X^nnes had not intended to attack, 
■id waa waiticfc for reinforcements, but Ott began 
A» battia at daybreak with a force of at least fifteen 
men. Lannea bad only half that number^ 



bat he fought splendidly and was aided by Victor, 
■who bad crossed the river in another place. The 
Austrians strupgled with desperation to regain their 
communications and to open the road to Mantua. 
When Bonaparte arrived the battle was already won. 
The enemy had lost three thousand killed and six 
thousand taltcn prisoners. Launes himself was drip- 
ping with blood. 

The nest three days Bonaparte remained at Stra- 
della, in a strong position. His right rested on the 
Po and the marshy flats in its neighbourhood ; his 
centre blocked the great highway, supported by large 
villages and solid farmhouses built of stone; while 
his left was posted on the gentle elevations which 
make the defile of Stradella famous in military his- 
tory. On the 11th Desaix, who was returning from 
Egypt, and who had lost a week in quarantine at Tou- 
lon, arrived at headquarters with Savary and Rapp as 
his aides-de-camp. He and the First Consul dined to- 





BonAPARTR had expwtcd !■> find tlie whole of th© 
Awtricn army rangol in battle nrriiy before him. 
Wbea DO ooo came to oppose him he Biipposed that 
IUm had ratrcatod to Gkmoa, and gave orders to 
Dmks to pmoeed to Riralta, to send scouts as far aa 
Nori, and to watch tho commnni cations of the enemy 
^tb tlie »onlhf!rn coast. At la^it he discovered tho 
AMtiiaa advanced guard at Marengo, and gave 
TiAor oHcra to attack and to drive the Anstrlans 
Mnv titc Bormida. 

Velaa bad held n eonncil of war in Alessandria 
m Job* IS, in which he explained the condition of 
t§MM to hi* brother generals. He said that the Aus- 
tricB earalfy waa excellent, their artillery superior 
to Ihst of the ninny ; that the plain iK-twecn the Bor- 
maim and tho Scrivia was exactly snit^ for an en- 
pyencBt oadctr theao conditions, and that they had 
MH7 ^ili#iw>^ of rictory. The Austrians numbered 
•MV7 men, of whom 7,343 were cavalry, and they 
W M fpnu in reaorre, besides the ordinary artillery 
•f the Itntt. Ott, in eommaod of the left, wan to at- 
toA thii French at Sal£. the centre was to advance 
Sai lo ^iarcngo and thi>n to San Giulinno, then to 
wm finmrda the left and to preas the French at Sale 
l4fc in flank and rear. If these operations suo 
tbs enemy would bo driven back upon tlio Po 
Um Avatrnm might recover their commimicfl^ 



tione. If Ott found the force opposed to him too 
strong he was to retire behind the Bonnida. A 
strong bridge-head was formed on the Bonnida, and 
two bridges of boats were thrown across the stream. 
Everything was done to rouse the spirits of the Aus- 
trian army and to supply their material needs. 

The decisive battle of Marengo was fought on June 
14, 1800. At eight in the morning the Austrians 
crossed the Bormida by their two bridges in excellent 
order, O'Reilly drove back the French advanced 
guard under Gardanne into the valley of Marengo, 
and there waited until Haddick and Keim had been 
able to come up. But the passage through the 
bridge-head was narrow and the Austrians were com- 
pelled to move slowly. General Ott, according to 
the plan which had been arranged, moved on the left 
towards Ceriolo with the view of outflanking the 
French, General Victor did his best to maintain 
possession of Marengo, and informed the First Con- 



AavQUge of Slarcngo came into tho possesnion of the 
iHtrianB. Thoy had mot with equal success upon 
Ife left. Ott bad breti ahic to reach Caste! Ceriolo, 
hk point of attack, and had outflanked the corps of 
I^BMB, who had been compelled to retreat. It was 
■•• ton in the morning. After a two hours' 
•Uigglfl tlie J^astriaQB bad conquered and tlie French 
Wd gma way. The battle-field was strewn with 
imi and woonded. 

At tliis juncture Bonaparte appeared upon the 
Md with his consular guard, composed of eight hun- 
dred grenadiers on foot and two hundred on horse- 
back, diatingiiiBbed by lofty bearskins, encircling the 
■a> wboae presence alone was worth an army. Early 
ta Aa morning he had sent an order to Besaix to 
Mam aa soon aa possible, and had received an answer 
Aai ha would co]1>.-ct the division of Boudet. and 
}m It Sen Oiuliano by four in the afternoon. Bona- 
parte in the meantime, sarrendcring the high-road 
Ltw«aD llATCRgo and San Giuliano, drew liis troojis 
flC to dM riffat, ao as to secure his retreat upon Favia, 
■■i bt on tlM flank of the Austrians should they at- 
Mck. He refused to acknowledge defeat and pre- 
fH«d for the possibility of victory. 

Tha grenadicm of the consular guard held firm 
M^Menanee against tbo dragoons of Lobkowitz, and 
4a diviaion of Monnier was sent to retake Costel 
OifMtlff, The division of Victor, shattered in the first 
■tjWaa re-formed anew, and ordered to press 
the loft wing. The batllo bogan witli 
fury, and again with advantage to the Aus- 
Tbe French were again driven out of Castel 
Oanolo; all efforts to capture Marengo were fruit- 
la. In the general confusion the consular guard, 
t tfaeir loftf beaitkini, stood like a fortress amidst 


the shocks of the cavalry. But Melas made a desper* 
ate sortie from Marengo, and the French columns 
could no longer stand before him. The only hope o£ 
!Bonaparte lay in the arrival of Desaix, and until he 
arrived there was no resource but in retreat. 

Melas now thought that the victory was sura He 
was wounded in two places, and two horses had been 
shot under him, so he retired into the fortress of Alea- 
sandria, leaving to General Zach, the chief of his staff, 
the duty of pursuing the French. He next sent 
couriers in all directions to announce his victory and 
the defeat of Napoleon. Zach formed his troops in 
a single column, with two regiments of infantry in 
the van, then the grenadiers, and the ba^age in the 
rear. He marched along the high-road from Maren- 
go to San Giuliauo, believing himself secure from 
further attack, his left protected by O'Reilly, his 
right by Keim and Haddick. 

About five o'clock in the afternoon, or, according to 
Bonaparte, about three, Dcsaix arrived. He had 
turned back at the sound of the cannon, even before 
the orderlies despatched by the First Consul had 
reached him, and had marched all day in the direc- 
tion of Marengo. As soon as he reached San Giu- 
liano he rushed to his commander-in-chief, while the 
guards formed a circle around them. Bonaparte ex- 
plaioed the position of things. Desaix gazed upon 
the field covered with dead and wounded, and said, 
" Tes, the battle is certainly lost, but it is only just 
five o'clock and there is time to win anotiier." De- 
saix' body of six thousand fresh troops was drawn up 
on the Marengo road to oppose the Auatrians, who 
were prevented from seeing them by the sinnoaitiea 
of the ground. Bonaparte massed his own troops on 
tbe left in order to attack the Austrian flank. 


Tlie Aiutrians were marching, in all the confi- 
iace of victory, with bands playing and colours 
tjing, when Mannont received them unexpectedly 
vitfa a hail of bullets from a battery of twelve giiiia. 
At the eame moment Ucsaix' soldiers fired a volley 
vhieb was vigorously returned. A ball struck 
Dcsaiz in the back of the head and killed him ini- 
Bedtately. Ho fell without a word. The Austrians, 
AiMfdered by this unexpected onalaught, wavered 
aad rftrratod on the second line. The grenadiers of 
Laitermann attempted to make a stand, but were 
throm into disorder by Kcllcrmanit on the left. Ths 
eolomn waa cut in two, and two thousand Austrians 
vere uken prisoners, amongst them General Zach, 
no va= now chief in command. There was no one 
Vi fiv* orders, as Mclas remained in Alessandria, 
H.'vire 'hat he had gained a victory. The defeat 
':' :'^e Austrian^ was consummated by Lannc^, and 
tie »i l"? ]in*r ijf the French advanced victoriously 
f r=jT:. .'*jiiit Cyr rttM>k ('<r'ui\o; th<- Austrians 
«-re - .."-i '.'.:■;■ a j>anir-. f)tt had gn.-at difliculty in 
ri.^.'r '- '■ Ir;-!:,''- ■■vrr iln,- B(,rniida. Tin; lT»ij\m of 
Z.^.:^ j!-! II.i'i>^ wt-n- !-wept away, first over the 
f -•^r. .■,■■. ::.(:i .tt-- ih..- IJormida. 

II-..-;. " ■•-:■' rr'm !.ii dr'.-ani by th*.- thund'-r of 
•_« ^z-L r.. ■.'*:.;■:!. r-jji,-.- Lf-ariT and n'-an-r lo liU city 
.: r :' ,_--,. r •;■.■ !■■ ::,■■ i,ju]i- -jf the itreuia ai.d ln.'li'.-M 
»,•_! _T- .•.i;L ::--.-:.: ' L'-'-ri'-iii victory turiitd int'/ a 
V— - . :'■ -■- T'r.v A;-Tia:is Lad liift t'r<:.i''-il diJii- 
r_T^ ,:. i:.^iL.:.z ji.v rtsiilj.'iti;. The bri'Si't ar.T'i-ri r •-.r is vvr;.- s^htt-jW. aijd irn-; '.avalry, in- 
iiL-rr. -E-ij-- :.r. M-r- u'.'. luix'r-l in irif-xtKi-ab.': I'-ih- 
i_, :„ Mi.-.y j;..i-i-. .f anill*ry -xt-r- li-.t i;. ili'r 
- . , ;- ■*;■:* •,>.- etna:;.. T*- [niriuit iii ti.<: Kn-rt'-h 
i». .-.y J*; ai ei.d *..> I; ii.e 'iariiiCsi. It wai 


night before Ott crossed the Bonnida to his 

The Austrians lost eight thousand dead and 
wounded and four thousand prisoners; the French, 
six thousand dead and wounded and one thousand 
prisoners. But the death of Dcsaix outweighed all 
the rest to Bonaparte. Savary was sent to find him 
in order that Bonaparte might embrace him on the 
battle-field, but he ouly found his corpse, stripped of 
the uniform, but recognisable by the long hair and 
the wounds. It was brought on a horse's back to 
headquarters, and Bonaparte wept over it. Orders 
were ^iven that his body should be embalmed. Next 
day at daybreak it was sent to Milan in a peasant's 
cart, and was buried in the convent of Sant' Angela 
In June, 180G, his remains were transferred to the 
monastery of the Great St. Bernard, where they still 
repose. At his funeral Eerthier said: "Here is the 
man whom the East saluted by the name of Just, his 


■rriiei] at Piris, having in the meantime declared 
the te-eatablishment of the Cisalpine Republic. 

There sre certain similarities between the battle 
of ICaien^ and the battle of Waterloo. Just aa 
WeUiogton waited anzionsly for the arrival of Blii- 
dier to give him the victory, so Bonaparte waited for 
the coming of Desaiz, and just as Wellington was 
■orpriaed hy the sadden inroad of Napoleon at 
(%arieroi, ao Bonaparte was Burprised to find tbe 
^ole Aostrian army arrayed against him on the 
Bormida. At the same time, if Grouchy had pos- 
Kned tbe qualities of Desaix and, instead of partly 
■tnoterpreting and partly obeying too strictly aome- 
vbat dabions orders, had marched to the soond of 
the eanntm, the issae of that momentous field might 
have hem differmt and the course of tbe world's lus- 
tsry hare been changed. 




Wb mnst now consider with what Bucceaa Morean 

was conducting his part of the operations. Boua- 
parto naturally desired for the success of his own 
plana that the attack against Kray in Germany 
ehoidd be made in the most decisive manner. He 
wished to con cent rate the French army between 
Schaffhausen and the Lake of Constance, and to 
break the Austrian coinmuiiications at Ulm. But 
Moreau was afraid of ao bold a scheme and adopted 
a more timid course. He dreaded the possibility of 
havinc to cross the Rhine in the face of a large body of 



! Ilu tDbordiDate Sl Cjt, and the effect of this was 
t Um battle of Moeskirch waa less decisive tha.n it 
lU odierwue have beec. But St. Oyr regained 
hia rspuUtion b/ bi« conduct at Biberacb aod on the 
Uctteuberg, where he induced Kray to believe that 
im was oppoeed by the whole of the French army and 
bif^\&aid him into a retreat to tho liler and to the 
fiasB of Ulm. Tho Amtriane lost so many men in 
dMM aootinacd «uga^ments that their numbers were 
voy little anpehor to those of the French, although 
Xomn b«d, as we have already &ecn, detached a 
body of fifteen thousand troops uudur Moocey to 
■Hiai Bonaparte. 

Uoreeu put iulo action every device to allure Kray 
his defensive position before Ulm, but without 
At Ust marching down the Danube, he 
tnmtd it at Donanwortb, and occupying tho famous 
baole-fiehls of Blenheim and Hoclistadt, threatened 
lb* canunooicationa of Kray with his own country. 
TW effect of this was to drive Kray lowarda tho 
Mrth. In tbe battle of Neuburf*. fought on June 3S, 
tW brave Letour d'Auvoi^ie, who had been called by 
Bapapa fta tlio first grenadier of Frunoe, wua fatally 
yiarcad hy tbe Unro of an Austrian Uhlan. The 
IDT wore mourninf^ for tUreo days in his 
Braty soldier contributed a day's wage to 
prev)<le a silver om in which his heart might be eu- 
**rri**^ When the roll of his regiment was called 
the Dane of I^tour d'Auvcrgne nas always recited 
lai^ tad a aoripiant aniwerei] for him, " Fallen on 
i^tU of bmoor," a prsctice which lasted down to 
ICoreau orwitod a monument on the placo 
I Iw fell wbieb ho placed under the protoction of 
'Tbe Bravo of every Nation." In July the French 
ilia Uue of the l»ar, and sprcud themselves 




over Bavaria, while Kraj occupied the line of the 
Inn. Both annies needed repoae. The armistice 

of Paradorf was sigued on July 15, the effect of 
which was to leave Southern Germany in the hands of 
the French for an indefinite period. The armistice 
of Alessandria had been signed juat a mouth before. 

Bonaparte iised this breathing space to strengthen 
hia forces both in Italy and Southern Germany. He 
formed a second army of reserve under Macdonald, 
which waa to operate in Eastern Switzerland, and to 
leave iloreau free to employ his whole strength upon 
the Isar and the Inn. The government of Vienna 
did not, on their side, neglect their opportunities. 
They restored confidence to the troops by recalling 
the ineom])etent Generals Kray and Melaa. The 
Emperor went in person to the army of the Inn, and 
after encouraging his soldiers, left his brother Arch- 
duke John in command. 

The operations of the Austrians were slower than 



Ic&nlMch irbo Bncceedetl him pursued a similar 
peHer. Still, negotiations were begun at Luneville, 
■faioi had been cbo^en as the scat of a new congresa. 
Joapph Bonaparte and Cobentzl met at Luneville 
«B Norember 9, and the Frencli plenipotentiary 
■kid tbe following questions: Are 3-ou empowered 
to nuke m treaty t Are you empowered to do so 
vitbout tbo co-operation of England? Are yon 
ftctini; o&ly for the £mperor personally and for hia 
Awtriui poACSsions, or are you representing the 
Qmmma Empire! Cobentzl replied that ho could 
dgn Do Irt-nty except with the intervention of an 
Ei^uib envoy. But he went on to ask whether the 
menej of the French government could be trusted, 
tad «M usurrd that it could be. He then said that 
Awtriji would be prepared to make a separate peaco 
witKoQt England if the ni^itiationa could be kept 
•eent till February 1, 1S07, and if an English envoy 
Mlglit be present at Luneville to cover the negotia- 
tiam. Boitauirte replied that he would have no £ng- 
fiAnao at LuneviUc, that Austria had rhe choice 
citktfr of war within forty-eight hours, or of peace on 
thfl following conditionfi: (1) The Rhine to be the 
fnmUerof France. (2) The Mincio to be the frontier 
of AnAri* and Italy, but Mantua to be Hurrendered 
to ibe Ciuli>ine Uepuhtic. (3) The Milanese, the 
Valtelline, Farma and Modena to belong to the Ci»- 
^pine R^pnhlie, (A) Th« Legations to go to the 
nd Duko of Tnscany. (5) Piedmont, Swittei^ 
and Genoa to be indopendenL If thoae eondi- 
werv aeeepted the whole negotiation should bo 
bpt wcret till the time named, and the armistiee 
Amid eontinaa The Austrians rejected these tcrma 
ad hottilitiw were renewed on Xovcmbcr 28. 





When tlie war broko out again, after the deter- 
mination of the armistice, Bonaparte had four hun- 
dred thousand men under arms, including the foreea 
in Egypt. Twelve thousand French and eight thou- 
sand Dutch were posted under command of Angereau 
between the Hhino and the Main, to protect the left 
flank of Morenu's army, who lay with one himdred 
and ten thousand men between the Inn and the laar, 
having hia headquarters in Munich. Macdonald com- 
manded fifteen thousand men in the Orisons, Brune 
eighty thousand on the Mincio. Besides thistherewere 



9 Uohldorf, in order to diecover the plans of 
netsuy. On the two last days of November 
tki two umics came into conSict. Morcau piiBhcd 
ha right wing under I,ecourbe to Kosenboim, his 
ftre to Wsasorborg, and his left to Amptiiig. The 
AnCriuu^ who verc furtJier iu advance with their 
ri^ wing, at first determined to ^Te battle, but, 
faJlAlSDad hf the ditliciitties of the roads, by tho 
hfliT7 rtin and the news of Morcaii's advance, they 
■llw^ d tbrjr plans and marched through the valley 
«l As Ibbt towards ITohenlindon. This compelled the 
hA wing of thp Krencli to retreat, an operation in 
«Wdi y^y greatly distingiiiBhed himself by hU cool- 
MB aad brarery. 

Am wmo u Moreau became fully aware of the do- 
4gW of the m*>my ho led his army on Deccmlter 2 
farto tbs broad forests which surround Ilolienliiiden, 
•ban Uwy were safe from observation. On tht> fol- 
Ivriu day llio Aastriana were marching up the vnl- 
lejr of the laarandwereon the road from Miihldorf to 
HobaDfindon. It was on this memorable scene, an 
■ya tpaoe in the middle of thick woods, that the d<^ 
Mm stniggie must bt> fouftbt. Morcflu gave orders, 
iW night before, to Richepans© and Pecacn to nmreh 
hf ridv^Obs throtjgh the forest of Eberaberg and to 
bU vpoa tbe Anatrians at ^tattenbott, as they were 
nfpaaehingBohfnlinden in a long thin line tbmiifrh 
at wood. The AuBtrians bad very imperfect know- 
bdg* of the country in which they were engaged, and 
■«• atill : '.Tiorant of tho position of the French. 

Il wa* tin ■ of winter. A heavy snowstorm 

Ui>d«d their eyes, and hid everything from them even 
tf ■ abort d[iitJin«e. The roadu, bad at the best of 
(iiuML, were rendered impaasahle by melting sleet, and 
hf a jUff i pWwt^w f^ snow and rain. The Austrian 


columns were separated from each other in the for- 
est, and reached Hohenlinden without the slightest 
idea that thej would find the French ready to meet 
them in battle array. 

The battle soon raged with fury. The Austrians, 
as Boon as they had disengaged themselves from the 
toils of the forest, attacked with vigour. Moreau 
■watched the struggle with the eye of a master, and 
when he saw the Austrian line wavering he cried, 
" Now is the time to advance ; Eichepanse and De- 
caen must be harassing their rear." The Austrians 
were driven back into the wood, and the attack of 
Bichepanse andDecaeuwas as unexpected as his own. 
Indeed the cuirassiers had dismounted and were lead- 
ing their horses by the bridle. Owing to the state of 
the roads the artillery could not be brought into ac- 
tion. Infantry and cavalry were mingled in hideous 
confusion. Some detachments fought heroically to 
the death, others offered no resistance and surren- 



_ . On Uecpoiber 20 ihe Frencb anny waa 
ftrfmriag to cross tiie Edds, and Vienna itself 
warned to be in daiig<>r. 

Tbtt Archduke Cliiirles now liastened to save the 
Mealed army from destruction. Ho wept when ha 
Mw the «xtaDt of the disaster. He sent to demand an 
uautdce, and Moreau accorded one for forty-eight 
lloreau was pressed by his generals to ad- 
ito Vienna, Lot he replied: " It is better to eon- 
•MT pet ft than the capital. I have no news from 
Jfaedoiuhl or fimne. I do not know whether the 
Me has BOcoeeded in marching into the T^toI, or 
■bullMr the other has crossed the Mineio. Augereau 
ii a long way off and is entirely undefended. I do 
avt mifa to bnmiliatc the Austrians or to drive them 
to fbipiir. It is b<>tter to rest novi and to content 
ovndret with the peace which is the object of every 

Tbe ranh was the conclufiion of an armistice, 
wUeh incladcd Maedonald and Brune. The wholu 
cf tliie Dacubo valley and the Tyrol was surrendered 
to tlw Freoch, oa well as the fortresses of Braunan, 
Wnxzbnrg^ Scfaamitz and Kiifstcin. The Austrian 
tmf^naes were placed at the disposal of tlie con- 
waora. Ko reinforeniieiils were to be sent to 
Italy nnlna tbo generals commanding there refused 
tft aoeapt the armiitice. The convention was signed 
m CkriBtnaa Day. 

Befera boatililien came to an end in Italy Hae- 
had aocitnptiabed bis inun'cllous passage of 
;>lil|;eii, an exploit ovon mor^ extraordinary 
paau^ of the Qreat St. Beniard by Ilona- 
fsrla^ hrfaiwff il was undcrtHken in the middle of 
viater onr a far more difileuU pas^. Macdonald 
t poated in tbo Gruoas with fifteen tboiuaud ueu 



and received orders to threaten tbe rear of the Im- 
perial army on the Mincio while Brnne attacked in 
front, lie waa ordered to pass the Spliigen for this 
purpose, and waa so impressed with the difficulty and 
danger tliat he sent Mathieu Dumas to Paris to ask 
tbe opinion of Bonaparte. He replied that the 
passage waa absolutely necessary for the success of 
his plans, and that an army could move anywhere 
at any season of the year — wherever, indeed, two 
men could place their feet Maedonald nerved him- 
self for tbe effort. Setting out from Thusis on 
November 21, tbe rear-guard reached tbe village of 
Spliigen in five days. The guns were conveyed on 
sledges (it is needless to say that the present magnifi* 
cent road across tbe pass did not exist), the muni- 
tions of war on mules. Every soldier had to carry 
provisions and ammunition for five days. 

Tbe day after their arrival at SplUgen a terrible 
blizzard broke over the pass and lasted for three 






"Satoileoti was crowned Emperor on December 9, 
1804. The answer to this new assumption of power 
wu the srmed rising of Europe against him, under 
tbe leadership of England, which is genorall; known 
« tbe Third Coalition. Kapoleon hoped to antici- 
pate the military measures of the continent hy Btrik- 
iog a fatal blow at the power of England. He said 
to CambacerC-s : " Put confidence in me, put confi- 
dence in my activity. I eliall astonish Europe by 
the fury and swiftness of my attacks." 

Xapoleon had collected one hundred and fifty thoa- 
und chosen troops on the French shores of the Chan- 
iteL For two years and a half ho bad practised them 
in emharkatioD and disembarkation, and had taught 
them how to manoeuvre, stocr and work their guns 
tinder every condition of the changing sea. The 
i{»irit of tbe soldiers was excellent and they had full 
eoofidence in their commander. They wore con- 
ttantly employed in exercises either by sea or land, 
in dijijnng trenches, fortifying the shore, or beautify- 
isf their campa. Special boats or barges were as- 


Bigned to each battalion and company, and every 
man, down to the smallest dmnimer, knew his own 
craft and his place in it. As soon as the signal was 
given, the different arms — infantry, cavalry and ar- 
tillery — were immediately in readiness and marched 
straight to their ships. At the sound of a warning 
gun all the officers disraoiinted and placed themselves 
at the head of their troops, a second gun ordered them 
to prepare for embarkation, a third was fired for the 
placing of non-commissioned ofRcers, a fourth for 
the march. In this manner twenty-five thousand men 
could be embarked in ten minutes and a lialf. The 
army was full of enthusiasm; they thought that the 
decisive moment had come at last, but a fifth report 
bade them leave their ships. In thirteen minutes 
they again stood upon the shore in battle array. 

For the success of the scheme it was necessary 
to lure the English fleet away from the Channel, Na- 
poleon iu after years was accustomed to talk of this 



tlhej SRW faitn building gunboats and floating 

iee, they would imagine that no esci^rt was 
MBHnr^ and would pa; less attention to the wbere- 
■bostB of the French fleet. In this way he imagined 
durt lie had entirely deceived the watcbful English; 
bat it may be doubted whether be did not rather de- 
enr* hiinwlf. 

Let na aee how the plot worked out Adniiral 
KadMlty rcache<l the Antilles on February 5, 1805, 
dnwtng the English after him. Villencuvc man- 
•gvd to eneape from Tuulou. He sailed first to the 
Mat, then turning round passed the Straits of Gil>- 
lahar on Mart'L 30 and joined Gravina in Cadiz, 
who had about six Spanish line-of -battle ships under 
Ua eommani]. Gantiieaume was in a similar fashion 
to aaJI forth from Brest, join Villeneuve, Musiessy 
B&d OtaTina at Martinique, auil btuk with them to 
Bcpologiw and hold the Channel wbilst the fleet of 
England waa dispersed all over tbe globe. But Nelson 
waa too Eomidt^U an onta^'ODiat. He followed clase 
on Villeoaave's track bb swiftly as was possible with 
flOQlnry windn. Ho at first th'iu;;ht that Villcnenvc 
waaaiminij at Ireland ; not till Mny 5 did he leam that 
ha el^ecUve wa« Jamaica. The French had thirty 
d^y^ aUii at him ; but he hastened to Jamaica. He 
Bud to hta captains ; " Tou may each of you take a 
, but leave all the Spaniards to me. Strike 
when 1 strike mine, but not before." On 
4 Nelaon arrived at Barbados, but found no 

of tlw French, nor were they visible at Trini- 
daJ. He 8oU||:ht them at the mouth of the Orinoco 
uil baard that they had sailed northwards. The 
Fiwdi Aeetbadreooivedorderstoreturn to Kurope,to 
niiB tlw blodcade of Ferrol, to set free Gantheaumo 

BpBtt, and witli Uiaae imited foroea to appear in 


the Channel. Villeneuve was to avoid all engage- 
ments wliich were not absolutely necessary, and to 
come as close to Brest as possible in order that Gan- 
theaiime might co-operate with him. He was told 
that if he could only ho master of the Channel for 
forty-eight hours the great scheme would be accom- 
plished. Napoleon was informed that Villeneuve 
had reached the Azores on June 23, and waited im- 
patiently for Ilia appearance off the French coast 

But by this time Nelson began to discover what 
Napoleon's plan was. He had visited all the West 
Indian islands in seventy-eight days. When he heard 
that the French were returning to Europe he sent 
some of his swiftest sailers to Portsmouth and Lisbon 
to inform the English government. Nelson was back 
again at Gibraltar on July 18. CoUingwood also 
began to suspect the truth. He knew that Napoleon 
would never risk hia fleet without some great end in 
view : that hia object must be to lure away the English 



Tlie battle was not very deciaiTe, but it ruined 
Kapoleon'H plans. Neither party renewed the con- 
liet oo tL« foltowiog day, although both of them 
■igic hacc done 30. Oti August 2 Qravina Bailed to 
Farnl and VUleneuve to Coninna. lu this port he 
m»md tKe most positive orders from Napoleon to 
■ail to Brcat and to set Gantheaume free from block- 
adaarenattheriskof his own destruction. 

ViUencuv*- loft Comnna on August 14, with fore- 
ii^ of misfortune. It is {losaible tliat if he had 
dmnrn safflciont energy he might have executed the 
eoBuiwods of his maatcr, because Caldcr and Nelson 
ItMil not as yet united ibetr forces. Napoleon was at 
tbt bcifiht of expectation. The troops were embarked, 
tW Artillery and the cavalry- were on board, watch 
was kept an tlic heights to give the tirst warning of 
lh» approaching fliM^L I.uunston, who was with Vil- 
IniWTr. wrote to Na^wlcin: "We are sailing to 
," uid the Emperor wrote to Ganthcanme: " I 
upon your abilities, your stead fastness, your 
dwraeter. Set iwil and como hither — wo arc aveng- 
bg Um disgrace of six hundred years; never bare 
IBT aoldien risked (heir lives for a greater object." 
T« ViUcoiniTO he said : " I»se not u moment, England 

oats I We are prepared; ei-crything is on board." 

Bot ViUeoeuTe had not the stomach for such a 
faring from some Danish ships that the 

tlih tmi was at hand, twenty-five strong, he turned 
and reMbed Cadiz on the very day on which ho 
via eipected at Breei. Ganthoaume had ventured 
oat, aad was dmvn up in battle array in the roads of 
BMouie. Comwallis Sred at him from a distance. 
AUayea wore turned towards tJie horizon in the hope 
•I Tig*'''^"i ViUoovuvc, but uot a 6ail was visible, and 


Q&ntbeftume was obliged to seek his old fincliorage 
in the eveiiiiig. 

Napoleon's wrath was terrible. It fell first upon 
Decrds, the Minister of Marine, for having reeom- 
mended to him bo worthless a sailor. " Your Vil- 
l^ieuve," he said, " is not even fit to lose a battle. 
What can one say of a man who when a few 
sailors are sick, when he has lost a few roasts, or re- 
ceived bad news, loses bis bead and disobeys his 
orders 1 If Nelson and Calder bad joined, tiiey would 
be in the Bay of Ferrol and not on the open sea. That 
ia quite simple and obvious to every one who is not 
blinded by fear." He ordered that the command of 
the fleet should be given to Oantbeaume. 

Secres had tbe courage to reply that Napoleon's 
enterprise was impossible, and that by retiring to 
Cadiz Villeneuve had sarod his country from a great 
disaster. The only safe plan, he said, was gradually 
to build up a fleet which should contend with the 
English. Thus the great scheme for the invasion of 
England came to a sorry end, but Napoleon till the 
day of bis death maintained that it was possible. 




Kapolson revealed the key-note of hia character 
when he said, " I may lose a battle, but I will never 
lose a minate." When he heard that liis plans for the 
invasion of England were shattered he summoned 
Sam into bis cabinet. Dam found him walking up 
and down like a caged lion, breaking a gloomy sileoce 
with passionate exclamations: " What a £eetl What 
sacrifices for nothing! What an admiral ! All hope is 
lost! This wretch Villeneuve, instead of sailing into 
the Channel, retreats to Cadiz. All is over ; he will 
be blockaded I " Then, after a few moments' pause, 
lie cried, " Sit down and write." He then dictated 
without a moment's hesitation the plan of the wonder- 
ful Campaign of 1805 against the Austriana and the 
Bussians. He prescribed in detail the march of the 
troops, the very spots where battles would be fought, 
the gigantic movements of a whole army over a space 
of s thousand miles. On September 23 he wrote to 
Talleyrand : " My resolution ia firm. My fieets 
were sighted on August 14 at the level of Cape 
Ort^al ; if they come into the Channel, then I shall 
have time to cut the knot of this Coalition in London. 
But if my admirals are too weak for such an enter- 
prise, then I shall break up my camp, invade Qer- 
n^any with two hundred thousand men and not stop 
until I reach Yiemia, and have driven the Austriana 
from Italy and the Bourbons from Kaples. I shall 



beat tho Auatrinns and ^Russians before thej have 

time to unite. When the Continent is appeased I 
sball return to the shores of the ocean to secure peace 
at sea." 

The plan of the allies had been drawn up in 
the following mannei-: Five thousand English and 
twenty-five thousand Russian troops were to land 
in Naples from Malta and Corfu, drive out the 
French, and advance into Ijombardj. An Austrian 
anny of one hiindred and forty-two thousand men 
under the command of the Archduke Charles was to 
conquer Mantua and Peschiera, expelling the French, 
and then entering Switzerland. Another Austrian 
army of fifty-tbree thousand men under Archduke 
John was to ho posted in the Tyrol and the Vorarlberg 
to maintain communications between the army in 
Loinhardy and the forces under Mack. This general 
at the head of eighty-three thousand was awaiting on 
the Lech the arrival of ninety thousand Kussians. 



UMBsIf ■ general wortliy to rank with Cipsar, simple 
grmoAinee in ctmceptioD, unwearying in Diimite- 
Ms of itlmil, swift and exact in eicecution. Eiiropo 
«■» Mroek dnmb with admiration and nmazemunt. 
Tbt Anctrians had sent tbeir best generals and 
tWir mtmt tmstvorthy troops to Italy, thinking that 
SwfuAaoo was aure to command there in person, in 
Ifae neac of his youthful triumplis. But the Eni- 
ftror had dotemiined to leave the defence of Italy 
to Viwrna. whoae tenacity could be trusted, and who 
•nld vapport himaolf on the Adige and the Mincio 
m ht had before lu-ld out in Genoa. He reckoned 
that with fifty thousand sea^itoned troops Massena 
«0BU kt<cp head ii^iiinst the vVrchdnko Charles for 
ft ■tooth and give Napoleon time to strike such de- 
onre blowa that it would be noccissary to recall the 
Arebcfaihe into Germany ; Maasena could then follow 
him Rod join Na[)oli'oa on the Danube. 

Iiapolettn determined that he would himself ad- 
tsacc with all epctil to tlio Danube, and defeat first 
tke Anstriaoe and then the RuAsiaua before they had 
lo aitit& This could only he dono if hi? plan 
turned oat with the utmost celerity and the 
■ccrwy. The army of England wan to bo 
with incredible rapidity to tlic banlu of the 
Onalw, the RuHians to he surrouniled before they 
«■■ aware of tbe approach of an enemy, the Itiisaianii 
AAitod iiiil pesoe unforced in Vienna. Thi« waa 
da plan wbidi Kapoleon dictated in five hours to 
Osra. Finally, Iw said : " Travel to Paris, but give 
««t that Toti arc going to Osteod. Prcparo all orders 
Soraobiliaatlon, for mun-Iiing, and for the conmiis- 
fa tneb a way tliat they only noed my sigua- 
Do all thia youraolf, Let bo oao clao hare a 
in it." 


Bemadotte was sow in Hanover with twenty tbon* 
Band men ; be was to collect half of these in Gottia- 
gen and the other half in Hanover. He was to send 
BIX thousand men to Hameln and to provision their 
fortreas for a year. After twelve marches he vraa to 
reach Wiirzburg on September 20, and then take com- 
mand of twenty thousand Bavarians. He was to pay 
for everything in ready money and preserve the strict- 
est discipline. In a similar manner Marmont, who 
was posted at Nijmegen with twenty thousand moi 
and forty well-equipped guns, was to set out on Sep- 
tember 1, and follow the course of the Rhine until 
he reached Mainz. From that point he was to arrive 
at Wiirzburg on September 23, 

The anny of England was to break up on Anguat 
25. The camp of Ambletcuse, under the command 
of Davout, was to proceed by LiUe, Namur, Lnzran- 
burg and Deux Ponta to Mannheim; that of Bou- 
logne, under Soult, by Saint Omer, Douay, Verdun, 
and Metz to Spires; thatofMontreuil, under Lannes, 
by Arras, libeims, Nancy and Saveme to Strasburg. 
Ney was to march to Weissenburg. Each of these 
camps was to march in three divisions, with one day 
between their movements. By September S4 the 
whole of the troops would be in the neighboorhood 
of the Rhine. The cavalry were spread about over 
Alsace; the Imperial Guard marched from Paris to 
Strasburg. These movements were so little known 
to the enemy that the Austrian government heard 
nothing of the plan till the end of September. The 
spirit of the soldiers was excellent. They marched 
with bands playing, singing patriotic songs, and 
shouting, " Vive I'Empereur 1 " When they readied 
the Rhine ench soldier received an overcoat and two 
pairs of shoes. In order the better to oonceal hia 



finB Xapoleon ntmuned for six days in Boulogne, 
tUA be did not leave till September 2. He reacbed 
IhiwitKHi on September A. He stayed at Paria 
OKtly three weeks, working all the time with inex- 
tmtible tovrgv. On Sept4?imber 24 he left tlic 
tipital for Straabtug, commissioning his brother 
imtfti to presiJc over the Senate, Louis to raise 
baifa and form a Xational Gnanl, And Camha- 
(M* tat take char^ of the Council of State. All 
MOcn WRK to be communicated to him in his 
4kbsb and the final deciiion was to rest with the 
A courier was despatched to head' 
tnry dar, and, if it wua absolutely neoes- 
•IT for « Minister to do anything on his own ao 
Mutf bo was hold poraonally responsible for his 
■fima. Xapoleon remained the ruler of Paris and 
«f Fnoee even in the midst of hh anny. General 
BraiM was left in lioalogne to defend the Bea-coaet, 
LAbr r e waa in Mainz, and Kellcrmann in Straa- 
hi^ Joaephino desired to accompany her husband 
■ the campaign, but she was only allowed to go oa 
fir at Stnubnrg. Talleyrand was also to remain in 
thai frontier fortress for the present, while Maret 
irtiiiiti il tbe Emperor in the capacity of Minister. 

Ob October 1, 1805, Napoleon crossed the Rhine 
ad act foot on German soil. He was greeted by tho 
Bailor Falatiao, and Baden promised a contribution 
rf Area tbanBand troope to thi> Grand Army a9 well 
m tranaport and provbiona. AViirtemberg followed 
Aitaaounple and contributed abont six thousand men. 
TUt «ntnbr7 rrmaincd faithful to the alliance till 
Aa f liUliijiliii of 1813. The motive in each of 
iUm cawa waa on tho one hand the difficulty of nen- 
V and on tho other tho doaire for an enlargo- 
fieal of territory and auadranoemcQt in rank- Those 

became s 

marked out 
■qptuted by a 
Aa d^tftt of the 
to dw highest 
to Rottweil 
an ioir, crossing the 
I tka Boath tbroogh Stutt- 
vsB £eU9v«d aloii^ tfie same 
lim Gvnd. Bjs plan was to 
r 4* man wttmk would be ia 
{kc:. &=^l V -> ^^a to ^mumiij his poGitlon on 

ikr nW bvCv'v--^ . j^ aad If— minpm Xq the 
■MMM»» W maU p«A vm «rid bis left wing to- 
varAl th» Da^aiw. otves h at Donanmrth and Ingol- 
»mi ^xvzyy Uk^'* n»r ia sxtrh a manner that 




I?, rixtj^five thousand French were posted on 
i^t bank of tlie Danube, and soon occupied 
thagiDiind between the liier and the Lech. On the 
■■• day 2tapoli>on reached Dunauwdrth and made 
inaigmimi iilii for meeting the Ilussians and for ciit- 
ttacc^ Mack'a retreat to Munich. Uurat and Lannes 
iMC a poM between Ulm and Augsburg:, which was 
ftd^iied by Soult Davout crossed the river at Neu- 
tvf, below Donanworth, and Bemadotte with hia 
Binrian tJoo|>a at Ingolstadt. On October 12 the 
Barariana r(>gaine(l possession of their capital. 

Tlw toils wore gradually closing round the ud- 
kiypjr Hack, and the process of investing liis army 
*aa left mainly to Murat and Ney. il^apoleon him- 
hU T—cbwi Angshnrg on October 9. Hack's only 
AaUB» of safety would have been to retreat south- 
vtrda towards the Tyrol, which he could have reached 
i» two or ibroe days. He would have joined tiie army 
Am and tmitcd hiniMlf with the Austrian army in 
Ilalj, wbieh would hare tMwn a serious blow to Xa- 
plma'a plana. Sut Mack remained paralysed and 
■hU* to move, like the rabbit before the cobra. On 
OMAar 9 tbera was a acrious engagement nt Qiinz- 
\ng for tJie pOMOanon of three bridgea. The Au»- 
fui^it bravely and the French aufTored heavy 
bat tht-y obtaine<l poeaeeaion of one of tho 
_ I and IIm Atutriaoa were compelled to retreat, 
«iA the loM of two tbonaand num. On the following 
4kj tb«7 ntarsed to I'lm, tired, disheartened and 

: eonfidenoe in their general. 

jThe Aiebdnka Ferdinand has the orodit of havinjt 

tbe iuuvitablo disiutcr. After tlit! battle of 

hn tohl Mock that be should hold him ^^• 

■ible for all the conw-qiioiicca of his actions, 

I tbt oaI/ hope of aafcty lay in a apccdy uiuruh to 



Nordlingen, where an opening was still left in the 
iron ring of investment. In this way it would be pos- 
sible to roach Bohemia and act in the rear of' the 
French army. This plan might have been possible 
on October 10, but every day and every hour made it 
less likely to succeed. At last on October 13 Mack 
gave way to the pressure of his colleagues and pre- 
pared for a retreat to Nordlingen. But no sooner 
were the orders given than they were recalled. Mack 
was informed that the English had landed at Boulogne 
and were marching towards Paris, that the French 
army was in retreat, and that in two days there would 
not be a single French soldier in the neighbourhood 
of IJlm. 

Napoleon, on the other hand, was preparing for a 
decisive battle. He issued a manifesto to his soldiers 
in the following words : " Except for this army 
which stands in your way we should now be in 
London, and should have avenged the insults of six 



to Bohoinia or the Tyrol. A council 
)li], in which the danger of the whole 
WJ becoming prisoncra was insistod npon. But 
XadE's tolo iik>a was to attack Napnlenn. Ho de- 
cUtmI that it was the French who were in a desperate 
maditton; that tbc recent assaults were only made 
■ith a view of covering their retreat. He said that 
a reroliilion hnd broken out in Brabant and Franco, 
that Xapoleon was baatening to the llhine and that 
ibe ntTMt would bt>gin on the following day. After 
BtaoT hard words, in which Mack threatened to cut 
«ff lae Archduke's bead, a retreat was decided upon. 
Btt H was too late. 

Napoleon now detcnnined lo make an end, and the 
■loiming of Ulm was Sxed for October 15, and com- 
MRed to the char^ of Ispy and Lannes. The 
AlMiiaiil offered bnt little reaislancc and the 
IGehebbeig and the Frauenbcrg were cnplured, and 
Bfgnr «u sent to demand the capitulation of the gar- 
lino. Mack was beside binisclf with rage. " Yua 
Mfl BUn bcrforo yon," be cried, " wbo are ready to shed 
Atir but drop of blood in Bplf-dcfenec." Segur 
potalr*] nut that ho was surrounded by more than 
ana biradred ihooiiand French troops, that the Bus- 
fin* were far away, that tho line of the Iitn was 
meapicd by aixty thousand French, and that Arcb- 
4^9 Clurie* WM detained on the Adigo by Mass^na 
■id eonld not po^aihly omiG to bis asei^tanot*. Two 
4ay* Utvr Mack had an interview with Napoleon 
\nnm\lf, tlie remilt of which wha n capitulation. The 
Fmidi wcro lo enter Ulm on tbe following day. If 
midnight on Octolier 25 no Austrian army 
Id tholr reswue, the whole of the troops in Ulm 
to hiy down their arms, declare themsolvp" 
■riMOer* ol war aiwl be conveyed to Franco. Th« 


rASs or TBS cranuKV. 

' to ivcnm to thdr eoontiy under s pledge 
■AC to fi^t a^unat Fnnee during ^ remainder of 
IIk eaminign ; their snns and all mnnitiona of war 
wen to remain tbe pnpcrtr of the Frmeh. 

Xapolem foeeceded in dortening the delaj. On 
October SO twcnty-oeren thousand Aiutrians sur- 
rendered to the cKHiqiienv. Kapoleon stood at the 
foot of the Micheljberg, hia infantry in a semicirclQ 
helund him, hia cavsln- in a line before him ; aud be- 
tween the two marched the Anstriaiu in pairs and 
laid their aims at his feet. 

To hare enforced the capitulation of TJlm was a 
trinmph of militaiy skill. The Third Coalition be- 
tween England, Austria, Rnssia and Prussia was en- 
tirelr broken. The Anstrians were erosbed before 
anj of their allies had time to assist them, and before 
thej were able to collect their own forces together. 
This disaster was a terrible blow to Pitt In the 
atttumn of 1S05 he was standing in a house at Bath, 


ft^ lud finished a CRmpaign, they had driTen the 
tnq» of the House of Aostris from Bavaria, and 
nplaoed the allies of France m the govenunent of 
twir States. " Of one . btindred thousand men 
which fonned this army," he oontinned, " siz^ 
Ihousand are our prisoners; they will replace in 
■grienltnral labour the soldiers whom we hare snm- 
Buned to arms. Two hundred gons, ninety ban- 
ian, all the generals are in oar power ; only fifteen 
thouand of Uie enemy have escaped." On the rery 
day that these proud words were spoken was fon^t 
the battle of Trafalgar, which it is not within oar 
proniMK to narrate, which annihilated the navies of 
FiiDce and Spain, and dealt them a blow from which 
dwj have not leoovered at the present day. 




Atteb the destmctioii of Mack's army at Ulm, 
NapoIeoD hastened to Vienna. He bad nothing to 
oppose him excepting an army of fifty thousand men, 
commanded by Kutusor and the Austriaos who had 
been saved from the capitulation by Elienmayer and 
Meerreldt Having ordered the fortifications of 
Ulm and Memmingen to be destroyed, Napoleon 
marched to Augsburg, making the Lech the line of 
his operations instead of the Danube. His safety 
now lay in the speed of his operations. The longer 
the line of his communications, the greater were 
the dangers to which he was exposed. He had to 
cross many rivers, to run the gauntlet of the remains 
of the Austrian army and the reinforcements which 
were pouring in from the eastern provinces and from 
Bussia. It was possible that Archduke Charlea, 
baetening up from Italy, might reach Vienna before 
him ; that Prussia miglit take up arms and assail him 
in the flank ; that the Archduke Ferdinand, who was 
collecting an army in Bohemia, might cut his line of 
operations in two; that the combined army of Rna- 
sians, Swedes, and English might pr^s forward with 
rapidity; and that anotlier allied force of BuBsians, 
English, and Neapolitans might attack Lombardy. 
These dangers and difHcultiea would have dismayed 
any ordinary man, but tho greater hia peril the more 
remarkable became the cleam^ of his vision a&4 



tlw intTPpidity of hja soul. On October 24, 1805, 
three d»j» after Uio piix:!aniatioii of Ulm, Napoleon 
«M nceired in Municli with enthusiasm. On the 
iaDovil^ day the French amiy moved towards the 
Ian. Hey received orders to march into the Tyrol 
aad to give hia hand to Augcreau, who was bringing 
a foToe of twenty-five thousand men from Bordeaux 
if •»» of the Arlberg. Bernadotte and Marmont 
«cn dispatched to cross the Inn in its upper waters 
■mI to diftract the attention of the enemy from the 
aiin minnoe. Napoleon himself, with the divisions 
id DatooI, Soult, and Lannes, with the guard and 
Ik iM oi ra cavalry, were to cross the Inn in the 
Mtghbonrhood of Braunau. In the meantime Du- 
pont was to make himself master of Passau. 

TbeM moreinent« were carried out with marvellous 
npadity mad exactness. The vVustrians were too 
■OMi utoaisbcd to resist. The fortress of Braunau 
fell into the hunda of the French, without a struggle, 
*cll ftopplied with all tiiunitions of war. Napoleon 
maiB itOte headquarters of supply to his army in its 
faiais operations, and confided it to the care of 
iMuutoa. Kapoleon remained for a few days in 
liiu, tad from tliis place despatchetl a division along 
the ktfl bank of the Danube, partly to hinder the 
«pnatioiu of the Archduke John, who was collecting 
yaa|aio Bt^omia, and partly to provide against the 
■■OM •rm/ which the Empomr Alexander was col- 
hctini; in Moravia. He also formed a flotilla, for 
ibt p nr poec of conveying supplies, artillery and am- 
■mition down the Danube, and also of alTording 
nut to fovt-wcary Mldiera. The flotilla also served 
tke pnrpoM of « floating bridge, as by its means ten 
dtoiaaiid iDi-D coold be conveyed from bank to bank 
fa tb* oonrae of an boor. 



Hortier was placed in commaiid of the left bank 
column, and Napoleon's wish was that both columuB 
should advance upon Vienna in parallel lines, keep- 
ing as nearly opposite to each other as possible. This 
plan was spoiled by the impatience of Murat, whose 
vanity led him to desire to enter Vienna as speedily 
as possible. Thus on November 11 Murat was, witt 
his cavalry at Burkensdorf, close to Vienna, when 
Morticr had not advanced further than Diirrenstein, 
the castle in which Kichard, King of England, was 
confined on his return from the Crusades, and where 
it is said that he was discovered by the song of the 
faithful Blondel. Here he came in conflict with 
the Russians, some of whom also crossed to the left 
bank. The French divisions were divided by a da^a 
march, and the flotilla was not in sight The French 
were in considerable danger and suffered heavy 
losses. The Russians took two thousand prisoners, 
including a whole regiment of dragoons; the division 



Iforat was the first to enter Vienna. Hia soldiera 
n&Rhed into the town at midday on November 17; 
fhtf hnrried through the streets with all haste, aa 
tb^ were anxious to get possession of the Tabor 
bridge orer the Daniibc aa soon as possible. This 
important bridge was won by a trick. It waa only 
built of wood, and every preparation had been made 
to AtKtroy it aa soon as the French appeared in forca 
CtSDOD vere posted on the left bank, the bridp? had 
bwD earefolly mined, and a single spark would set it 
in ftamei. Mumt and Lannes, spreading the report 
tfatt mn amuitioe bad been signed, held the Austrian 
caBomdAr in conversation while their soldiera 
gnduilly approached the bridge and threw the ma- 
teriala which were ready for its destruction into the 
itniAm. The Austrian soldiers saw that they were 
hug cheated, and a sergeant urged the general to 
givs ordors for firing the train; but Lannes cx- 
elattaed, with macb presence of mind, " How can you 
allow a ioldier to address you thus? Where is the 
Aiatrian discipline eo famous thronghout Europe? " 
TW Mldier wu arrested for his boldness of speech, 
At bridi^ was occupied by the French, the guns re- 
■ored u)d their gunners captured. The seizure of the 
biidge oTer the Danube had an important influence 
o»er the eooree of the campaign. The decisive battle 
wtmld otherwiw have been fought in Hungary in- 
rtaad nf lloravia, and the result might hare been 
TWy dilfi-rrnt. 

Am soon aa Kutiuov heard that the bridge over the 
Dantibe hud been captured by the French he began a 
ntait tnlo Moravia, preferring that U^ Bohemia be- 
inM be *■■ aware that a second IluBsian army was 
M tbe march lowanU (llmiitz. Napoleon gave onlera 
far tfa* unioD of the diviaiona of tiuult, Lannea and 



Murat in ordtjr that they might cut off the retreat of 
Kutiiaov by reaching Hollabrunn before him. Kutu- 
Bov despatched Prince Bagration with seven thouBand 
men to Hollabrunn, which ho succeeded in reaching 
on November 1 5, while Kutusov was able to give his 
troops some much-needed repose, Murat imagined 
that he had the whole o£ the Russian army before 
him, and was therefore willing to listen to Kutuaov'a 
deceitful proposals for an armistice, being beguiled 
by the flattering suggestion that he ehould be the 
first to make peace as he had before been the first 
to enter the capital of the Kaiser. ^Vhen Napoleon 
heard of the armistice he refused to ratify it and 
ordered an immediate attack. This was made with 
success, bnt Kutusov had been able by hia trick to 
reach Olmiitz with his army, where he knew that he 
should meet his Emperor, Alexander I. The plans 
of Napoleon for annihilating the army of Kutusov 
before he conltl be reinforced had entirely failed, 



er L of Russia, liad their beadquartera at 
ifit*. f rancis was confined to hia bed with fever, 
thm malt of oontiniial diseases. Tie was atroiigly in 
£iTOBr of deferring un engagement until tlie Arcb- 
dike Charles had arrived from Italy, who was march- 
iitg at tlw bead of an army of eight; thousand men. 
Xapoleoo could not maintain hia position at BrUmi, 
llweuBp at Olschan was unassailable, and when the 
naw aimv arrit'ed and had occupied the passage of 
Uw DanuU) the french Emperor would be between 
two firaa. Seldom have such momentous results de- 
faaiai apon luch tiarrow issues. 

EnrTUiinx depended upon the decision of Alex- 
lader. He bad at first been in favour of delay, but 
OB Sovmber 24 a review was held, to ccilebratc the 
imTal of the guard, in which the young Emperor was 
nnatT«d bj the tr<K>ps witli the wildest enthusiasm. 
Tba RtBMiaa army had been victorious at Diirrenstein 
nd HotUbmnn: what might not be expected when 
tbay had iheir sovereign in their midsl ? Alexander 
wia TOOBg, )Dexpcrieuc«d, gree<ly of glory, open to 
flattery. He was inclined to believe that the French 
flBvld not r«ai*t him. On the following day Savary 
armad in the Rnaeian camp bearing a letter from 
Vapoleon, asking for a personal interview. The 
Tsar acnt Prince I*olgoniki with Savory to Napoleon, 
aad a eoaversation took place between them on pns- 
Aie oonditi(ms of peace. I)<ilg>iniki, who, although 
M the bead of the Young Party, was probably not a 
ywy axptriea«od politician, produced an unfavoar- 
iUb affeirt on \apo]eon, and received bimaelf the im- 
fMwioo that tbo French army was on the verge of a 

The impreaaion was deepened by a cavalry en- 
pHiiiii nt 'which look place on ^^ovember 2S, in which 



the GussiaiiH were victorious. Dolgorubi com- 
manded, and Alexander was present. They believed 
that under the eyes of their sovereign the Russian 
army conld do anything. The policy of waiting for 
the Archduke Charles and for the Prussians was 
given up, and an advance against Napoleon resolved 
upon. Czartoryski argued in vain that they were 
marching into the jawa of a hero of a hundred fights, 
and that in three weeks the Prussians would join 
them with one hundred and fifty thousand. They 
had only to wait and all would be well. These words 
were spoken to the wind. The advance was deter- 
mined upon. Alexander undertook the command of 
the troops, Kutusov remaining general-in-cbief, but 
without the main responsibility. The advice of the 
Emperor Francis was not asked, as it was feared that 
he might oppose the operations. 




NAPOI.K0N had been estsbliehed at Briinn since 
Korember 19 in an admirable position, at the June- 
tare of the roa^ which lead to Vienna on the one 
ride and to Olmiitz on the other. He now Bom- 
moned Bemadotte and Davout to hie assistance. He 
invigorated the courage of the army by promising 
large anma of money to them and pensions to all who 
ibonld be wounded. On December 1 the two hosts 
were within gunshot of each other. With proud con- 
fidence be announced to his soldiers that the morrow 
would put an end to the campaign, and that they 
would then retire into winter quarters, while the re- 
inforcements which were being collected in France 
would compel the enemy to a worthy peace. He 
told Haiigwitz, who had been sent by tie Prussians to 
give Napoleon some good advice, that he would speak 
with him after the battle, unless ho was himself killed 
by a cannon-ball. The soldiers were in the highest 
Btste of enthusiasm and devotion. The following 
i»j, the day of the battle, was tho anniversary of the 
Imperial coronation. Napoleon drank a glass of 
"punch " with his marshals and explained his plans. 
He then slept for a few hours in an armchair. At 
four o'clock in the morning he was at the outposts, 
Hitening to the noise which arose from the enemy's 
e«mp, for the thick mist prevented anything from 
bung seen. 


The Anstriui Goienl Weyrother hjid, after stady- 
ing tbe iiuifH. made an elaborate jiMn of battle whidii 
be felt cenain mold resnlt in tbe defeat of Na- 
poleon. Lan^no, a French emigri, on hearing i^ 
asked Wejiother if he leallj thon^t that matters 
would turn oat as he expected, and Bagration on 
reading the plan expieaaed bis opinion that the battle 
iras afieadTwoo. Tbe scheme omusted of a design 
to outflank the Frmdi and to drWe them into Bo- 
hemia, but Xapole<Hi bj his laat dispositions had 
made the design oaelBB^ even before it was at- 

It is difficult for <hm who viaitB the field of Aoster- 
litx at the preerait day to miderstand the features of 
the fight, because the gromid has been so completely 
changed by modem conditions of agricnltnie. We 
will do our best to make it intelligible. Whilst Na- 
poleon stood at the outposts in the early morning the 
French camp was silent, but that of the allies was 



cannon-ebot of Naiwleon and his marshals, 
It an idt'S that tboy were in the neighbourhood. 

: htd been arrnnged that the columns should pass 
dcfi)« of the Qoldhnch in different places, the 
Int Bt Tellnitz, the ecfond between Tellnitz and 
Salnlattz, tlie third at SokolniU itself, while the 
^■llilii cavalry v/btc to seize the monastery of 
taigfp. They were to keep in parallel order, and 
tim cars that the head of one column should not get 
Wbk tbe head of another. 

Soddcnly iho battle burst when the allies least ex- 
MCtad iL The Auatrtan hussars were assailed at 
Tfllbutx by th« Frondi Bharpshooters. Tellnitz was, 
k>«0<rer, captured by the first column, which now 
nitod for the advance of the second. Davout, who 
Ud been po»t(Kl in tlic monastery of Raigern, ad- 
meed and attempted to drive the allies out of Tell- 
atlMf but at thia point the French were defeated. 
tunlMiij tbe aeoond column wtis able to drive the 
FmmcIi froin tbe Tillage of Sokolnitz, and the third 
It oeenpy tha caatle of the same name, although 
Otfoot displayed marvels of energy in their de- 
llwje; fnr the moment the allies were victorious on 
tmr left winf(. 

Bat tbe master of the fight, Napoleon, remained 
^aat ia tbe vrntre. He had forbidden any advance 
Ifll aine t/dodc Then, on that winter's morning, 
■IH» dw son of AuHterlitx, blood-red and iimjeslic, 
aannge of Hlnuf^Kter and victory. The mist wan 

|H Moodcr, Ihi' hoightM Uiciime visible, like islnndn 

(a «•; at length a gust of wind dispersed the fog, 

I tbe battle array of the French Iterame visible to 

It was then acen that the heights of I*nitz<^'n 

but faabljr held, white t)i<' Au(«trian nnny was 

in tbe depths of TcHoitz and Sokolnitx. 



Napoleon said to Soult, " How long would it tate 
you to occupy the heights of Pratzen ? " " Lesa than 
twenty minutCB," was the reply. " Then we will 
wait twenty minutes," said the Emperor, " and not 
disturb the enemy in their false movement." At last 
he drew his glove from that soft, tiny right hand 
which Heine baa described bo well, and said, " Now 
ia the time." Napoleon rode at the head of his 
marshals, and cried, " The enemy have delivered 
themselves to ua by their folly, we will now end the 
war with one shock of thunder." 

The two Emperors were with the fourth division, 
commanded by Kutusov; Alexander in black uni- 
form, Francis in white. Kutusov was just begin- 
ning to advance when the mist lifted, and he saw 
with horror the centre of the French army in battle 
array before him in front of the defiles, whereas he 
imagined that it was behind them. One of the first 
shots fired struck Kutusov in the cheek. He said, 


po rit i oa vhich was already in the hands of the 
fmach. Tho Grand Duke Constantine, posted od 
kit left, perioTvaed prodigies of valour, aod exhibited 
tb* grmtest etcadfaataess and endurance. The 
Wrttb ca this side raged round Biasiowitz, which 
bd bem occupied hy the French Guard before the ar- 
riva] of Liebtenstein. Constantine attacked with the 
barooet, and the French line be^an to waver, when 
Napoleon, who was posted at Blasiowitz, sent the 
airali7 of tho Guard to their aaaietance. Guard 
wtxwgg]ed against Guard, and the Russians captured 
■■ wa^9, Napoleon sent also reinforcements under 
Bqpp» which compelled the Kuseians to retreat. A 
iw"" itniggle vna raging on the Olmiitz road be- 
tmtm Lmnea and Bagration. The Russians wcro 
■t loigtfa defeated and retreated towards Austerlttz. 
Tbc baggage of the allies felt into the hands of the 
FiBDdt. The rwnlt of tho battle on the right wing 
«aa that two thounand dead and wounded covered 
tba fiaM, and that Lannes had made four thousand 

Wban Kapoleon had severed the centre of tho 
^i^y he left Bemadotte in poBaeasion of Pratzen, 
■■d whh the divisions of Sonlt and Oudinot followed 
iW HLiDe line of marvit which the loft of the allies 
had taken in the morning. His design was to fall 
their rear and destroy them entirely. The re- 
■ of llio battle it a tale of flight and slanghtor. 
alliea mn attacked in tho 8aiiif> jiositions which 
,' had eaptured so valiantly in tho early himra of 
day. In tliis part of the field were a number of 
_ at tfai* time of the year covorwl with ice. In 
the Ru«*i«ns took refuge, but tho Fn-nch artil- 
Iny «aa turned npon the froscn nurface, and many 
~ . nvro dn>wnied> Ima^atiou hiut buaiod it>* 



self with tlie creation of frozen lakes, tHeJr treacher- 
ous surface crushed by the red-hot bullets of the 
French, thousands of the enemy perishing in the last 
rays of the winter sun, but historic truth will not 
admit this exaggeration. The ponds are now dried 
up and it is ditHcult to estimate their extent, but it is 
probable that the number who perished in them did 
not exceed a hundred. At any rate the victory was 
complete. Those who escaped death or capture fled 
to Austerlitz, and the French occupied the ground 
which the Russians had taken. 

Tlie night came on early and quickly. After the 
fog of the morning had lifted the day was cold and 
clear; clouds rose in the afternoon, and snow and 
rain now began to fall. But all through tiie winter 
night such Russians as survived retreated from their 
terrible foe. The allies had struggled bravely, 
but they were entirely defeated. The Austrians lost 
about six thousand men ; the Russians acknowledged 


die pDTpOM of combat and of ezploration, and a pow- 
•rfnl naerre. For the old divisionfl he iubetitut«d 
eorp* d^armU, equal in number to two or three di- 
Tuiona, with a staff, an artillery and a light cavalry 
fff tbflir own. He placed Hurat at the head of a 
eavalrjr of reeenre — hoBsars, dragoons, cuiraasiera — 
wlto would go anywhere and dare everything. As a 
final rsaerve the Emperor kept in his own hands the 
Inperial Guard, a select army of fifty thousand men, 
all aeasoned yeterana, attached to the fortunes of tJie 
Empire and to the glory of their master. He also 
largely increased the number of the artillery. But, 
enrionaly enough, he made few changes in the arma- 
UGBta of hiB troops. They were armed to the end 
with flint moskets, and with old-fashioned cannon. 

After the battle Napoleon placed his headquarters 
fat the castle of Ansterlitz, from which he dated hia 
bulletins, and which he selected to give the name of 
kit victory, although the village itself had scarcely 
t«en included in his sphere of operations. Peace wiUi 
Austria was concluded at Pressburg before the end of 
tbe rear, but the conditions of that pacification belong 
lather to political than to military history. 





The battle of Austerlitz and the peace of Press- 
burg were followed by great changes in Germany. It 
was Napok>on's object to weaken Austria as much as 
possible and to destroy the German Empire of which 
she was the bead. He was the consoHdator of the 
principles of the French Eevolution, the enemy of 
feudality and of the old state of things, the " Anciea 
Regime." In gratitude for their neutrality he raised 
the Electors of Bavaria and Wiirtemberg to the rank 
of Kings, a position which they still maintain. He 
formed the Confederation of the Rhine from these 


umI. u we have aeen, bad despatched Uaugwitz to the 
haadqaarten of Napoleon just before the battle of 
Infterlilz. She theu comniitted the serious fault of 
irrhating the couqueror to the utmost without afford- 
ing ibe slightest assistance to his cucmies. The ro- 
Eolt of tlua waB the huiuiliating treaty of Scbon- 
braan il^ed by Haugwitz with Napoleon a fortnight 
■fter ibn battle, by which PnisBia surrendered to 
Tnaee the portion of tie Duchy of Cleve which lay 
ea the right btok of the Khino, the fortress of Wesel, 
end ibe priacipality of Neufchatel; to Bavaria the 
UaigrmTile of Aosbacb, receiving in exchange Ilan- 
om, with tbe duly of excluding the English from 
tbe barboun of tbe North Sea. To escape the wrath 
vi Fnuoe abe incurred the hostility of England. 
The BDoditiuiu of tbo treaty of Schonbrunn were 
nwi* noiore degrading and exacting by the treaty of 
Puis ngatd id February, I8U6, and Prussia actually 
voDt BO far as to declare war against England, with- 
Mt improving her relations with Napoleon. Ho 
CMlkl only regard such vacillation and meanneaa with 

It DOW came to tbe oara of the Prussian govem- 
MmS that Napol«oa in hia ncgotialiuns for i>eace 
•ith England bad offered the restoration uf Ilun- 
•fwr, wbicb h» had already given to Prusaia. He 
Wd alao hold out to Kuasia the tempting bait of 
Pnuaian I'oland, and had talked of recompensing 
th» Neapolitan Bourbons by the gift of tliu Ilauao 
lii» iia This was more than their patience could 
tear, and tbe inol>ilisali"n of the Pnueian anny was 
mimmi oo Angtut 9. That amiy was indeed littlo fit' 
Mueope with an antagonist like Napoleon. It dc- 

rled Mfwo the reputation of Frederick the Great, 
Et had aot advawKnl »ince hia time. It had been 


brought Up in the aristocratic ideas of the old rifftms 
and had no conception of the strength of a 
democratic host. The officers had grown old in 
their stiff uniforms and their pride of rank. The 
machine moved slowly and with effort, and had 
nothing of the efficiency and hardiness of the French. 
Arms, clothing and commissariat were all of an 
obsolete pattern, more suited for the parade ground 
than for the field. If they could march with regular- 
ity and precision their arms were too often of no use 
whatever. An enormouB amount of baggage fol- 
lowed their movements. It is said that a certain 
lieutenant even took a pianoforte with him on the 
inarch. Where the French were content to bivouao 
in tlie open field the Prussians could not dispense 
with their tents. The French drew their supplies 
from the enemy's country; the Prussians carried 
their magazines with them. It was an army whose 
strength existed only on paper. It was composed 


ha dtneiona were scattered. No adequate 
'^nparations hsd been made; at headquarters tliere 
WIS BO unity of plan, no energy or decision. The 
poecmls were advanced in years ; the Duke of Bruns- 
wick numbered seventy-one; Field*Harshal Mollen* 
iorl, who bad fought under Frederick the Great in 
fffltrill, eigfaty-one years. Notwithstanding this an 
■Ma'*M"" was addressed to Napoleon on September 
95, 1806, which could only receive one answer, and 
the war was immediately begun. 

The DtaBs of the French army was posted in the 
faUey of tbe Main, six corps d'armee being con- 
ftnt^t*^ between Wiirzburg and Bamberg. Na- 
poleon rr^^ed Mainz on September 38. The Prus- 
timo army waa established in the forest of Thuringia 
on Um main road between the Rhine and the heart of 
Gannany. Napole(m'a plan was to advance by the 
qipar waters of the Saale, to turn the Prussian left, 
Bad to march on to Berlin. For this purpose three 
roadi lay at bis disposal, all passing through Fran- 
omia; ons from Coburfr to Saalfeld, another from 
Eninaeb to Schleitz, and a third from Bayreuth ta 
Hat. ill! dolcmiined to utilise all three, to con- 
flWbate in thi» ralley of the Saale, where the roads 
dabnnehod, and to march on to Uerliu with a united 
ioras at two hundred thousand men. Brunswick, 
whoiB troops were at Krfun and Weimar, determined 
la await the development of XafwUton'a plans, whilst 
Tlnlwnlnlici. who was on the ri^ht bank of the upper 
Baala, eonsidcred himself sufficiently protected by 
dMaehnkentg placed at Schleitz and at Saalfeld, 
' tba roadji from the Frauvonlan forest find their 

The French crossed the frontier of Saxony (in 
OMobcr 8. The central road of the tbrou above 



enumerated waa taken by the cavalry of Murat, who 
also kept an eye on the other two. Witli the assiat- 
ance of Beruadotto he occupied Saalburg, and at- 
tacked on October 9 at Schleitz ten thousand Pms- 
fliana under General Tauenzien. Surprised and dis- 
persed, they were driven back in disorder on the army 
of Hohenlohe. Soult, following the easternmost 
road, reached Hof without meeting an enemy, but on 
October 10 the division of Prince Ixiuia Ferdinand, 
posted at the end of tbe westernmost road, was at- 
tacked by Launes. The Prussians were driven,back 
and Prince Louis, refusing to surrender, found the 
doath which he so earnestly desired. The upper 
waters of the Saale were now entirely in the hands of 
the French, and Napoleon, keeping strictly in view 
his objective, Berlin, moved on to Glera, believing 
that on his side Hohenlohe would march rapidly 
down the Saale and reach the valley of the Elbe. 
Hohenlohe, on the contrary, crossed the Saale at 


pRwiiig OQ ktwartle the Elbe, tbougbt that he 
no mt little to fear on this Hide of Jena, so he posted 
Ui uoopi OQ the heights n'hich extend from Jena in 
As direction of Weimar, but neglected to occupy the 
tpm sod tbe paasage n-hich lead to the heights. 

Napolam reached Jena on October 13, where he 
mat Ltnnes, and determimtl tn attack on the follow- 
hfi d»j. He sent hia troops up the narrow ap- 
pmaehM which lead to tbe liigh ground, but had some 
dtSenltj with his artillenr. The reads had to be 
enlarged by loivhlight imder Napoleon's superriBion. 
It nutdtd twelve faoreos to drag a cannon up the 
hill. The Emperor's tent was pitched in the 
■liddle of his gnard, but few £rea were lighted. On 
tba other hand, the numerous watch-fires of Hohcn- 
loba blmnd forth on the road to Weimar, while tlioso 
•f the retreating Tlrunswick glimmered towards the 

Tbe «oId bright ni^t was succeeded by a misty 
■omiag, rvcalling the great day of Austcrlitz. 
Kapeleoo, lighted by torches, visited the troops, and 
■ill Willi Uwai to bo on their ^innl Rj^ninst Ihc Pnis- 
daa etfntrj and to form theineolves into squares. 
He uid that the Prussians were already cut i>ff from 
tbe Elbe and thp Oiler. Tbe battle was enpnped bo- 
fon the mist had lifted. By nine o'clock N'HiK>l(K>n 
had gained tpiam for the development of his army; 
At^nean eame to his assistance from the left, Soult 
ima tbe ri^t; N^ey and Murat hurried to tlie acono 
df ccnflirL After a short rest Napoleon began a 
Meottd attack with fresh troops, Augereau and 
Booh bad aome difficulty in reaching the plateau up 
tke steep pathii which led to it, and Key, who was n- 
pidlisg tbe Pmaaitn cavalry with bis squares, was in 
of being oapttired. But the i»ue was bood 



decided by the advance of Napoleon's guard. Tlie 
army of Hohenlohe wavered, broke and fled along the 
road to Weimar. Riichel, whom he had summoned 
from that city, came too late to help and was involved 
in the disaster. 

The victory was complete. Mnrat followed the 
fugitives far beyond Weimar, The field was covered 
with corpses and abandoned arms. The Germans 
had lost twelve thousand dead and wounded and two 
hundred guns. The poet Goethe feared for his life 
in Weimar, Jena was plundered and burnt. It is 
said that Hegel continued writing his treatise of 
PhcEnomenology during the progress of the battle, 
and that when his house was plundered he stuffed it 
into hia pocket and fled to Niiremberg. 

On the day of the battle of Jena, October 14, 
1806, Davout won the battle of Aueratiidt, which 
completed the destruction of the Prussian army. The 
King of Prussia and the Duke of Brunswick had re- 



mluuseD, aoil in tliis place the battle was actually 
(mgbt. Sciircely had he done thia when the heads ot 
tie Pniaeiaii colmnns advanced. The field waa cor- 
tni wilh tliick mist, ao that the Prussians had no idea 
ti the piesenoe of the enemy. Bliioher, who waa in 
MBmnand of the reai^^ard, found himself unexpect- 
«Uy tngtged with the French cavalry. Davout, 
finding that the engagement had begun, brought up 
hit ulilloTy and fired inUt the miisses of the enemy, 
Tk* battle raged round Hasfacahausen, which was 
bnve^ defended by the French. In their attempts 
to capture it Schmettau was killed, the aged Mollen- 
dorf wu morUlIy wounded, and the King had a horse 
kQlcd tinder him. Brunswick, whilst he waa urging 
bit aoldien to tlic attack, waa struck by a shot which 
dqniTod him of tbo sight of both eyes, and he waa led 
from the field, his face covered with a cloth. Tho 
Fnaefa, ftmned into Hqnarea, withstood the assault 
vt m thotiaaud cavalry, and none of the squares were 
bmkan. At last tlioy changed into a column of attack 
ind drove the Prussians from the village. Bliicher 
•troDgljr urged the rcnowal of the engagement, and 
WM mpport«d by the King, hut tho opinion prevailed 
thtt tney sboola await tho arrival of Ilohenlohe and 
IHMttl, Dot knowing that they had been already 
kalen in the battle of Jena. 

Tbey tfacrofoit! began the retreat, leaving ten thou- 
Mnd dMd umI wounded on the field and one hundrt-d 
■od fiftrfn gUDS in the ht&ds of the enemy. Tho 
Fnoeb had uao Buffered severely. Out of Davout's 
twMi^'^ix thoncand men seven thousand werv dead 
or WDtmdfld and the rost wora so exhaiuted that pur- 
Mit was impoHible. General Kalkreuth was ordered 
to lead the reaorTO to Woimar, and to collect tho strag- 
I that towu. But at Apolda, half-way bcttsxcn 



Jena and Weimar, he heard that Hohenlohe and 
Riiehel were defeated and that Weimar waa in the 
hands of the French; he waa therefore obliged to 
take another route. All hope was at an end, all dis- 
cipline was lost. The soldiers wandered in the woods, 
throwing away their arms and knapsacka, which hiti- 
dered their flight. Not only wore the battles of Jena 
and Auorstadt lost, but the whole army was destroyed. 
It waa difficult for any one to believe that Prussia 
conld continue to exist as a kingdom. Napoleon re- 
sumed his march to Berlin, which he entered on Oc- 
tober 37. 




Thb diButrons defeats of Jena and AnersSdt did 
tMt immediately put an end to the war. The King of 
Pnuna fled to Konigaberg, and the Ministers whom 
br left behind at Berlin were ready to make almost 
erery pooaible sacrifice for peace. But Napoleon de- 
mand^ more than they coald give. The Ruasiana 
Ten still in arms, as they had not been included in 
the treaty of Pre*Bbarg, and Napoleon gave the Pras- 
rians to understand that if he should once more defeat 
the Emperor of Russia, the kingdom of Fmasia 
voold soon cease to exist. 

When the war began anew the only Prussian anny 
r'-nsistM of twenty-five thousand men posted on the 
farthest north-oast comer of the monarchy, from the 
I'jnk of the Vistula to the frontiers of Kussia. In 
iLf middle of November the divisions of Davout, 
LiDnes and Augeroan were established upon this 
rivr-r, and at the end of the month Murat, Ney, Soult 
iti'I Bemadotte moved in the same direction, Na- 
[.,!(.-in entered Posen, the capital of Prussian Poland, 
'■n X'lVt'mher 27, 1808. From this city he issued his 
fimniifl proclamation to the Pol<t<, summoning them 
tfi fr*>odom. They replied with enthusiasm and 
i''Tme4 tbemsolvea into battalions and re^menta 
which were placed under the comni&nd of the 
eottqaeror. On the second of January, 1807, Napo- 

70 wabs of the centubt. 

leon entered Warsaw amidst the universal joy of the 

Russia, who was the only effective ally of Pruasia 
at this moment, had sent two armies into that country, 
and the combined Russian and Prussian forces were 
placed under the command of Benningsen. But 
his operations were marked with uncertainty, and 
conld lead only to disaster. He first determined to 
retreat from the line of the Vistula, and deserted 
the fortress of Thorn, which had been bravely do- 
fended by L'Estocq. His plana were then changed 
and it was determined to meet Napoleon. The great 
battle of Preussich Eyiau, one of the most murderous 
of these wars, was fought on February 7 and 8, 1807. 
Benningsen had determined to march towards the 
sea-coast by ilarienburg, Elbiug, and Danzig, hoping 
to find there plenty of supplies, to surprise the French 
left, crumple up Bemadotte and compel Napoleon to 
leave Warsaw in order to defend the lower Vistula. 


RoaaiaoB were being gradually entangled in a net 
from which it was impossible for them to escape. 

Lnddlj for them a Cossack was taken prisoner, 
irito bore a letter from the Emperor to Bemadotte 
iriiich gave a full account of ^Napoleon's plans. Ben- 
ningsen became aware of his dtuiger and retired to 
AUcnstein. But Napoleon was determined npon 
figiiting a decisive battle, and moving with great 
rapidity succeeded in intercepting t£e Bussians. 
Benuingsen could only get as far as Eylau, which he 
reached on Febmary 7. That evening a serious en- 
gagement took place, the result of which was that the 
Roflsiana were first driven back into £ylau, and then, 
after a hardly contested stru^le, carried on from 
■treet to street, from the town to the churchyard and 
from the churchyard to the heights. Here Benning- 
sen determined to make a final Btand. 

Napoleon had sent orders to Davout and Ney to 
march with all haste to his aapport. He spent the 
night in the poet-house of Eylan, sleeping for two 
hours in an armchair. The Bussians were superior 
to the French in artillery and infantry, but the 
French outnumbered the Bussians in cavalry. 

In the early morning of that fatal day Napoleon 
mounted his horse to survey the poeition of the 
enemy. The Bussians were drawn up in solid 
masses, protected by a very numerous artillery. An- 
other division of artillery, scarcely inferior in num- 
ber, was posted in the rear of the main body. The 
Russian cavalry was placed partly on the fiank and 
partly with the reserva Their whole army formed 
a massive wall, pouring forth a deadly fire from its 
embrasures. Napoleon hesitated to attack the 
enemy in front and determined to operate upon their 
flank. He placed his g:uard and cavalry in tho 



rear where they would not be exposed to the Russian 

At daybreak the Russians began the struggle with 
a terrible cannonade, which was answered by the 
French. The earth shook with the thunder of the 
artillery. But the French suffered but little, being 
protected by houses, whereas the Russian ranks wero 
mowed down. Davoust now appeared upon the 
scene and was able to hold his ground. At ten 
o'clock Napoleon began an attack upon the left 
Russian wing, which he attempted to force upon their 
centre. This attack was hindered by a violent storm 
of snow, which drove in the faces of the soldiers and 
prevented them from following their proper direc- 
tions. The Russians had the snow in their backs, 
and they were able to cut the French line of ad- 
vance in two. The Russian centre now began to 
move forwards in its turn, and tho situation of 
Napoleon became critical. He ordered ilurat to 


N ifflit was coming on. Both sides were tired out and 
ihejr had no proviaiona. Beaningaen thought of re- 
Bffwinj; the conflict, but hearing that Ney was not far 
90, detenniuLtl upon a retreat. The next day be 
Mtimd to Kouigsberg. The French remained in 
nfwiiini of the Held of battle, but they had lo^t at 
MBt taa thousand meii and tlie Russiana fifteen thou- 
Xajtolcon uow made serious offers of a sepa- 
potoB to till) King of Pniasia, who had takeu 
I in Uemel, but he refused to desert his Bussian 
aDj and would hear of no terms in which be was 
■ol iaelailod. The war was at last put an end to by 
fb» battla of Friedland, situated a short distance to 
tba esit of Evlaii. It was fought on June 14, the 
•nninrsaij of Marengo. At one o'clock in the morn- 
{■g Lannea, who had reached the tahlc-land of Post- 
iMneB oa the road from Eylau, observed lar^ masses 
of troops before him. In those northern latitudes it 
WH atreadT light at 2 a.m., and Lannes was con- 
Snaed in hia opinion. He had only ten thousand men 
vith him, whereas the Ru»sians were threefold hia 
KnogtlL They were under the command of Benning- 
■B, who was advancing to the relief of Ivtinigsberg. 
TW Ruuuis threw three bridges over the Alle, one 
ibon «nd two below the town. It is said that his 
vbls foree* unountetl at this moment to aeventy-tivo 
dwoMsd uid two hundred guns. Lannes gradually 
nenTcd reinforcements and was able to hold his 
pvaad, bat lie wm in hard straits, and sent orderly 
after orderly to Xapol<<on for assistance. 

The Emporor came ridinf; up with joy. " It is 
lb* day of iluengu," bo criifj, " for us a day of good 
brtmte." Resisting all advice to defer the Imttic, he 
4rt*tBUncd to cniith the <runiy while they vrrv cms*- 
la^ lb* rircr, hut in urdur to do this he must ff:t po»- 



segsion of Friedland in order to cut off their retreat 
He sent Ney forward to seize the town and the bridges 
at all hazards. " The man ia a lion," said Napoleon 
when he witnessed his prowess. He pressed forward 
with incredible energy, seized the bridges and burnt 
them. The Russians had now no power of retreat. 
They were entirely at the mercy of the conqueror, and 
the battle raged during the whole of that long day till 
ten o'clock at night A third of the Russian army 
was dead or wounded, and the victor slept on the field 
of battle. Napoleon wrote to Josephine that Fried- 
land was a worthy sister to Marengo, Auaterlitz, and 
Jena. The result of the battle of Friedland waa the 
peace of Tilait, the details of which belong to the 
history of European politics. 

THE WAE OF 1809. 



Tub war undertaken by Austria against Napoleon 
in 1809 was the fniit of a long-cherieliecl desire to 
vipe oat the disgrace of the treaty of Presaburg. 
^Vben tbe French first declared war against her in 
1792 she was crystallised in the torpor of an immoT' 
able routine, and the disasters of two unsuccessful 
rampaigns were not sufficient to arouse her. It re- 
qiired the campaign of 1805, the catastrophes of 
t'lm and Anstcrlitz and the capture of Vienna itself 
to fralvanise lier into life. Convinced of her military 
inferiority, she committed the care of her reorganiza- 
tion to the Archduke Charles, whose presence before 
Xapoleon in the campaign of 1805 would perhaps 
Lave prevented the disnatroua defeat of AnstcrlitK. 
He created an active army of three hundred thou- 
;ind men and a reserve of two hundred thousand. 
Encouraged by the awakening of national feeling in 
Germany, by the insurrection in the Tyrol, and by the 
ill-toccMB of the French arms in Spain, the Emperor 
detemiinol to hazard a great stroke for indepeniience, 




and he issned an appeal to his country dated Ifardi 
27, 1809. 

Archduke Chsrlea crossed the Inn on April 10, 
and at the head of the principal army invaded 
Bavaria. Archduke John, setting out from Carin- 
thia, crossed the Karawankas Alps in a snowBtonn 
and attacked the army of the Viceroy Eugftne, com- 
posed of a mixture of French and Italians, which was 
advancing towards the Tagliameoto. At the same 
time he stirred the fire of patriotism in the moun* 
tainsof the Tyrol. Archduke Ferdinand w&a posted oo 
the Vistula to oppose the Polish army of the Grand 
Duchy of Warsaw, which, under Prince Joaeph 
Poniatowsky, was threatening Austrian Qalioia, and 
an army of thirty-two thousand Kussiana who were 
nominally allies of France but were only lukewarm 
in the cause. The Austrians had been careful not 
to repeat their errors of the previous campaign. 
They made up their minds that the principal struggle 


But it was difficult to estimate tbc exact 

ivm of these auxiliary troops, and the extent to 
whirb they were to be tni8t«d. 

^lapoleon, having decided to march upon Vienna, 
fKte onlerB for his army to assemble according to the 
loOowiog kcliomc. The corps of Davout was to 
■mill OD Katisbon, that of Lanncs on Augsbui^, 
nd thftl of Ihlassena on Ulm. In their rear was 
tonmtd the reserve of the cavalry and tbe ^ard. 
Th* Koxiliar^ forces were posted thus : The 
Snoea under Bemadotte at Wiirzliurg, the 
WBrtcinbt-rgi-rs between WUrzburg and L'lin, and 
the Ilavarians between Huniclt and Landsbut. The 
■tin oentre of concentration was to be Katisbon, 
md tbe Emperor Bent J^<'rthicr to that place to make 
pteparatiooB. .Tudging from previous experience, 
W tboQght that Austria would not commence hostili- 
tica tfl] the e&d of April. 

Archduke Charles crosaed the Isar at Landshut on 
Apnl 16, and, advancing in n westerly direction, 
mm the Bavarians back upon Xeustadt. He was 
imperfectly informed as to tbe position of the 
Fnteh and bcliered them to bo divided into two 
■MM, coe at Aogeburg, the other at Ratisbon. Ilis 
|ba wu to penetrate between t)icm, Ui cut them in 
two, and then to double round upon Ratisbon and 
tmh tbe French between bis own army and tho army 
rf Bohemia. On April 17 he reached the river 
Aheofl, in pnrmanoo of his scheme, and only sent a 
■wk body toward* Hatistmn to n^nnnoitre. On 
Aprfl IS, leaving tho troops of General Hitler and 
da Ardidtike Ludwig at Abeniiberg, be prepared to 
■nA bjr bia ri^t towards Katisbon with sevonty 
(hnnaanrf Tni-n 

H tbe Archdako had been a day or tro earlier in 


hiB movements he would have accomplisbed hia d*- 
sign, and perhaps annihilated the corps of DavouL 
Napoleon was far from the scene of conflict, and 
Berthier, bewildered without the presence of hia 
master, did not know what to do. He was eo ao- 
cuatomed to act under orders that he was paralysed 
by responsibility. By the rapidity of the Austrian 
advance the original plan of concentration at Katia- 
bon had become impossible, and it was difficult, un- 
der these new circumstances, for the Emperor to give 
precise orders, or for Berthier to carry them into 

But Napolpon, if he was late in entering upon the 
campaign, now lost no time. He set out from Paris 
on April 14, reached Straaburg on the following day, 
and travelling post-haste, arrived at Donauworth 
at eight o'clock in the evening of April 17, without 
his guard or his field equipage, without horses or 
staff. He addressed his troops in trumpet tones : " I 


Abens, between the Danube and the army of the 
,vke, with the utmost secrecy and rapidity; 
would advance aa far as Ingolstadt to meet 
Davout performed this difficult task with fore- 
it, elererness, tenacity and courage, passing by 
eooatty roads, through a woody and hilly country, 
and urired at Abeusberg on April 19, unperceived 
by tbc Anstrians. 

Napoleon now felt himself in a position to strike 
■ decuiire blow. On April 20 he fought tho battle 
of Almuberg, the object of which was to cut the Aua- 
trun mnoj into two, in which operation he was com- 
plfltdy Rwcessfnl. \VIien the battle was over he did 
not take off his clothes and only slept for a few hours 
^^B an anuchair. He mounted his horse at daybreak 
^^m panne the enemy to Landshut. Here on April 21 
^H nrioDS engagement took place, as the Auatrians 
P^bd made this town a depot for tbeir munitions of 
war, their provisions, their artillery and their pon- 
toOD train. The struggle was mainly directed to- 
vaidfl tba poBMssioD of thv bridge. Massing arrived 
with three diiHsions at a critical moment of the 
figbt. Tho Aastriana n-ero compelled to retreat and 
afaandoocd to the French the whole of their war ma- 
Mrial and aonm thousand wounded, aick, and pria- 

The ooxt day, April 22, witnessed the battle of 
EefaoohL The Arrhduko had kept hit* army during 
Ibaao two days between Tengen and Eckmiihl, bat 
Whadalaomadebtmaelf master of Rati^boti in order 
to aeeon hta retreat acroM the Daoubo. After this 
be dctanained to await a decisive battle on the river 
Q roe* Leber. Xapok-on, when he heard of tlio cap- 
bire of Ratisbon, knew that the troope whom he had 
at Latulnhut could not be the main bodj 


of the Austrian army, ao be determined to seek hia 
adversary farther towards the north. He ordered 
Davout to hold hia ground and promised that he 
would soon come up to his assistance. Leaving Landa- 
hut in the early morning with Maasena he reached 
Eckmiihl at two in the afternoon. The Archduke 
had committed the error of marching with the bulk 
of his army towards the Abach, to cut o£F the Trench 
communications; so that Eckmiihl was only defended 
by a small detachment. Even before Napoleon 
arrived Davout attacked the Ausfriana' right with 
impetuosity. There was no question of Charles be- 
ing able to turn the flank of the French; be had 
enough to do to protect himself. Davoiit wrested 
from the enemy the two villages of Oberleiebting 
and Unterleicbting, driving them with the bayonet 
from house to house, while Napoleon, commanding 
in the centre, swept the high-road and the banks of 
the Laber. The ground beyond Eehmiihl rises to- 


wiib the Austrian cavalry, who for some time pre* 
▼eoted them from Beeiog the pootoons which had 
been thrown across the river. As soon as Lannea 
observed the pontoons hfi opened fire upon them and 
Kt them in ^mes. The town wbb surroonded by a 
simple wall defended by towers and a ditch. Napo- 
leon, who desired to sleep that night in the town, 
ordered a breach to be made. As the Emperor rode 
up to watch the operations through his field-glass, he 
was woanded in ^e foot, but very slightly, and was 
soon able to mount bis horse again. After some de- 
lay the wall was climbed by the aid of scaling-lad- 
ders; a gate was opened and the French became 
masters of the town. 

Thus ended this marvellous campaign of five da^a, 
each day of which was marked by a battle. The 
gloriooa successes which Napoleon had achieved 
might console him for bis delay in beginning the 
war, for the insurrection of the Tyrol, for the in- 
difference of the Eussians, and for the reverses of 
Prince Eugene in Italy. Even his detractors admit 
that his military genius never showed itself in great- 
er perfection, and the mixture of calculation and 
daring with which these results were brouf^t abont 
have never been surpassed in the annals of war. The 
Emperor conld with truth make the proud boast to 
hifl soldiers that they bad exemplified the difference 
between the trained veterans of Ciesar and the armed 
hordes of Xerxes, that in less than a week tbey had 
been victorious in three pitched battles and in three 
engagements, and that they had captured one hnn* 
dred guns, forty standards, and fifty thousand pri*- 





Napoleon now marclied upon Vienna by the rigLt 
bank of the Danube, driving before him both the 
troops of Archduke Ludwig and those of Hiller. 
Archduke Charles, even after the battle of Eckmubl, 
might have disputed the advance of the enemy 
upon the capital, by crossing himself to the right 
bank of the river either at Liuz or at Krema. But 
this would have been a dangerous undertaking and 
the Archduke did not feel himself strong enough to 
adopt it. He therefore took up a position at Cham, 
on the frontiers of Bohemia, whilst Massena pushed 



I axul rcLakea, and only in the fourth tttUck did 
tb« French aiiccocd. 

The town soon burst into flaraeB. The castle was 
iataoied with heroic valour, the doors were hewn 
down tnd the fortress was dii!puted room hy room, 
and woit by cold steel. The Austriana now retired, 
having Icet ono hundred and sixteen officers and four 
thniMWliI five hundred men, but having taken three 
«|^M snd fourteen hundred prisoners. Attracted by 
Um euuumadc, Napoh-on now rodo up to the scene of 
battla He was enraged at what he saw, because he 
knew Uie sacrifice to be useless. The Traun bad 
already been crossed in two or three places, and the 
Anatriana, when they recogaiscd tbc superiority of 
the memy, would not have attempted resistance. 
It ia probable that if the offender had been any other 
liian Uaaa^na he would Lave been driven from the 
army ; aa it waa, Napoleon contented himself with a 
aerare robuko. 

On May 7 Napoleon reached the great monastery 
«f ICfilk, and on Hay 9 the headquarters of tlio 
Fnndi were at St Piilten. On May 10, at nine 
o'clock in tb« morning, Xapoleon rode into the Park 
frf Sabonbmnn, just a month after the beginning of 
tba war. Vianna, commanded by the Archduke Maxi- 
niiliaa, attempted to r«eist. But the French threw 
aeoe time thousand bombs into the town, and caused 
■nna damage and mure terror. In the middle of tlic 
night tba Arebdoke withdrew over the Danube bridge, 
wUdi be deatroyed, giving orders to General Buboa 
lo bold oat for two days longer. This, however, waa 
tupoHiUa, and od May 18 Uie city was occupied by 
lb* Freocdi. 

The iituation of the inraders was now leas favx>tm 
■Ua than in 1&03, becauao their communicatiotts 



with the loft bank of the Danube had been cut off by 
the destnictioQ of the Tabor bridge, which on the 
previous occasion they had taken by a stratagem. 
Napoleon therefore took precautions against attack, 
especially on the part of the Archduke John, and of 
the Austrian army in Italy, He formed a vast net- 
work of cavalry along all the roads by which the 
enemy could advance. He ordered Prince Eugene 
to follow the Archduke John, and Marmont to leave 
the Illyrian provinces. Archduke John had crossed 
the Isonzo on Hay 11, closely followed by Eugene 
and Macdonald. The Austrians now divided them- 
selves into two armies, one advancing to Laibach in 
Carinthia, and the other to Grae in Styria. Eugene 
was compelled to make a similar partition of his 
forces, hut hia strategy was successful, for the Arch- 
duke was compelled to make a long detour, and could 
not appear on the battle-fielda of the Marchfeld in 
time to be of any use. 



misM to effect his pusagc at the point where the 
ftnam i« divided into two pan« by the island of 
Iflbao, which is about right milos long and five broad. 
It wms wooded in thu centre, and could conceal and 
pTo(«cl an arniy. On one side it is only about sixty 
yirds from the left bank, but in order to reach it from 
tfae village of Ebersdorf tn-o branches of the Danube 
bad to be crossed, the first of which waa 
two handred and forty and the other one hun- 
dred and twenty yards wide, divided by a sand- 
fcaak ia the centre. It was necessary, therefore, 
to boild three bridi^cs, the la&t in sight of the enemy. 
For thia purpose seventy or eighty large barges 
woetd bo required, and the Anstriana had been care- 
fnl to destroy or to remove everything of the kind. 
All prepurttious, therefore, had to be made afresh — 
pontootui, cables, and anchors. Aa these last would 
tak« mtwh timo to forge, Napoleon used heavy cannon 
inctrad, five hondred of which be had found in 
VimnK, and ehesta full of cannon-balls. Hasaena 
eoDdncted the work with such epeed, under the super- 
VMJon of NapoWu, tliat in six diiys ihe bridges were 
nady witboat tho Auatriatia knowing anything that 
wu ^ing on. 

On May 1? the Emperor romoved hia headquarters 
tnm SebiJabninn to Elwrsdorf. and at tcm o'clock 
oo the evBiung of the following day the first French 
boat l«ft tho ahoro. Tho Auatrians, who held tho 
idaod, were mtrpriaed and driven back, and the cen- 
tre of Loban was occupied, tho troop* wading throuitb 
water. The eonstmction of the third bridge offered 
the (T«ab!«t diffiinilticti, but it was coinpU^ted in three 
pbourt. Lasalle was the first to occupy the left bonk 
rith four cavalry n^tmenta, followed by skirmisherB. 
TiUa^ of Aiptm and E«sltng«n were seiaod 



without much difficulty. Aspem was occupied by 
Molitor, and Esalingeu by Boudet, Both villagea 
possessed wide streets and stone houses, Aapem a 
church with a walled churchyard, and EssUngen a 
huge corn magazine built of stone. These features 
were of importance in the battles which ensued. 

Before the two villages was a small wood in which 
the cavalry of Lasallo bivouacked. Here also 
Napoleon slept, surrounded by a detachment of hia 
guard, without taking off his clothes. The advance 
of the army continued through the whole night, 
infantrj-, artillery and cavalry, the last eonaiating 
of fotirteen regiments of cuirasaiera, under the com- 
mand of Espagne. The army debouched into a wide 
plain,' consisting of meadows and corn-fields. 

About midday Berthier, looking out from the 
church-tower of Easlingen, aaw a cloud of cavalry, 
and the army of the Archduke Charles coming down 
into the plain in battle array. Napoleon said to 



fineting the fight from the ehurchyard with preat 
cpOtiviMi, but Bt the serenth charge he waa forced to 
ntin^ aad at eleven at night the AuBtriana were in 
pOMMnon of Aspern. Not less violent were the at- 
twfa on Eaelmgen and on the centre, but neither of 
than proved eucceeaful, and at night Esslingen still 
■Hnuned in the possession of the French. Napoleon 
■pant tho night at the aide of the bridge, watching 
orer the passage of his troops. Twice or more news 
«M bronght to him that the great bridge had been 
fookcn down, but each time it waa restored. 

The battle waa renewed on the following day. 
N«pol«Dn, having received reinforcements of twenty- 
two tfaoasand men during the night, felt certain of 
netaij. His plan waa that Hassena should retake 
Aqwra, Lannea abould defend Esslingen againat all 
■ttoeki, and then force himself like a wedge throngh 
the Anttrian centre, and cut the army of the enemy 
in twa Darout, who had been left on the right 
bank of the river, waa now to support Xannea. 

Tht! battle raged for many hours round the two 
riUsgM. UaasSna captured Aspern nine times and 
vaeewdod in bvcominf; master of the churchyard, 
bat Mcfa time he was driven back. Napoleon took 
•drwatago of the mist to attack with his cavalry the 
BvBgurian regiments of General Hiller, but he also 
VM nfialMKl. In the meantime Latines formed the 
wdge GOnsiBting of twenty thousand infantry and 
•a thonaand cavalry which was to penetrate the 
CBtre of the Aostriana. The charge waa at first 
nesewftll, and some fugitives derlannl that the bat- 
tla was lost; but by the bravery and steadfaatneaa 
of the Archdnko and Prince John <>f Licbtenatein 
order was restored. Their whole lino moved for 
vaitl,and EaslingeD waa nearly recaptured. Launcs 


Rat down disheartened on the edge of tho canal which 
united Aspem with Easlingen and covered hia face 
with his hands. A spent baU struck him on both 
knees. " I am wounded," he cried to hie adjutant; 
"give me your hand and help me to rise." But 
he was unable to stand. He was carried from the 
field of battle, but died on May 30, the cherished 
friend of hie master and the hero of the French 

The onslaught of the Austriana had failed, but tho 
French had suffered a lieavy defeat. They had 
probably lost seven thousand dead and thirty-four 
thousand wounded, while the loss of the Austriana 
was four thousand two hundred and eighty dead and 
sixteen thousand wounded. This was the second 
great battle in which Napoleon had been worsted. 
The belief in his invincibility was on tho wane, but 
be was now to ehow that his genius shone forth aa 
highly in adversity aa in success. Esslingeu and 





Natolbok returned to the island of Lolinii and 

hit niArshals Masscoa, Berthior, aad 

to ft conferenoe. Davout arrived somewhat 

l«lBr. The Emperor now formed the plan of convcrt- 

tSK tbo isUnd of Ixibau into a jilace of arms, in 

order that be might cross into the Marchfcld a month 

Ul«r when tho waters were lower, and the bridge waa 

ia fi«ai«r secarit^. The generals were in favour of a 

ipOMf retreat to Vienna, leaving behind them their 

womdad, their nrtillery, and their horses; but Xu- 

polMa point«d out that this meant nothing less th&n 

ft rvtreat to Stratburf^, and possibly the destruction 

sf lb* Empire of France. It was better that Masaena 

■faowld oontinuo to hold Aspem till midnight, and 

retire into the island and hold it ftgainst all 

D&vout promised, on his part, to defend 

Tiaanft against the Archduke. 

kKftpoleon, on his side, crossed tho island of Lobau 
th B('rUu«r, Davoat and Savar^-, and reached the 
^ bank in a Bmall boat shortly before midnighL 
WB Ebersdorf he ordered supplies of all kinds to 
W ckrncd into the island, biaeuita, vine, brandy 
tmi tmmunition. Uo tat for some tinio in (bought 
vHk tears in his eyes; he then frll into a deep sloop 
taited for thirty hours, his stafT doubting 
b* would eror wako. Tho forty days which 



intervened between the battles of Aspem and 
Wagram were spent by Napoleon in converting 
Lobau into a fortress, an impregnable citadeL He 
was present every day in person directing all kinds 
of work. The island was occupied by forty-five thou- 
sand picked troopa, commanded by Massena. In the 
space of three weeks sixty piles Lad been driven into 
the river-bed, reaching far above the highest known 
high-water mark. On these was laid a perfectly 
firm road, capable of being used by any number of 
artillery and cavalry. Twenty yards lower down the 
stream lay the old pontoon bridge, for the use of the 
infantry, strengthened, enlarged and held firm by 
Btrong cables and anchors. The upper bridge, while 
it protected the bridge of boats, was itself protected 
by a stockade, built in an oblique direction, across the 
stream, A guard of sailors was formed to watch the 
upper waters and to intercept anything which waa 
likely to interfere with the security of the bridges. 



then was little doubt that Napoleon would again 
wetk tbe Archduke Charles in his old position, but 
tibn* wu grave doubt as to where he would cross. 
The AnstriaoB were of opinion that out of sheer ob- 
adnaey be would again attack Aspcm and Es9itngi.m, 
wfaidi w«re consequent]^' most carofuUv fortitied by 
the Archduke. Napoleon, however, had other plans 
in Tuw. Ho determined to cross from the east aide 
of the island, to throw a mass of French troops into 
Mudifeld over four bridges in two hours, to march 
RMmd the AustHans and to make their present posi- 
tion ueelcM, lo roll them up from the left flank and to 
eompel the Archduke to retreat, lie therefore bad 
foar bridges secretly prepared in a retired bay sur- 
rvnodcd by woodfl. One of them was constructed 
in « lingli- piece, «o as to swing across tbe stream. 
Tlw ebjunet was comparatively narrow in that part, 
■nd it wu i]uit<! the beet place for the crossing, al- 
Aowfa it had been overlooked by the Austrians. As 
tha Mctnre day approached Napoleon's visits became 
■on fRqnont and longer, and the works were con- 
tinoed day and night. Ho practised sailing up the 
Danube in all weathers. In the principal branch of 
tbe Danube he had twenty-two rnfta, twenty-one pon- 
tsam Atul many boats of different sizes. Captain 
BMie of the Impc'rial navy anchor<.'d with u flotilla 
ahor* tbe iatand. Enzcrsdorf was well defended by 
ft battery. Monition and supplies of every kind were 
mtoat ebondant On July 1 Nai^olcon loft SchiJn- 
WuBB and established his headquarters in I^ibau. 
Ardtduke rharle* eouhl ubncrvc from his posiiion 
rcfitnent after regiment marching into the island, 
bvt he could not aoe what was inst<I(^ as it was pro- 
taetod by lofty trees. Spies were altcf^ther abw'nt, 
•ay one found in the island who waa not a 



French soldier was immediately hanged. War cor- 
respondents were not thoogbt of in those days ! 

On June 30 Hassena set his troops in motion 
and built a pontoon bridge in the very spot where 
Napoleon had crossed on the previous occasion. 
Three days afterwards he occupied another large is- 
land and protected it by an earthwork. This also 
pointed to a passage opposite Esslingen. These two 
bridges enabled him to advance against the right and 
left of the Austrians. Sailors summoned from Hol- 
land and from Brest sailed up and down the Danube, 
apparently with the object of finding a landiog- 





Oh thp afternoon of Jnly 4, 1809, Napoleon ob- 
md th«t the point at which be intended to emaa 
I oaljr guarded b; small detach inients of the enemy. 
Tke i»j WM Mtrcmcly hot and a atorm eeemed to be 
{■mineiilL At ei^ht o'clock in the evening thre^* guns 
*er« fir^ as a signal. All tLe bands and tnunpeta 
^jyvd the air of Queen Hortense, " Partant pour la 
Sttm^" and a cry of " Vive I'Empereur ! " broke 
fRMn I tboDsand Toices. In the midat of the pourinj; 
nin md bliadingliail General Couronx occupied tba 
GbccBufcon' Island with fifteen hundred sharp- 
He drove before him the weak Austrian out- 
rhile Captain Baste commanded the left bank 
frwB hia flotilla. In two hours the 6rst bridge was 
fMdj, and Oadinot croiued at midnight. The other 
tkfc* bridge* were «oon fit for use. The darkness waa 
lit tip by th« lightnings of the sky, the flight of the 
nd-boi eanoon-balU, and the burning houses of En- 
amdorf. Napoleon superintcndoil the construction 
«f aacb bridge himself, giving counsel and urging tins 
■MB to baat*. Tbe titonn was in hi» favour as it had 
Wb in bis fint cntrrpriso, tb« capture of Touton, 
!• twvlre boon one hondred and sixty thousand mim 
aude tbeir war Into the Marcbfeld full of confidence 
b tbeir leader. The plan bad been carefully 
dkooi^t out, and every general knew what ho had to 
dai. Tbo French wot* ready for the attack before 



the Austrians had taken up their position. !A,bout 
eight o'clock in the morning Napoleon threw two 
other bridges across the Danube for the third and 
fourth army corps, which consisted of one hundred 
and fifty thousand men, five hundred and fifty 
guns, and forty thousand horses. He crossed him- 
self a little before ten, with the joy of victory in his 

Wednesday, July 5, 1809, broke a lovely summer's 
morning, fresh and invigorating after the storm of 
the previous night. Napoleon's first action was to 
occupy Enzersdorf. The French advance was in the 
shape of a fan. In the first Hue llassena occupied 
the extreme left in the neighbourhood of Esalingen, 
then came Bernadotte with his Saxons, then Oudinot, 
and then Davout In the second line the army of 
Prince Eugene, which had come up from Italy, 
formed the left, and the corps of Marmont the right. 



!-ftng]ed triangle. Napoleon slept in his own 
surroimdpd by hie guard. His marahala 
neoired no vrritton ordera ; they only knew that his 
•ebeau was to pierce tlie centre with a wedge and to 
mroond the left ftauk of the enemy, to break through 
the Atutrian lino and then to roll it up. The Arch- 
dake in vain tried to sleep. Anxiety and lahour bun- 
ilbcd tlwp from his eyvs, and he suffered on the day 
of bcttle nom this want of repose. At break of day a 
ifaiek mtflt covered the field. The Auatriaus hegau 
the battle with an attack upoo Davout who held his 
giomd with hia accustomed tenacity. The fire llien 
eitenrfed along the whole line from Glinzendorf to 
the Danobe. On the previous day Bernadottc had 
«ecDpied Adcrklaa, which formed the apex of the 
French triangle, but he was violently attacked by the 
AnMliuM and driven out. Massenn, who. unable 
to «t on borseback, was driren in a carriage, attempt- 
ad to stop lb« flight by firing on the fugitives, and 
Xapoleoa riding up, cried, " Why can I not be maa- 
Ur of Adttrklaa only for s few hours I " 

Emoaraged by this Bucnesa, the Archduke at- 
ipted tn extend his attack towards Aspern ami Ess- 
igcQ on hia right. He desired to weaken the centra 
U>e FraDch and to press on towards the river. How- 
V the centra was prnl»»ct<vl by the artillery of the 
and by Hacdouald's infantry. Davout now 
MBMVed orden to attack the heights of NeusicdeL 
Tbia waa a aeriooe task, as it meant an advance over 
pvond under a plunging fire. After t^^'o re- 
Davout was Bncce«aful, and the heights were 
Thia W8» th« dM-isive moment of the battle, 
■nd even if Archduke John had now appeared npon 
dK aeeoe be would have boon too late. The wholo 
■f tbe Austrian position, behind iho Ruasbacb, waa 



enfiladed, and at one o'clock the Archduke ordered 

the retreat of the fourth corps. 

During all these hours Napoleon was watching the 
battle with eagerness. He had covered his simple 
uniform with a gray overcoat, rode a small Arabian 
horse, white in colour, and carried a little riding- 
whip in his hand. Ho was surrounded by a numerous 
staff, including about a dozen orderlies who were 
ranged in lines one behind the other. His coun- 
tenance betrayed no emotion, his expression was 
serious, and in his face nothing stirred but bis fiery 
eyes. He listened quietly to all the advices brought 
to him, and if he had to give an order he called outj 
" Officier d'ordonnance," and an orderly rode up. 
He dictated the order to him slowly and clearly, and 
then said, " Repetez," upon which the ofiicer repeated 
the order word by word. If he made a mistake the 
Emperor showed no annoyance, but repeated the 
order again, and again said, " Repetez." When the 


ICore than a hundred gtins were to begin the attack, 
and the oolnmn ooosisted of thirty-one thousand in- 
fantiy and six thousand cavalry. Napoleon in per- 
•on brought up the reserve. The charge was buo> 
eesafuL Wagriun was conquered, and the possession 
of this, together with that of Neusiedel, delivered 
the whole of the plateau behind the Russbach into 
the hands of the French. At about two o'clock in 
the afternoon the Archduke saw that all resistance 
vta hopeless and began the retreat. He had lost 
thirty thousand men and the French eighteen thou- 
un<L Napoleon, who had been nearly forty hours 
in the saddle, gave up the pursuit and retired to hia 
tent to rest. The Archduke John, who had been so 
anxiously expected, reached the field of battle at seven 
ia the erening. After some hesitation he determined 
to retreat and the French were left unmolested. 

The army of the Archduke Charles retired towards 
IMiemia, pursued by the corps of Harmont, who 
captured many prisoners and stragglers. The Arch- 
duke concluding the armistice of Znaim on July 11, 
and the peace of Vienna, signed on October 14, 1809, 
put an end to the campaign. 





It may be useful in relating the history of cam- 
paigns, such as those of Napoleon, in which almost all 
nations of Europe were engaged, to give some account 
of the tactics employed by them, and of the systems 
of discipline which were suited to their individual 
character; and in this there can be no better 
authority than Colonel George Cathcart, who was 
himself present in the campaigns of 1812 and 1813. 
He tells u3 that in the eighteenth century all the war- 
like nations of Europe brought their armiea into 



qaired to enable superior numbers to prevail over 
luperior discipline. Napoleon found this system in 
ppenlion and followed it, but improved it by hia 
gMiias. He trusted mainly to the influence of largo 
eoBoentrated maeaea of troops placed in reserve and 
eraeulod from the enemy as much as posaible. When 
he had Arranged these with great skill, he began opor- 
eliou with numerous light troops along bis wbolo 
front, supported by artillery at various points. Hia 
object often was to deceive the enemy as to hia real 
ialentiotia, and to induce them to compromise their 
vliolo force along an extensive front. At last the 
4eetnTe moment was seized for bringing up an over- 
wbelming mass of troops, preceded by a swarm of 

lit infantry, and covered by concentrated power 

artillery, to attack the weakest or most unguarded 
of the enemy's j)osition, and to secure the vic- 
whioh was completed by cavalry. Under these 
dnnmBtances grand lino movements of the whole 

ay, after the manner of Frederick the Great, were 
used, and would not have been practicable 
, troops of that time. Occasional deployments 
_ Ddjo were used for special pur[K«<-3 by single 
lietttlioiu or brigadea, or even by larger bodies; but 
Mtfainf; like the old " order of battle " was ever 
llMnigbt of in that mode of warfare. 

This new syvtem, intniMlnced by nceeaaity, had 
tw" great advantagee — celerity of movement in tho 
field and ifan right use of n-servea. The armiea of 
the eigbteentb century were active on the march, 
bat were slow and pompous in their preparation for 
attadc, and they underrated the importance of re- 
Mm*. Wellington appears to have combined the 
beat parta of boUi these systems and to have adopted 
a qajckneai of uovcmunt without hurry and coo- 

loo wabb of the CENTCBY. 

fnsion, and a judicious use of reserves withoat 
abandoning line formation. 

Napoleon, having been educated as an artillery 
officer, always made good use of that arm, and placed 
great reliance on it, often concentrating batteries to 
ihe amount of one hundred guns to support an attack 
or strengthen a weak position. His light artillery 
was also efficient, but from carelessness in its use 
he often exposed his guns to capture. But artillery, 
although it may intimidate inexperienced troops, ia 
generally less destructive than musketry at close 
range, or the bayonet if applied with vigour. It 
certainly was so in the battles which we are narrat- 

The nations who were opposed to and were beaten 
by Napoleon generally learnt to imitate his methods 
and gave up many of their old traditions. In the 
campaign of 1806 the Eussians were very steady in 
the ranks and capable of line movements, but having 
been beaten by Napoleon, they changed their system 
in 1812 and 1813, apparently without any great ad- 
vantage. The Husaian artillery, also, were better 
able to pull through and surmount obstacles than 
any other in the field ; they arrived sooner in position, 
and could remain there longer. This is greatly due 
to their experience of the bad roads of their own 
country and of Poland, which are almost impassable 
in spring and autumn. The Russian cavalry of re- 
serve was most splendid and efficient in respect to 
horses, appointments and discipline, but tlw Em- 
peror was too much inclined to husband their 
strength and to keep them out of danger. The 
Kussian light cavalry was also very good and steady. 
Cathcart is of opinion that the Cossacks were neither 
so terrible nor so useful as has been generally zep> 



d. They bad little efficiency in a general 
•etioii, or when opposed to regular cavalry forces at 
tU equal to their own. On outpost duty tbey saved 
modi fatigue to the regular cavalry, but wore never 
entirely entrusted with that service. Oathcart tells 
nt that be once heard Prince Eugono say that tbo 
OsHaeks did more good than barm to their enemies, 
wpweially in the retreat to Moscow, and he is iu- 
cuned to give his adhesion to this judgment. 

At the time of the battle of Jona the Prussians pos- 
MMed a fin«arniycomposedlargi?Iyofveteran soldiers, 
•ad drilled in the tactics of Frederick the Great. 
It wan consequently beaten by Napoleon, who 
bmnght ooDoentrated masses to bear upon it with a 
ealtn^ not hitherto considered practicable. After 
the paaee of Tilsit the nunibers of the Prussian 
ngalar army were reduced to very small dimensions, 
bol tbe outhurst of national feeling wliich f^illowed 
the bnmilistion of that epoch called into e-xistenco 
a UBtioDal army, while tbe genius of Scharnhorat con- 
TCrtod tbe oppression of the conqueror into a ma- 
ekinery for ^ving raw recruits the solidity and 
•fieieocy of practical wldiers. 

Th« ordinaneea of August, 1808, gave tbe Prussian 
■nnr an entirely new organisation. They provided 
that foreign recruiting sboulcl Ixi nltolisbed, and tbiit 
pmmntion Bboald no longer be determined by ad- 
fantagea of birth or more length of service, but that 
pcofcHiooal knowledge, edncation and bravery 
ihattld take tbeir plaoo. Dishonourable puniMhmenta 
«m dona away with, tbo artiolee of war made more 
latient, and iinproT«ment« effoctod in dresa and 
a^ptnmt, in the formation and organisation of 
my, and in the eomparatire etrt^ngth of the 
I anna. By the treaty of Tilsit tho strength 



of the Prussian army was reduced to forty- five 
thousand men, hut it was arranged that the com- 
ponent parts of this force should be changed every 
three months. New recruits were admitted to the 
army, and those who passed out were formed into a 
reserve. Even those who had received no military 
training were formed into a National Militia. Be- 
sides the standing army, all able-bodied men between 
the ages of eighteen and thirty were to arm, clothe, 
and exercise themselves at their own cost. The 
schools also received a military organisation, so that 
boys and young men might gain experience of 
soldierly discipline and training. 

It is evident that there was not time for these 
new levies of the Prussian army to arrive at tactical 
efficiency, and there were good reasons for assimilat- 
ing the use made of them in war to that employed 
by the enemy, and although at a later period the 
Prussian armv revived the old system of line move- 



were a Bource rather of danger than of strength. The 
Austrian artillery, also, was old-fashioned and slow 
to more, bnt when it did arrive in position ms 
Bcientificallj served. Their ambulance, also, was 
cumbrous and expensive, and too slow for the modem 
rapidity of movement The Austrian cavalry waa 
perhaps superior on the whole to that of any other 
Power in the field; their light cavalry was composed 
of Hungarian hussars and Polish Uhlans, which re- 
ceived from other nations the sincere flattery of 

It may be remarked, in conclusion, that in all con< 
tinental armies the order of battalions when formed 
in line was invariably three deep, the English being 
the only nation which could trust the stability of a 
line only two deep. In the days of Marlborough the 
formation of the British army was also three deep. 




It is no part of the scope of this work to discasB 
the causes of Napoleon's invasion of Russia, amonjpt 
the outward reasons for which, perhaps, the moat in- 
telligible was the desire to force Russia into a closer 
observance of the Continental System, that ia of 


derelopment of that country in the future and the 
danger which it might c&use to Europe. It ie prob- 
able therefore that, even if events had turned out very 
differently to what they actually did, Napoleon conld 
not have completed hiB career without a struggle 
against Euasia of aome kind. The re-establishment 
of the independence of Poland, which may be comr 
pared to the creation of the Italian kingdom, was an 
insult and a menace to Kuasia, and it is not likely that 
the renaacence of a Polish Nation would have been 
more tolerable to Alexander than it had been to hia 

However this may be, the expedition into Kussia is 
the greatest military enterprise the world has ever 
seen, and it will be sufficient if we confine ourselves 
to its military aspects. Napoleon began to cross the 
Niemen on June 24. To those who know the later 
history of the campaign it is difficult to understand 
why he commenced operations so late in the year. 
Napoleon had originally intended to open the cam- 
paign towards the close of May, at which time the 
grass would be grown and there would be fodder for 
Uie horses. He also apparently designed to attack 
SL Petersburg and to begin with the siege of Kiga 
and Diinaburg. He probably hoped to bring the 
Rnaaians to a decisive engagement somewhere in 
Lithuania, and it is fairly certain that, if at the out- 
set of the campaign he had contemplated the march 
to Moscow, he would not have lost so important a 
month as Jane. 

The Emperor was for some time in the dark as to 
the Bussian plans, but when he heard that two Kus- 
ta*n armies had been formed, one of one hundred and 
fifty thouaand men under Barclay de Tolly, and the 
other of one hundrad thousand men under Prince 



Bagration ; that the first was to advance is the diiee- 
tion from Vilna to Eowiio,ancl the second from Hinsk 
to Grodno, he determined to cross the Ifiemen at 
Kowno, to march quickly on to Vilna, to place him- 
self between the two armiee and to keep them separ 
ated during the remainder of the campaign. Na- 
poleon had with him the corps of Davout, Ondinot, 
Ney, and the Imperial Chiard. Macdonald waa to 
cross the Niemen (or, aa it is there called, the Memel) 
at Tilsit, occupy both sidea of the stream and march 
into Courland. He had with him thirty thousand 
Prussians and two divisions of Polea, and these 
formed the left wing. Prince Eugene was to com- 
mand the right wing, eighty thousand strong, con- 
sisting of Italians and Bavarians, and was to crow 
the Niemen at Prenn. Still further to the right 
King Jerome was to pass over the stream with the 
Poles, Saxons and Westphalians and the fourth corpt 
of the reserve artillery. Besides there wa3 a reaervt 



Tbroo bridges wera constructed. Napoleon stood at 
their bead at davbreak and witnessed tbe march 
o{ tbe invading colimuis. He was saluted by tbe 
yootb of Europe, an army drawn from every portion 
ut ki* vast dominions, with tbe cries of " Vive I'Em- 
pewort " and a joyous enthusiasm which showed no 
foniwdiog of future disaster. 

During Uie whole of two days the vast masses were 
d»fiUiig scrofis tbe bridge, and, as soon as they had 
trtmtd, pmeed on to Vilna. The distance is sixty 
mflea, and it vos covered l>y many of the troops in 
ihvM days. During this time the Emperor Alexan- 
der vaa at Vilna, which he did not leave till June 
ST. Before doing so bo iBBUcd s proclamation to 
)a§ Ann/ aaying t£at he had no wish for war, that be 
hai refrained from armin;; until repeated insulu 
flaai|Milled him to do so, and that the attack of Na- 
pslano was unprovoked. On the same day be ad- 
dnaed a letter to tbe Governor of St. Pet^rsbnrfr, 
bj wajr of I manifesto to tbe nation, which ended 
link the declaration that he would not lay down hia 
tBBS ao long aa a single hostile soldier remained on 
Ite aoQ of Ruiuia. He also sent his aide-de-camp, 
taimhar, to Xapoleon, with offers to negotiate if 
A» Fnneb would nt-rosa the Niemen. The measen- 
fwaaW the Emperor's orders detained by Davout 
aatil XapolcoD va« installed in Vilna in the quarters 
vbiefa Alaxuider had only just quitted. 

When the beads of tlio first French column reached 
VUba tba LitboanianB were prepannl to give them a 
vtloOBDO reeeption. But tht* lrix)pa were weary with 
ibair forced march, hongry and thirsty; they (brew 
tkoaaelrea tike beatta of prey upon the bakers* shops 
tai ths win»«bops and consumed everything that 
Aajr could lay their bandd upon. The inhabitants 



were frightened ; they shut np their housPB and con- 
cealed thcmseiyes. The consequence of this was that 
when Napoleon rode into the town on the morning 
of June 28, he found closed windows instead of 
triumphal arches. No officers came out to meet him. 
Viina seemed a city of the dead. He rode through 
the town to the bridge, which the Russians had fired 
before their retreat. On the other side of the stream 
he saw the magazines biazing which the Russians 
had spent eighteen months in collecting. He then 
retired to the Palace, which Alexander had left the 
evening before, and sent for the authorities, by whom 
he was well received. 

On the following day there was a violent storm, 
the precursor of five days' heavy rain. The tempera- 
ture fell and the heat of summer was turned into the 
frost of winter. The soldiers had their first experi- 
ence of Russian weather. Its principal effect was 



opl* are nn longer religious in Germany and Italy, 
It they arp still religious in Spain and Riissia." 
'Whit i» the rtiadtoMowow? " " Sire, your question 
H ontMirrasaiiig. The Russians say as the Frencii 
ilo, ' All roads lead to Rome.' Many roads lead to 
Kawow; Charles XII. chose the road by Poltava." 
Tbft negotiations came to nothing. The two Em- 
perors, wbo had been so friendly at Tilsit, never saw 
Mcb other agRin, yet Alexander always retained 
ktodlj feelings towards him, and he was, perhaps, the 
only European aovcreign who felt compassion for tha 
pritoner of St. Helena. 

On Jnly 17 Napoleon left Vilna to begin the 
mareb to Mobcow. Competent judges are of opinion 
that if he had not delayed there so long the Rus^iatk 
tnnies mi(;ht have been destroyed. Their forces 
eouitt«d at thifl time of one hundred and seventy 
llmmnd ordinary soldiers and ten thousand Coa- 
■tdc*. Their whole strength was calculated at 
hnndml tbonaand, but of these only four hun- 
■fl thoound wetw ready, and not more than oue 
and etphty thousand wore actually available 
oppow the French. Barclay de Tolly retired 
•lowly towards the Dwina ; Ilagration remained 
in the province of Minck. Napoleon's design was 
toirnish Barclay hiniBelf, whilst Davout and Jerome 
4i*iKMe<l of Pagration. The Emperor began by 
Barehing towards the Dwina as if he wished to 
join Maedooald, who was advancing on Mitau 
■ad Ri)^; he then tume<l suddenly to the east 
nd rf«ehed Gtabokoie on July 18. But ho found 
M Roaaians there. Barclay was determined not 
to be cut off fr<>m Smolensk. Ilo placed his wfety 
in retiTat, and with this object in view saeriGced 
ttMWmp of Driata, which it had boon intended to do- 



fend in imitation of the lines of Torres Vedras, the 
citadel of Wellington in Portugal, and the possession 
of the valley of the Dwina. For these reasons he 
withdrew to Vitebsk, followed at a considerable dis- 
tance by Murat's cavalry. 

Napoleon had no other course open to him but to 
pursue Barclay on the road to Vitebsk, hoping to 
bring liim to a general action. But the Russian 
general vanished before him. A cavalry engago 
ment took place at Ostrovno on July 2G, in which the 
Euasians lost BOine two thousand tive hundred men. 
Two daya later Napoleon entered Vitebsk, but ho 
found it as deserted as he had found Vilna, 
Barclay being in fuJI march for Smolensk, He was 
much disappointed, as he had hoped to engage the 
enemy before he arrived at Vilna, and certainly be- 
fore he reached Vitebsk, but the Russians retired be- 
fore him, devastating the country in their march, 
pursuing the same policy as the Tartars had em- 



lo«fr down and to continue their march. On 
Aqgnst 8 the two nrmics of Barclay de Tolly and 
Wigrmion were united at Smolensk, eo that plan of 
KapolMD had completely failed. 

Ifapoleon was not a man to be disconcerted by the 
failuro of hia first plan, nor was he long in fonning 
tnother. lie determined to umrch southwards ti>- 
«irds the Dnieper, to join tlio anny of Davout, and 
then to procfted up tlio left bank of the stream to- 
ward* Smolensk. Having occupied this important 
town, b« would croas over to the right bank and force 
tbft Russians to a decisive battle, even if they did not 
come out to meet him before, in order to preserve 
one of their sacred cities from violation. He left 
Vil*b*k on August 8, crossed the Dnieper at Orsha, 
and effected a junction with Davout. He found 
the left bank defended only by bodies of Cossacks 
vim were easily disposed of. Marching with ex- 
tRDe rapidity, he arrived at Smolensk on August 16, 
wiwrs tbo Ruuians wore alrea<ly assembled. 

After a conaiderable struggle the conqueror en- 
Uni 6x9 town, hut he found little either to gratify 
Ua MBbitum or to further his designs. Barclay, who 
■ow bad command of Ixjth Russian armies, was able 
tn rrtreat from Smolensk as he bad retreated from 
Viln» and Vitebsk, and to covor his march tifteen 
t^oownd Rnasians suvriGccd themsolvea on tho walla 
cad {n the Ktrcets of their holy city. A council of 
war was held and the advance upon Moscow n-solvt^ 
■poo. It ia taid that Murat and Prince Eug^no 
were opposed to this plan, but the will of tho!r master 
wa« toBBxible and the majority voted with him. Bo- 
ton thii final resolution was adopted was fought the 
battl* of Valntino or Lubino, in which Key and 
UvnX attacked tliu rearguard of tho Roesian armjr 



on August 19. The loss on botJi sides was very 
heavj, but the engagement had no influence iu check- 
ing tiie Russian retreat. There is reason to believe 
that Napoleon originally intended bis first campaign 
to have ended at Smolensk. But matters had not 
turned out according to his expectations. To arrest 
his march at Smolensk under present circumstancei 
would have heen to acknowledge defeat, and defeat 
meant the destruction of his empire. 

The successes of Napoleon's generals had in the 
meantime heen greater than his own. Maedonald 
had occupied Mitau and was now blockading Ifiga. 
Oudinot occupied the valley of the Dwina and cap- 
tured Polotsk. St. Cyr, who succeeded him in bis 
command, defeated Wittgenstein on August 18. On 
the right the Austrians under Scbwarzenberg 
obtained advantages over the enemy and were able 
to hold the Russians of Tormasov in check. It is 
possible that these successes encouraged the Emperor 





Tmi march upon Moscow began on August 25, 
lctI2, Napoleon baviug wltli him a force of one hun- 
dreJ and fifty tliougand men, which was perhaps auffi- 
ekot lo eonqiKT the aniiios opposed to him. The rest 
of the Grand Army was scauered either between 
Vilna and Smolonsk or ou the wings. The condition 
of the ordinnry troopa became worse than ever. After 
kaving Smoteii-tk tbit country was found to bo a 
buim duwrt, from which tho poaBantj had fied after 
baraiog their villagt-s. The towna, theniaelves of no 
inportODCCf were abandoned. The harvest of 1S12 
waa acanty. The lati-^t historian of this campai^u, 
"Ht. Qtmge, teila as that between Smolensk and Mos- 
«w Uw operations were of extreme simplicity. The 
BoMtan army, he tuiya, retreated directly on thetr 
baae, from time to time UirMteniog to ((ivu battle and 
doing K>, the French following them, ready to 
Bpt battle if it weni offered, but unable to compel 
U. Tha Ruaaiaoe aujTered but little, as tliey had 
mpla maKaztnoa on thv road ; on the other hand, they 
ilnliujii il all the Btorea which they could not carry 
0& The French suffered eouKiderably< as they had 
le IJvo bx marauding, and spread themselvea many 
mS^ oo eacii side of tho road in M-arch of food. 
8dn wetas waa the lade of water. When the army 
reached tb« Borodiuo it only numbend fiTe-eicbthB 
oi what it hod been on arriving at SmohmaL 



The French passed through Dort^bozh, Viastna, 
and Qzhatsk. At Viasma reinforcementB were re- 
ceived of fifteen thousand men. Barclay had made 
up his mind that the time had now come for a 
decisive engagement, and was preparing a position 
between the two last-mentioned towns, when on the 
evening of August 29 Prince Kutusov appeared to 
take over the supreme command. 

Russian public opinion had been excited by these 
continual retreats, the more so that they were 
directed hy Barclay, who was a German by origin. 
The Russians became ashamed of giving up their 
country to the enemy, without a struggle. It seemed 
as if Moscow would in its turn suffer the fate of 
Smolensk. The result of this was that Barclay wad 
superseded hy Sutusov, whose name is familiar to 
us from the battle of Austerlitz. He was not a more 
capable general than Barclay, being over seventy 
years of age and too stout to moimt on liorsoljaelc. 


•ne bondred and twenty-fire thousand on the Frendi 
aide and one hundred thousand on the Russian. The 
plan of EutusoT was to remain firm in his position, 
and to rest entirely on the defensive. Napoleon's 
plan was also simple — to mass guns at points con- 
venient for commanding the Bussian defences, and 
nader oorer of their fire to take them hj assault with 
infantry, Poniatowski at the same time turning the 
enemy's left Darout waa posted on the right, in 
front of the Shevardino redoubt ; Ney, with Junot to 
support him, prolonged the line to the Kolotza and 
was to attack towards Semenovskoie ; Eugene com- 
manded the left ; be was to gain possession of Boro- 
dino, and at the due time attack the great redoubt 
Behind tbe centre was posted the guard, which bad, 
however, sent part of its artillery to the front Thus 
one hundred and fifteen thousand men were drawn up 
in a line not much more than two miles in length. 

The battle began on September 7 at six o'clock in 
the morning, and by eight o'clock Davout and Ney 
bad captured the works opposed to them. By this 
time also Poniatowski had reached Utitza and 
Eugene bad taken Borodino. In order to complete 
the victory Murat and Ney asked Napoleon to send 
tbe guard into action, but he refused, saying that tho 
time had not yet come. After a slight pause tbe 
battle b^an anew, the principal point of attack being 
the great redoubt Ney and Murat crossed tbe 
ravine and captured Semenovskoie. This enabled 
them to attack the great redoubt in the rear, whibt 
Eugene assailed it in front. After a considerable 
etru^le it came into the possession of the French. 
This was the turning-point of the battle, but success 
was dearly purchased, for in the melee Caulaincourt 
waa killed. 



It was now three o'clock in the afternoon, but Uie 
victory was not complete. It ia said that Napoleon 
was suffering from a severe cold, and that he was 
without his usual energy, but Mr. George dismissea 
this as a legend. It is certain that Ney and Murat 
again asked for the guard to defeat the Hussians, but 
Napoleon refused, and the beat judges are of opinion 
that he was right in bis refusal. He said, " If my 
guard ia destroyed to-day and I have to fight another 
battle to-morrow, how shall I gain it i " He there- 
fore contented himself with cannonading the Itua- 
sian position with the whole of his artillery. The 
Kussians held their ground with obstinacy and 
Kutusov did not retire from the field till the follow- 
ing day. The loss was very heavy on both sides. 
At least seventy thousand dead aud wounded strewed 
the battle-field. The Kuissiaus retreated easily and 
kept at bay the languid pursuit of the French. The 
army of Kutusov could not prevent the French from 





Tii« Fronch entered Moecow with Murat at their 
hewl on September 14, 1612, juBt a week after tUo 
btttk) of Borodino. The; had reached the holy citv, 
iba goal of their wttnderings, with ita fortiticd 
Kremlin kitd its gilded cupohu. iiut they found the 
capital d«Mxrtcrl. Thu aobles and the well-to-do 
had left the town; the palaces, well stored 
■'•oppliM, weru euiptv of iuliubitaiits, and tho 
wore given up to the common people and to 
priKQcra who hud been n-Icascd from gaoL The 
•ixht of Moscow had worked upon the French 
BJ llktt that of Jerusalem upon the Crusaders, but 
UwT entered the deserted streets they werj 
1 vitb A f^rini horror. In all the capitals which 
Vs^teoo had entered he had been met by deputa- 
tvuiu from thu municipality begginj; for ^ace and 
nerqr. Here there waa nothing of the kind; he 
vw rwNV«d 1^ no one. Tho detitehmeuts which 
£nt entered nupected treachery and moved along tho 
with oaoiion, but they soon saw that tho city 
indeed abandoned and that tho signs of deeo- 
UtioD were reel. 

>ta{iuleon hod hardly established himself in tho 
Krvmlin brforo a fire broke out in a large store con- 
taining ipirita belonging to the OoTemment. This 
kod been eitiogniBhed with diJBcuHy, when it was 
HknirT'T'* that the great bazaar lytug uorth-east of 



the Kremlin was on fire. The wind blowing from 
the east carried the conflagration acrosB the finest 
atreeta of the city, and then a change in the wind 
brought the flames back till the Kremlin itself was in 
imminent danger and Napoleon was obliged to leavo 
it. The fire raged for three days entirely beyond all 

When Napoleon was at St Helena be be^an to 
ask Betsy Balcombe, the little English girl who 
treated him with such scant ceremony, somequestions 
in geography, and on her giving him the information 
that Moscow waa the capital of Rtissia, he fixed his 
eyes upon her with a terrible expression and said in 
a solemn voice, " Who burnt it i " The poor child 
did not comprehend the significance of the question, 
which has been indeed a puzzle ever since. But 
there can be little doubt that it was the work of the 
governor Boetophchin, acting on his own responsibil- 
ity, without communicating his design to the Em- 



only one of his gonernls who Bup- 
le rest clamoured for repose and 
tsality. He ulso si'nt, more than onoe, overtures to 
Alexander to make peace, but the Taar, according to 
liil ■sttlcd nrsolutiou, refused to negotiate so long 
u a nng]e foreign soldier remained on Russian soil. 
It u not known why Napoleon stayed at Moscow so 
long or why he left when he did. He formed day 
■fter day tho most inconsistent projects; he claimed 
that he was giving the army repose whilst the cavalry 
via rapidly perishing from want of forage, and 
whilst Kntuaov, who was posted to the south of Mo3- 
am at Tarutino, received conatant reinforcemeuts 
and patiently waited for tlie winter. 

At iMSt, on October 10, Napoleon suddenly deter- 
■toed to leave Moscow. He marched in a southerly 
dtnetion towards the army of Kutusov, with tho 
new of dispersing it and of living in the provinces 
q{ Kaluga and Orel, from which ho hoped to pene- 
trate into Poland. Tho numbers of the French army 
Wring Uoecow were ninoty thousand infantry, in 
gaod oondition aft^^r llinir long rest, fourteen thou- 
md cavalry in a wretched stato, and other unns 
mmbering twelve thousand. 

Tbe adranoed guard commanded by Eug^no on 
metiliillf; tbe town of Malciyaroslavetz found a body 
if Bmnan troope drawn up to inttrrcopt them. Thor» 
■M a botly-«ontested struggle for the bridge, and 
EMJne, with bis Italians, succeeded in capturing 
ttaoridgeaodiii taking the town, which was abandon- 
ad ij tbe Runiana. Xapolcon arrived about one 
•i'eloelt. but hCMWlIiatitwonldbeuselcsato bring any 
Inge onmber of forces across tho bridge, whii-h was 
coBaaaded by RuitKian guns, and that the wholo 
army woald be in position to meet him, bo- 


fore he could reinforce Eugdne. He therefore had 
to givB up all hope of advancing in that direction. 
It is said that Ualoyaroskvetz, although it was a 
battle on a email scale, was the turning-point of Na- 
poleon's career, and may therefore be reckoned as one 
of the decisive battles of the world. Mr. Qeoi^ saya 
that it showed for the first time that his expedition 
had substantially failed. " This day converted 
fortune into destruction and made his ultimate over- 
throw a certainty when his enemies combined against 
him." After the battle he sent for Berthier, Muiat, 
and BesaiSres. After discussing the state of affairs 
he put his elbows on the table, and sat for an hour 
gazing at the map, with his bead between his hands, 
without uttering a word. " In that bitter moment," 
says Kr. Oeorge, " he perhaps realised for the first 
time that he had failed irretrievably." On the fol- 
lowing day be was nearly captured by a body of Cos- 

Napoleon now abandoned the project of retreating 
by Kaluga, and determined to re^in, by a cross pas- 
sage at Mozhaisk, the road to Smolensk, which he had 
followed on his advance. We now know that, if he 
had persisted in his first deaign8,he would have been 
successful. Kutusov had made up his mind to re- 
treat to Kaluga, if Napoleon should show any sigos 
of seriously attacking him, and his troops had already 
begun to move with that object. If the Emperor 
had made one more effort he might have gained hia 
porpoee of returning through a fertile and inhab- 
ited country. 

Napoleon reached Borodino on October 28 and 
found many thousands of corpses still tuiburied. 
On the last day of the month he arrived at Viasma. 
The soldiers bad by this time no bread andno brandy ) 



tbor hmd nodiinf* to «at but the flf«h of the horses, 
■Udi were ironBtantly dying frniti fali^ie. Tho 
wntHmr wu still due and bright, bitt the cold at night 
WM tcrere. The soldiera who wandered away in 
Much o{ food never came back ; they either per- 
iibed of hunger, were taken by the Cossacks, or were 
kfllad by the peasantry'. Hundreds threw away their 
I, and hundrf^dfl more died by the wayside. Tho 
attwk of the Buaaiana upon the retreating army 
made at Viiisma on Xovcmber 3. Apparently 
might hare reaultod in a t<Trible disaster for the 
n«ndi if Kutusorliaddispluyed a reasonable amount 
of «iergy. The French had only thirty-seven thou- 
«tid men on the field, so seriously bad they been 
vBakened by the eauseg which have been enumerated. 
Thn retn^at on Smolensk was continued, Ney cora- 
nuDding the rear-guard and performing prodigies of 
nloar and rndunince, fightinglike a eommon soldier. 
The winter now bc^an in earnest. On November 
tbcro was a heavy fall of snow, accompanied by 
a eold wind. The horses died like flies. It was im- 
{KMitble to diuover food for them beneath the snow, 
sod tibey wore helpless on the frozen ground. Hour 
ly hour reliiclcs had to be abandoned and the nuni- 
kar of Btra(g*!ers etiornmnsly increased. In the 
pMM|^ of the Uiver V'op EugencV eorps wus reduced 
fnm tw<^lve thousand to six thousand, and only 
twelve guns were loft out of the ninety with which 
it ttartwl from Moscow. 

On Nowmber 9 Napoleon arrived at Smolensk, 
kU adruiMd guard luving already passed it, not 
kaving been allowed to enter tho town. Hero bad 
new* awaiuid him. Barnguay d'llilliera had lost a 
Wigide of two thousand men, and Vit'-Iisk had fallen 
fato UiA baoda of the RuMtans ootwithstanding lUo 



efforts of Marshal Victor to defend it. It was ob- 
viously impossible to make a long halt at Smolensk, 
still leas to mate it a nucleus of winter quarters. 
Napoleon left Smolensk accompanied by the guard 
on November 14. His fighting troops were now re- 
duced to thirty thousand, and detachments of tha 
army came up at considerable intervals. He made 
an arrangement for the purpose of resting the sol- 
diers that they should leave the city in detachments, 
Eugene on November 15, Davout on November 16, 
and Ney with the rear-guard on November 17. But 
these arrangements, conceived in the interests of the 
soldiers, proved disastrous for them and for their 





Tajt Ttussiana now determined to intercept the re- 
tTMt of the Grand Armv, and for that purpose Kut- 
OMfT took op a position in the neighbourhood of Kras- 
nofl, balf-waj between Snioienafc and Orsha. Ho 
•Oowed Napoleon to pass unmolested, but when 
Eaf!viti« arrived he found the way barred. He at- 
tacked vigoronBly in three columns, but was repulsed. 
Aofiting hy the darkness, he made a circuit and 
webed Krasnoe during the night with three thou- 
iuid fire hundred men out of the six thousand with 
vhom be had left Smolensk. Davout. who followed, 
■■ripnd with ttomedifficulty.theattentionoftheeneiitj' 
hcriiig tieeo diverted by the action of Napoleon and 
Eagtae; but Ney met with terrible dilScultiea. The 
Mrps which he commanded had been made up at 
Gowlanck to the strength of six thousand men. He 
Mt Uw town before daylight on November 17, hav* 
nif prvriously blown up the ancient walls and other 
hrfMinga — a nivdlese act of barbarity. On the 
■Aemoon of the day following, when not far from 
Kneaoe, Xey found a reserve force posted acroM tho 
nad. The day being foggy, he was unable to see 
ika Dnmban of the enemy and attacked without heai- 
Uiaa. The ttn^le only lasted a quarter of an hour ; 
Ife Frvneb were repulsed, and nothing was left to 
Ua bat to reaeb the main army by a circuit Start- 
tag aa aood aa it waa quit« dark, bo reached the Dnio- 



per, whieli was covered with a thin coating of ice 
broken at the edges. Neither guns or carriages could 
be got across, and in their march they were constant- 
ly attacked by Cossacks, They ultimately reached 
the road which leads from Orsha to Vitebsk at mid- 
night on November 21, and here they met Bome of 
Eugene's troops. Ney was saved, bat only 
brought with him to the end nine hundred men out 
of the six thousand with which he set out. 

Napoleon arrived at Orsha on November 19, and 
found considerable magazines from which it was pos- 
sible to supply both food and ammimition. The vehi- 
cles and baggage waggons wore destroyed and the 
horses set free for the service of the artillery. The 
Emperor even destroyed his own papers, and by error 
of judgment the pontoon train was also abandoned, 
which might have been useful at the Berezina. The 
Russians were concentrating to dispute the passage 
of the Berezina at Borisov, The army of Finland, 



fuled to seize the bridge. Ho knew, therefore, that 
BtrctiiK must be bridged afrcsli, and eent forward 
the enjrinccr for the purpose. A suitable, place 
»r eroMing had been found at Studianka, about tea 
■bove Borisov, and the construction of the 

■ b^^an in tbo early morninp of November 26. 
It had hcaa oripnally intended to make threo bridges, 
but It u-«* fuuud thai tiie material available was only 
mffioient for two. These were built about two hun- 
dred yards from each other, the lower bridge being in- 
teoded for infantry and cavalry, the upper bridge, 
wtdeh vu of a more solid description, for arlillery 
and vehicles. The sappers had to work up to their 
aiMtoldrrf in tlie icy water, and few of them sur- 
▼ived tlie ordeal. General Ebl^, although he was 
•dranoM) in years, never quitted tlie s[>ot day or 
aigbt till the paauge was complete. If the pontoon 
tnia bad not br«n de&troyedatOrBha tliebridgecould 
hcte been laid much more quickly and with much leJB 
cxpeDditDm of life. 

Tbe lower bridge waa iiniahed by midday, and Na* 
polaon imtnodiatcly sent Oudinot's corps across, 
«Uch was seren thousand strong. The liussisna 
wbom be found on the oppusit«^' bank he drocc back to 
BgriHT. The 9eoon<l bridge was not completed till 
taor o'clock in thv aftcmix>n, wlieii it was already 
dndL Tbe artillery of the second corps and tbo 
ptard vere B«nt ocmm at once, and tbe troops under 
Ney's oonunand traroraed the rirer during tbo night. 
Tboi on tbe morning of November 37 a body o£ 

thonaand troops was establisbed on ttte right 
Is tbe eoono of that day tlio remainder of 
tk* French army reached Studianka, and Napoleon 
in peraoa, followni by hi* guard, crossed about mid* 
day. He bad personally superintended the construe- 



tion of the bridges, assisted by Murat and Berthier. 
It was fortunate that during this time ChicbagoT 
bad been absent from Russia by the orders of Kutu- 
80V, and that he did not return until the bridges were 
completed and the bulk of the army had crossed. 

Wittgenstein reached Borisov on the left bank oa 
the evening of November 27. He repaired tha 
bridge across the river and opened coiumuuications 
with Chichagov, the result of which was the French 
were to be attacked on the following morning on both 
sides of the Btream. On the right bank the fighting 
began early in the morning and continued during the 
whole day without the Russians making any impres- 
sion on the French, who were far inferior in number 
to their enemies. The engagement on the left bank 
was similar In character, Marshal Victor not having 
more than five thousand men, chieBy Germans, un- 
der his command. The Russians attacked at 10 



leaving of conree many to perish. Some tried to 
nuh througli the fire, others to cross over the ice 
which broke under their weight, and others to swim 
or wade across the icy stream. It is not known how 
many died, bat thousands of non-combatants 


made prisoners. Very few guns, however, and no 
soldiers were captured. 


Wabs of the century. 



It is not known how many of Napoleon's troops 
were lost at the Berezina, but the army which be- 
fore the passage was numbered by a competent au- 
thority at thirty-one thousand, was estimated at nine 
thousand after it. On December 3 the cold became 
intense, and continued so imtil the last French sol- 
diers had quitted Russian soil. The thermometer is 
said to have fallen as low as 35 degrees below the zero 
of Fahrenheit, and it seldom or never rose above zero. 
The destruction of lifo became terribly rapid. lu 
two days the division of Loison which iuarchc<l out 



with him only Caulaiiicourt (the brother of the dip- 
lonatifit who had been killed at Borodino), Duroo 
and Uoaton, and had only a handful of horsemen 
M aa oaoort; indeed, ho narrowly escaped bcinj; 
taken pritoncr. He reached Warsaw on December 
10, and DrvBden a few days later, where the sledge in 
which be travelled is still preserved. He crossed tho 
Khiae at Uaiaz with considerable difficulty, and at 
•levan o'clock at night on December ] 8 entered the 
TniUeriOB. He was at first refused admission, as 
be was not recognised. Suddenly two men in fur 
dothiof; bnrst into the room of the lady-in-waiting. 
One xnado for the Emperor's door ; the lady attempt- 
to stop him and uttered a cry which awoke the 
ircaa. She opened the door, recognised her bus- 
aad nubed into his arms. 

Although the departure of Napoleon was abso- 
lutely newsaary, it reduced the soldiers to despair. 
Murat, u of royal rank, was left in command, but he 
had no other orders except to maintain his ground 
hotwcea the Niemon and the Vistula and to wait for 
Kapoli-un's rvturn. On December 9 a few thousands 
of tattcn^i Htragglers readied Vilna. The maga- 
ainesWDro pillaped, and tho Coesacks soon made their 
appearance. Tho-t*^ who did not escape quickly 
fWHigfa were killed by them and by the peasants. It 
is sappoacd tliat from fifteen thousand to twenty 
tbonsand wore loft behind in tho town. A body of 
tmij four thouaaad three hundred resumed the march 
to Kowno. Ifcy rocroesed tho Niemoa almost alone 
OD Deeembcr 13. About eighteen thousand men 
wore erentually able to roach Kiinigsbeig, which bo- 
loog became hoatilo to them. Murat returned 

I bis kingdnm of Naples in January, 1S13. 

Uilitary hutot; ooutains Qotluug compurublu to 



the catastrophe of this campaign, and it is difficult 
to estimate its extent Of the 630,058 troops which 
entered Bussia, none returned in fighting order ex- 
cept the two wings of Macdonatd and Scbwarzen- 
berg, numbering about ten thousand, From the 
main army escaped about eighteen thousand or more, 
entirely disorganised and consisting largely of 
officers. These were of great use in consolidating 
Napoleon's levies for the campaign of 1813, Thia 
about half a million human beings had disappeared; 
how many of them were made prisoners and how 
many died, it is impossible to say. The Russian loss 
in dead ia placed at one hundred and fifty thousand. 
It is useless to discuss the cause of this disaster. We 
have scan that on several occasions the French army 
narrowly escaped destruction, ae Napoleon himself 
narrowly escaped capture. On the other hand, tho 
winter was abnormally severe, and with better for- 
time the loss might have been less disastrous. But 

THE WAB OF 1813. 



DuKiRO the winter of 1812 Napoleon worked with 
u great energy as he had ever shown during any 
portion of his career. He possessed siifficient re- 
Moroea in men and in money to defend France, even 
up to the frontiers of the Bhine. But that did not 
satisfy him. His pride, or perhaps wiser con- 
siderations of policy, forbade him to surrender any 
portion of the dominions which had been declared to 
be int^ral portions of the Empire by decrees of the 
Senate. He answered to Francis I., who urged him 
to make peace, that he considered Rome, Piedmont, 
Tuscany, Holland, and the Hanseatic Departments 
inseparable from the Empire. Kome and Harnhnrfi; 
most remain French Prefectures. In order to fulfil 
the arduous task of defending this enormous territory 
against a hostile Europe, he had to drain the re- 
sources of his Empire even to exhaustion, and to de- 
pend upon allies whose fidelity was more than doubt- 

He had in his depots the conscripts of 1813 who 
had been summoned to arms in October, 1812, and in 
the departments what were called the cohorts, that 


Wars of the cbntcfbt. 

is, a hundred weU-<lrilled battalions of national 
guards. He doubled these battalions; he called up 
conscripto irom classes which had been hitherto 
spared, going as far back as the year 1809. The 
Senate voted the raising of one hundred and forty 
thousand men from the conscription of 1814, and be 
withdrew his depots from Spain. The officers who 
straggled back from tiie defeat of Moscow were found 
extremely useful in training and instructing the 
new recruits and in inspiring them with the tradi- 
tions of the Imperial army. 

These measures provided him with a force very 
similar in its composition to the armies of the 
Revolution, but very different in its spirit. It was 
undoubtedly courageous, and was devoted to the 
person of Napoleon, but it was drawn from a country 
desolated by continual wars and weary of exertiou. 
It had no power of keeping itself > together or of re- 
fonuing itself after a check. It was easily dis- 



Tbi* army was strong eiiougli to resist the first 
affbrtfl of tho Coalition, which at present compre- 
bendAd only Russia and Prussia. Russia, exhausted 
by the but campaign, vas only able to send one hun- 
dred tbonsattd men across the Vistula. Bemadotte, 
who bad beeo elected Crown Prince of Sweden with 
the oODieot of Napoleon, now deserted his former 
owster and joined Russia against him; but he did 
sot talce «B,v ftbaro in the early part of the campaign. 
PniHU was in a condition to furnish a large number 
of tnop*, thanks to the admirable policy which alio 
had adopted since 180S, and to the wisdom and skill 
vitb which she had turned to her own adrantago 
the hanb restrictions which were designed for her 
dntraction. Her population were inflamed by snch 
ft patriotic eeal that nearly tlie whole of her able- 
bodied inhabitants scr\'cd eitiicr among tUo 
TohutSQfB or in the reserve. Austria, although 
Mtc&nbiy arming, held herself aloof, and waited to 
na in what diroctinn the fortune of war would d<y 
elars itself. TIiux, regarded as mere niimbiTS, tho 
»fT"'"* of Xapoleon were not more formidable in 
lbs spring of 1813 than those whom he had previouA- 
hf vanqaiabfid. But his task was rendered cs)>eciaUj 
aiSeult by tho paJHioiiat« onthusiusm of the Gcr- 
fay tho general murmurs of revolt which cx- 
frani tho Rhine to the Klbc, and by tho in- 
txpenmte of the French anny, which had been 
haatily organised to enpport a cause in which they 
eoald feal but little inUtr<-st. 

Tbo Rtuataa campaign had lost Napoleon the half 
of Germany. Prince Kitg^ne had been driven back 
fram point to point imtil he reached tho confluonoo of 
tbe Saalo and the Elbe The Emperor had promiaod 
bis HcpMo that u soon as ho bad organised somo new 



rcf^ents he would send Bufficient reinf orcemeats to 
maiotais him on the Saale. In the month of April 
Prince Eugene occupied on that rirer Bome good de- 
fensive positions at the head of aizty thooBand men. 
The advance of the allies had begun at the end of 
March. Bliicher came from Sileaia with twenty^five 
thousand men and crossed the £lbe on April 3, pre- 
ceded b; Winzingerode with an advance guard of 
thirteen thousand men. Wittgenstein, Yorck and 
Borstedt commanded twenty-five thousand men before 
Magdeburg, and in the neighbourhood of that fortress 
were some Kussian divisions, six thousand or seven 
thousand strong. The principal Russian srmj was 
posted at Kalisch and on the Silesian frontier. Tlio 
fortresses of Danzig, Thorn, Stettin, Glogau, and 
Spandau were either besieged or blockaded. The 
allies had about seventy thousand soldiers on the 
Elbe, but the French possessed on that river the im- 
portant fortresses of Magdeburg and Wittenberg, the 


doubted their powers of endurance, but Ney wrote 
to him sfter the first engagement, " These children 
are heroes ; with them I can carry out anything that 
you may command-" 

Napoleon divided his army into four corps; the 
three first were commanded by Ney, Marmont, and 
Bertrand, the Guard formed the fourth. The design 
of Napoleon was to recapture Dresden and the line of 
the Elba For this purpose he descended the course 
fxE the Saale while Eugene marched up tiie stream to 
meet him. When the junction of their forces was 
once effected, they would cross the river together, seize 
Leipzig, and from that point fall on the right flank of 
the allies. Ney crossed the Saale on April 29 and 
advanced on the road to Liitzen. The youthful con- 
scripts, whom Key commanded, came into conflict 
with the SuBsian cavalry, formed into squares, and 
having received the enemybravelyatthe pointof their 
bayonets, attacked them at the charge and captured 
Weissenfels. The advance waa then continued to- 
wards Lutzen, which lies on the main road between 
Weissenfels and Leipzig. 

The battle of Lutzen, the first of the campaign, 
wag remarkable for the confusion which prevailed 
in it, the bravery displayed by tho armies engaged, 
and the manner in which Napoleon gained the 
victory. The allies were far superior in cavalry, 
but they were badly bandied and remained for a con- 
siderable time doing nothing at Rahna, when they 
might have decided the fate of the conflict. It waa 
long before Napoleon could discover where the main 
body of the enemy lay, because his feeble force of 
cavalry had to be kept in hand, and could not be used 
for reconnoitring. But when he had learnt what he 
desired to know, by the sound of the cannon, and had 



come to B conclnsioa as to where the deoisiTe blow 
ehould be struck, lie wheeled bis forces round and atr 
tacked the enemy with snoh energy that he compelled 
them to retreat. 

The battle of Lutzen was indeed the reenlt of an 
accident. Napoleon had reached Leipzig on May 21, 
after baring on the previous day bad a sncc^sfnl 
skirmish with the enemy at Bippacb, where MarBb&l 
Bessieres met bis death, and having left Ney at 
Lutzen to protect bis right dank, Napoleon had little 
difficulty in seizing Leipzig; but whilst be waa en- 
gaged in the capture of ^at cit^, the battle of Lutzen 
was being fought in his rear. As Napoleon scp- 
praed, the allies to the nimiber of eighty thonsand 
were marching from the Elster to the upper waters of 
the Saale, on the right flank of the French army, 
when the sight of Key's columns advancing upon 
Leipzig su^^ted the idea of a sudden attack. The 
two sovereigns, who were present in person, deter- 


tbe rillfigoB were again recovered after a severe 

Napoleon heard the thunder of the cannonade 
abont midday and immediately hurried up, knowing 
that the Bussians and FruBsians must have joined 
their forces. He gave orders that Kacdonald should 
advance on the left, Bertrand on the right, while he 
occupied the centre with hie guard. There was con- 
siderable danger in the centre before the guard ar- 
rived on the field, as Napoleon could only oppose to 
the main body of the allies the young levies of Ney'a 
corps who were already exhausted by their labours. 
Blucher was therefore able to retake Eabna, the last 
poet of the French in front of Lutzen. The battle 
continued with uncertain fortune till six o'clock in 
the evening. Wherever Napoleon appeared he 
stimulated hia soldiers to new efforts. At last six- 
teen battalions of the young guard were in a position 
to attack under the command of Lobau, while Drouot 
collected sixty pieces of artillery and opened a 
murderous fire between Kaja and Starsiedel. 
Eugene also captured the villages opposed to him. 
Wittgenstein advanced with the Russian guard and 
the grenadiers, not for a new onslaught but to cover 
the retreat. The daylight was at an end, and the 
cloae of evening terminated the conflict. The 
French were then surrounding the allies in a half 
circle. Blucher made one more desperate attempt 
to reach Kaja, but he found it protected by the guard 
and by a formidable artillery and was forced to re- 
tire. The allies retreated, much to the disgust of 
Bliicher, and we may imagine also to the disappoint- 
ment of Napoleon himself, as he had lost an op- 
portunity of crushing the allied army in a pitched 
battle, and he had no cavalry with which to continue 



the pursuit. Tliirtj-fiTe thousand killed and 
wounded covered the field ; Bliicher was woonded in 
the arm, and at the close of the fight Xapoleon him- 
self disappeared in tJie confusion for a few minutes, 
some thinking that he had been killed. The French 
troops were obliged to remain the whole night through 
in their squares for fear of being attacked. BoUi 
sides claimed the victoi^. 





Amnt tlie battle of Liitzen the allied armi» 
'nuefaed towards Dresden, followed by Napoleon at 
the bead of one hundred and twenty tbouaand troops. 
The Emperor now despatched Ney to Torgau with the 
idea that he should eventually inarch on Berlin. 
TTie allJM crossed the Elbe and took up a position 
in the New Town of Dresden, on the right bank of 
tfaa rirer, whilst Napoleon entered the Old Town. 
Tbe keyi of the city wore presented to the conqueror, 
but bo declared that be only received them ax a 
deposit for their King. In a few days King Fred- 
ecidc Aognstus, who had fled to Prague, returned 
to his capital and was received by Napoleon with 
signa of exuberant affection. Napoleon took up 
kia abode in the Marcolini Palace just outside the 
tmm, and the rooms which ho occupied existed un- 
diaoffed a few yeant ago. It may be remarked that 
^^■polcon almost from the outavt of his career pro- 
ftrrvd to live outside of the towns which be bad coa- 
f^peitd, and be generally cbo«o rooms on the 
■ poimd floor looking into a garden. This may ho 
attribnted to his tovo of natun^ and the necessity of 
inlet, bat it is tnoro likely tbat he derived tbo habit 
Irom his Corsiean daya. Accustomed from hia youth 
traacbciy and deeds of violence, be naturally 
uwusination, and ihfrefon- hcsitatdl to trust 
himself in a tovn> where he could bo captured or per- 




haps killed in a popular rising, and preferred a spot 
which could be easily defended and from which there 
was a ready escape. 

The whole of the German Elbe was now in the 
hands of Napoleon, with the exception of its lower 
waters. He despatched Davoiit to these regions to 
regain poascasion of Hamburg, while the Grand 
Army established itself firmly in Saxony. He also 
gave orders to Murat to leave his kingdom of Naples 
in order to take command of the cavalry, and he sent 
Prince Eugene to Italy to levy an array and to form 
a barrier against a possible invasion of that country 
by Austria. After a week's sojourn he quitted Dres- 
den to deal, if possible, a fresh blow upon the allies. 

The armies of Wittgenstein and Bliicher, defeated 
but not destroyed, instead of covering Berlin, re- 
treated aloug the Austrian frontier through Lusatia, 
thinking it more important to secure the co-operation 



polvon, after reconnoitring the position of tlie 
cDemj, gave orders for the attack, and hy live in the 
tftrmoon the buttle became general. Tho River 
Sprep, which parses through Bautzen, fonncd the 
fint line of the defence of the allies, who had their 
left Hnpportfd by the mountains of Bohemia. Be- 
hind ihe Sproc, the parallel stream of BIoser-WaBser 
fonnnl a second lino to the centre and the left, while 
ibe ri^t waa defended by a rising ground between 
the BloseisWasser and the Spree. In the judgment 
of Nitpoleon the capture of thcee two lines of de- 
fence w«njld require two battles, and he determined 
^Hlo derote the iintt day to the capture of the line of tlie 
^BSpfce. The fortified town of Bautzen was directly 
^HJq front of him; the Uussians on his right, and the 
^^PmsaiaDB, commanded by Bliicher, on his left. 
I TIm» EmjuTor sent Oudinot against the Russians. 

I The marshal crossed the river and obtained posses- 
^^-lion of the commanding heights of the Drohnberg. 
^Bja the centre tlie walls of Bantzcn resisted for some 
^Bthne, bnt the bridge icrou the Spree was at Icn^h 
^V «eenpied, the defences forced, and the French 
butened from all sides into the town. On the left 
HuTDoat and Bertrand similarly crossed tho Spree, 
and droTe BUlchcr back to the hills on which his lino 
naled. By nine o'clock in the evening the whole 
InU! of thfl river was taken and Xapoli'on removed 
his bradquarters to Bautzen. Ney, in the meantime, 
bad arrived at the poaition ap]>ointcd to him and was 
ready t« take part in the battle of the snceocding 
day. Napoleon gave bini orders to move In such a 
Btanncr thai be would fall ujion the ri-ar of tho allicil 
army whiirt ho himself attacked them in front 
This would drive them townrtU the frontiers of Bo- 
hemia, and compel t!icm either to eapitulalo or to 



take refugee in the territory of Austria wbich was at 
this time in alliance with Napoleon. 

On the following day, May 21, 1813, Napoleon 
delayed the attack until be was certain that the move- 
ments of Ney were effected. The result fulfilled all 
his expectations. Ney advanced against the extreme 
right of the allies, dispersed the troops with which 
he came into contact, and threatened the communica- 
tions of Eliicher. Here, unfortunately, he atoppe<l, 
and did not carry out his master's orders by march- 
ing u]K)n Ilochkirch. He was separated from Na- 
poleon by an interval of nine milea, and did not know 
how the battle was progressing in that quarter. 
Blticher, seeing the danger which threatened hiin, 
communicated with Wittgenstein and commenced a 
retreat. Napoleon on bis side had pushed Bertrand 
and Oudinot across the stream of the Bloser-Wasser 
and had taken the village of Baschutz. The allies 


interpoaed with the offer of an anaistice which waa 
eventuallj sipied on June 14, 1813, bearing the name 
of theArmiaticeof Pleiawitz. Moatwritera are agreed 
that it waa againat the interests of Napoleon to ao> 
cept it, and that the delay waa ineTeryreapectfavonr- 
able to the alliea. He was imposed upon by tlie 
astute policy of Hettemich, and shonld never have 
oonseoted to it unlesa he had intended that it ahould 
be the preliminary of a peace. The allies were able 
to utilise the breatbtng-space given to them far better 
than he was, for they were lesa well prepared, where- 
as Napoleon had exhausted all the available resonrces 
of his country. By this anniatice the Bucceas of 
Lntzen and Bautzen aeemed to be annulled. The 
line of demarcation between the two armies waa fixed 
firat by the Katzbach, then by the Oder, then by the 
old frontiera of Saxony and Prussia, and onward by 
tbe Elbe from Wittenberg to the sea. 





T^APOLEON had really no idea of making peace. 
From his headquarters in Dresden he aupennteuded 
the arming of his dominions. Eugene waa to form 
a large army in Italy to threaten the Austrians if 
they should join the Coalition. He hoped hy the be- 
ginning of September to be at the head of five hun- 
dred thousand men and one thousand cannon. Ha 
possessed upon the Elbe the strong places of Eouig- 
Btein, Drcaden, Torgati, Wittenberg, Magdeburg, 
Verden and Hamburg. He was secure against an 
attack either from Silesia or from Bohemia. To the 



a condition to euccour either of the Elbe 
the aniiy of Ney, according as events 
should dictate. lie aimed at nothing less than the 
rteanry of his former position and the power of 
dictating peace to Europe after gaining a brilliant 

There is scarcely any acene in history more 

noving or more picturesque than the interview which 

took place betweeen Napoleon and iletternich in the 

Uarcoliai Palaee on June 2i), 1S13. Tho memory 

of it lived until his death in the mind of the aged 

. diplomatist, and u short time before his decease he 

leondactcd bis son to those same rooms in order to 

[ihow bim tho 8[K>t in which Xiipoleon rejected the 

ilist offers o£ eafoty and iu which ho formed a de- 

Imioo of fateful imi>ort both to himself and to the 


When midnight struck on Auguet 10, 1813, the 
tepraacntJitives of Pmssin and KuesJa at Prague do 
.risrcd Om armistice iit an end, and Austria an- 
incml that flhc had joined the Coalition. The 
fallie* had u formidnhle masn of troops at their dis- 
ipotaL In Bohemia Seliwiirzenberg commaadcd an 
armj of about two hundred and fifty thousand men 
compowd almost entirely of Austrians. Tho anny of 
Silctia, coropoecd of Prussians and Kussians, com- 
priaed oao hundred and twenty thousand troops under 
the orders of Bliicher. The army of the North 
nndcr Beroadottc, made up of Prussians, ItuMsians, 
and Swedes, numbered one hundred and thirty thou- 
aaad. These ihrco armies threatened the position of 
Kmpoleon in Gaxony. But the plan of the Coalition 
VU to avoid «a far as poesiblo attacking Napoleon 
htnMDlf, whoto presence with iho army thoy knew to 
ba wrwtli one hundivd thouMnd uicu, but to coofiuv 



their attentJon to hia lieutenants, and if possible to 
destroy them in detail. This was not a very heroic 
course, but it was the best for them under the cireum- 
Btanccs. Time was on their side. As the cam- 
pai^ went on the masses of the allies must neces- 
sarily increase, as whole nations were engaged in the 
struggle, whereas the forces of Napoleon must 
naturally diminish. The army of Napoleon con- 
sistied of fourteen corps d'armee, each under an ex- 
perienced marshal. They formed forty-four com- 
plete divisions. The whole number engaged ii 
estimated at four hundred thousand, including 
seventy thousand cavalry, an arm of which tho Em- 
peror stood BO much in need. Dresden was the 
centre of his operations, and there were his magazines 
and depots. 

At the outbreak of hostilities Napoleon expected 
to be attacked by the army of Bohemia, an event which 
he ardently desired, and consequently advanced to 



•f the tlliea was marcfaicg from PeWrewalde, with 
the design of capturing either Dresden or Leipzig. 
Tlw f*ut was that the amiy of Bolic>mia had cntcreil 
Saxony in four columns, the Russiaua marching 
•long the road which followa the Elbe by Firna, the 
PnusiaiM hy Teplitz and Dippoldswalde, the Auii- 
MDie by Chemnitz and some by Zwickau, 
were accompanied by Moreau, the former sut>- 
inalc, and Joniini, the former friend of Napoleon, 
le Emperor turned back to crush these new foes and 
Uutmcd oo with unheard-of rapidity, hia guard 
marcfaitig nearly sixty miles in three da%-s. Xa- 
poleou's first plan was to take up a position in Pima, 
«o u to intercept the road from Peterswalde, and 
tben toatuck the allies intheroarasthey approached 
Dresden, and inclose them between his own army 
asd tbs Elbe. But the cry of anguish from the city 
waa lo load and bitter that he was forced to aur- 
nnder this scheme. He gave way to entreaties and 
determined to occupy Dresden with one hundred 
thousand men and to meet the allies under its walla. 
■^B tfaa meantime he gave orders to Macdonald and 
^Hmriaton to drive the Prussians beyond the Kate- 

^^ AiUfT posting Vandtmme in Pima with orders to 
ckw the road to Peterswalde, Napoleon rode into 
Drwden at nine o'clock on the morning of August 
16, tbe allies having appcannl on the western heights 
flo the pnvioQs day. The battle had already l)egun ; 
tb« Rgjaianfl attacked the redoubts on the righl, bat 
floold not wrest them from the French ; the Pnia- 
dsM triwl to obuin poonesaion of the Qreat Garden, 
m writ known to all visitors to Dresden; the Aus- 
trians fought in the centre, but were repulsed by the 
joang guard. Tlie day coded aa a aucocas for the 



French, who had killed fotir thousand of the enemy 
and had taken two thousand prisoners. Napoleon 
was in a very cheerful mood that evening at supper 
in the Royal Palace. 

In the afternoon Napoleon had ascended a tower 
to survey the ground and had perceived that the posi- 
tion of the Austrians was divided into two parts by 
a deep ravine, the Plauensclie Gnind, through 
which flows the stream of the Weisseritz. He saw 
that if the left half of the Austrians were driven 
into this ravine, the right would be unable to assist 
them and they would be forced to snlrender, and that 
tliis attack could be carried out by Murat with his 
numerous cavalry stipported by infantry, without 
exciting the attention of the allies in other parts of 
the field. Napoleon trusted also to drive the allies 
from their position and force them to retreat along 
the road to Peterswalde, where they would be met by 
Vandamme with a force of forty thousand men. 



Me of the shots discharged tinder liis orders broke 
the legs of Moreau, passing througb the body of hia 
hone, and caused hie death. A fitting moiiument 
ef xranitc still marks the place where he fell, 

it six o'clock the battle was over and the allies 
ktd raffered a crushiiig defeat; the; had lost fort^ 
(ftattoQ, ten thousaud lueo dead aud wounded and 
tixtcvQ tbonsaDd men taken prisoners. The Frcuch 
toH WM eoDsiderably less. It seemed at first as if 
S'ipolecD wonld nuike full use of hia victory. He 
tnlered ftn cnergietic puratiit and expected that Van- 
^■mrnaj posted OH the road to Pcterawalde, would 
le able to give a good account of the routed fugitives. 
But for aotofl reason bo suddenly gave up the chase 
■ltd retumc^l to Drr«den. It is said that be sufTered 
/lom ■ pbveical breakdown, and that for several days 
vas uica|)abl« of the slightest exertion. It is pos- 
aUe tfattt evea bis iron frame refused any longer to 
unrcr to the demands wbicb ho made upon it; sfinic 
bm) cren »>ttributed his illness to poison, given to 
bim wbea be wat> taking hia midday meal at Pirna. 

Tba eeasatioQ of the pursuit had deplorable con- 
MqaaacM for the French. V'andammc, who had 
atn been able to stop the retreating armies on the 
road to Petorsvralde, followed them with what speed 
be enaM. Ho hoped to capture tho allii-d monarclis 
■ad lo dettroy their armies. On August 29 ho over- 
took tbem in the valley of Kulm. from whic-h ho 
eosU tbnsalen Teplitz, the central point of the ronda 
naenaarT for tbeir retreat The allies, discovering 
that Vandatnine vas iaolat«d. determined to attack 
him on tbo foUowioff day. The battle was confuted 
oa both Hdeavitb great rigour, but the superior forces 
«f tbfl allies aecured them tfau vietorr. VandRiumn 
belied for rcitLforcemeuta, but instead of this tbo 



Prussian army of Kleist, which had crossed the 
chain of the Erzgebirge,withgreatdifficulty, attacked 
the rear of the French at Nollendorf and enclosed 
them between two fires. Vandamme with heroic 
courage tried to cut his way through, but only a small 
number succeeded iu escaping. The French had 
seven generals killed and two wounded, and the whole 
corps d'armee was nearly annihilated. They lost 
eighty-two guns, twenty eagles, and two hundred 
baggage waggons; about ten thousand of them were 
taken prisoners, amongst whom was Vandamme him- 
self, — a colossal figure led into the sovereign's 
presence without hat or sword. He was left in the 
hands of the Russians, and was sent a prisoner to 
the frontier of Siberia. 





TiiK plan of tho ftlliee, which consisted in avoiding 
• battle with Nspoleon whilst defeating bis generals 
in detail, was oxtreme]y successful. The Em- 
peror bad despatched Oudinot to Berlin with a force 
o( aixty-Gvc thousfliid men, thinking that this was 
•■ficieut to deal with the army of Bernadotte, which 
be regarded men-ly a» a motley collection of ill-as- 
anted for«ea. Bernadotte was, however, a general 
of great moHl, trained in the school of Napoleon, and 
beinyr at first at the head of ninety thousand men, bo 
had inrreaaed the nnrnbcr to one hundred and thirty 
tbonaand. Ondinot came close to the galea of Berlin, 
bat be wma bciatfln at Grosa-Beercn on August 23, 
and driven back upon the Elbe, Davont, who was 
■t Hamborg, having been unable to mipport him. 
Three days later a new misfortune bcfcl the hard- 
pnved Emperor. As vk hare aeen he had left Mac- 
Aooald to oontinne hia advance against the army of 
nflnaia with an army of eighty tbouaand men. As 
wotm aa BIddier diaoovered that Xapolon had gt>no 
to tbo dafeilM of DrMden and waa no longer present 
againat bim in person, bo det^'rmined to resume the 
mill nail r, and advanced towards the Katxbacb. Tho 
WMlber was terrible. There hail Ixx^n a heavy rain 
for tiiree days and the approacbea to the KaLxbnch 
««ra impMsablf fmm mnd, so that a Urge part of 
t^ Pmaaiaa recniita lost their aboea. A stroikg 



north-west -mud drove the rain into the faces of the 
French, and it was so dark that nothing was visible 
at the distance of a hundred jards. The two 
armies were ignorant of each other's position. When 
the JFrench succeeded in crossing the river and reach- 
ing tlio plateau on the other side, Bliicher determined 
that the moment for the attack had arrived. He 
cried, " Now you have got enough French before you, 
Forwards ! " The name clung to him, and he was 
ever afterwards known as " Marshal Forwards." 
Bliicher gained a complete victory; tlie waters of the 
Katzbach and of the "Raging" Neisse rose higher 
and higher in the storm ; all the bridges were carried 
away; some tried to save themselves by swimming, 
but that was impossible in the furious torrent. The 
battle lasted till nightfall, but the retreat was as 
disastrous as the defeat, and Macdonaid was driven 
back, first upon the Bober, then upon Gorlitz, and 



Emperor's prid?, bnt tliese continual inarches and 
emntcrTDarcbcs sapped the strength of the PrcncU 

A ttill veoTW CMtastrojihe was imminent. It bad 
besB part of Xapoleon'a desipi to seize Berlin, and 
we hiTA alreiidy narrated the failure of Oudinot 
to ifhicve this enterprise. After tlie battle of 
OT0«»-Bccren, Oudinot had retired to Wittenberg. 
He WM joined bore on September 3 by Nov, who had 
BOW nadcr bis eurnmand a foree of sixty-five thousand 
^Bwn opposed to a Pnissian army of forty thousand. 
^^Bn SoptMnbcr 6 Ncy prepared to advance to Ber- 
^^Bi, Imt he was attacked on the flank at Dcnncwitz 
^^Bij entirely defeated. Tlie battle occupied four 
^^^Hb of ' !-iio<>n and was over by aix o'clock. 

^^^H7rcJ. red wveroly ; they lost ten thousand 

killed and wounded and thirteen thousand five hun- 
4m) prixmcni. N'cy, who bad not been vanquished 
bjr the mowB of Rus.tia, now lost heart, and must be 
■ddsd to the ntiinbor of the marslmis who wore weary 
ttf the conlinuaiice of the war and longed for peaee. 
By this snec(«8ion of misfortiim^ the Orand Array 
of Xapoleon was redneed frf>m four hundred tbou- 
mnd to about two hundred thousand men, and the 
which be had formed were incapable of realisa- 
Dimbtlcits this was greatly due to the fact 
that b» troopfl consisted largely of very youthfnl 
levies who had not yet been sca!«oned to fire. The 
wan forced to content himself with a dcfen- 
ion. Imtcfld of conquering Birtin, or in- 
Bohemia, or reco\-ering iho fortresses "f tlie 
WaTa, bo had onongh to do to maintain his position 
Saxony, He therefore concentrated his troop* 
und Dresden in a quadribileral formed by Tor- 
gao, Stolpea, Pirna and Jr'i-cibcrg' Ho was ooo- 


demned to a forced insction, and to be the witness of 
the gradual disintegration of his trmy, which was 
in a condition of great distress. Since the opening 
of the campaign tiie soldiers had been placed upon 
half rations, and in September they had no bread 

The allies on the other hand received oontinual 
reinforcements, and gradually nerved themselves for 
deoieive action. On September 23 thej were re- 
inforced by fifty thousand Bussians under Benning- 
sen. They now determined to give up the idea of 
attacking Napoleon directly inhis position at Dres- 
den, and to cut off his communications with France, 
concentrating their forces in the neighbourhood of 
Leipzig. For this purpose the army of Bohemia 
was to advance by way of Chemnitz, the army of 
Silesia was to march down the right bank of the Kibe, 
without exciting observation, and to effect a junc- 
tion with the army of the north. It was to cross the 
£lbe in the neighbourhood of Wittenberg and to fol- 
low the course of the Mulda to Leipzig. They ex- 
pected in this manner to crush Napoleon between 
two forces each of equal strength to his own. 

These movements began on September 25, and 
were quickly perceived by Napoleon, who indeed ex- 
pected them. He occupied Leipzig with twelve thou- 
sand men ; he despatehed Nev towards the north 
to wateh the movements of Bemadotte and Bliicfaer, 
placing Marmont also under hie command; he col- 
lected four corps d'armee at Freiberg to oppose the 
army of Bohemia. For himself, he remained at 
Dresden to wateh events and to render assistance 
whenever it might be required. 

At the beginning of October Bliicher crossed the 
Elbe at Wittenberg, and Bemadotte at Dessau, and 

defeatsl 15S 

Ifey wia forced to retire before these superior forces. 
These moTementB made it impossible for Napoleon to 
remain at Dresden, and he left it with the King on 
October 7, leaving Saint Cyr in command of the city 
with a force of twenty thousand men. While the 
King of Saxony established bimseJf in Leipzig, Na- 
poleon marched northwards to nioet Bemadotte and 
Bliicber. His design was to collect the largo gar- 
riaoDB which were still remaining in the Elbe for- 
treaaes and to destroy the army of the North, whilst 
Uorat kept the Anstrians in check and retreated 
slowly to Leipzig. He placed his headquarters in 
an old castle at Duben, where he remained for three 
days uncertain of his plans. Those who were with 
liim say that they never forgot tboee days of uncei^ 
tainty and inaction: the wind howling in the trees 
and the old timbers of the castle creaking with erery 
blasL At last, finding that his generals would not 
inpport plans which were worthy of his genius, he 
determined to fight at Leipzig. Indeed, delay had 
made any other decision impossible, if ho wished to 
prevent his enemies from concentrating the whole 
of their foroea and cntting off his retreat from 





Tke battle of Leipeig, the " Battle of the Na- 
tioDs," as it IB BometiroeB called, is one of the great- 
est as well as one of the most important in history. 
It lasted for six days, from October 14 to October 
19; but during this week of conflict tliere were two 
days of comparative rest. On October 14 the fight- 
ing was confined to an engagement of cavalry. On 
October 16 the real battle took place, and it might 
more fitly be called the battle of Wacbau. Nftpoleon 
actually won it, and slept on the field of battle, but 
whilst he wasengagedononesideofLeipzig, Marmont 



it is Mi'd tliat Bashkirs and Caliuucka, armed with 
bowa aucl arrows, fought in the Hussian ranks. It 
ia n?ckoued that in this hattlc T^apoleon commanded 
a force of two hundred thousand men, but the allies 
were certainly suj>erior in numbers. 

Let QB briefly follow the main points of the engage- 
Bant. Napoleon arriveil at Leipzig on October 14 
end posted Murat at WacLau, on somo heights com- 
oiaiiding a plain suitable in every way for the evolu- 
tiaos of L'avalry; Sdiwarzenberg reached the place 
of couUict on the same day. Murat attacked the 
Auvtriaos, and a violent cavalry engagement ensued, 
in which the King of Naples dispEayitd great dash 
and brovvry. The struggle was mainly for the poa- 
■ion of Iiiebertwolkwitz, which eventually re- 
in possession of the allies. The battle 
tA an end at nightfall owing to hca\'y rain. 
Frcm^h had lost six hundred doud and wounded^ 
Anctrians alK>ut tho same number. 
Tbo following day was spent in preparation for 
in ronflicL Napoleon took his stand on the 
Its of Wachau, and was surrounded by names 
aetu iu htM-'ry: Murat, Oudinot, Mortier, Laurift- 
y Maedonftld, Augcn-au and Ponintowski. The 
attacked in three columns directed against tiie 
villagM of Licbcrtwolkwiti, Wachau and Mark- 
eberg. Napoleon attacked tbem with thn tire of 
irM hniidnMl gtma, and then his infuntry made a 
riooi onalaugbt on WacbaiL The centre of the 
waa weak and it began to wavor, and tbo Em- 
ar BOW prepared to give tho coup-<tc-grace. It 
one o'clock in tho aflomoon; tlio Emperor of 
Lnitria and tlic King of PruHHia were watching tho 
. of tbc 6|tbt from a neighbouring omiaeno& 
!''or thi* porpoao Napoloon collected a body of tw«lT9 



thousand cavalry divided into two masses, one com- 
manded bj Murat, the other by Kellermann. This 
huge body moved forwards; the earth groaned un- 
der its advance, and the soil shook beneath the hoofs 
of the horses. A Knssian regiment which stood in 
their path was absolutely annihilated. Success 
seemed to be imminent, and Napoleon sent to apprise 
the King of Saxony of the result, with orders to ring 
the bells of the to^vn. The allied sovereigns, who 
were sitting on a hill on Windsor chairs, were in coq- 
siderablo danger. But just in front of the hill on 
which tliey stood ran a ditch which checked the on- 
dlaugbt of the cavalry and made the charge in- 
effective, llurat, as was his wont, had ridden too fast 
and the infantry were too far off to lend the neces- 
sary assistance, nor had he arranged his reserveswith 
due prudcnpc. Just at the critical moment the 
weapon broke in Napoleon's hand. He was, however, 




on October 18 the allies had under their commaud 
three hundred thousand men, whereas the French 
ooald only meet them with one hundred and sixtj- 
fire thousand. If he had followed the dictates of 
prtidoncp, Xapoleon should have retreated from the 
field on the night of Octoher 17, but bis pride would 
not allow him to make this confession of failure. 
[ He rtrengtlioned bia poaition round the town, draw- 
ing op hi« forces in a semicircle with a smaller radius 
than that of tlie previous da^. He omitted to throw 
brid((M lenws the Elster, and reserved for his retreat 
onlj the road through Lindenau. 

Tbs rilla;^ which were prominent on the third 
day of the battle were Dolitz, Probstbeida and Stot- 
UvriU, the second of these forming the salient point 
It wma defended stubbornly by Victor and Lauria- 
loo. On the other hand, Dolitz to the right of the 
French upon the Fleisse was taken, and the French 
Uae tnu moved hack to Conuewitz. In the lucan- 
tine Beniadotte was advancing on the east The 
Saxon troops were posted in this part of the field, 
end when the Swotlish Crown Prince approached 
ibey passed over to hia side and began firing upon the 
Fnmch. of whom tlioy bad juat now been the allies. 
Thia left a terrible gap in the French line, and tho 
MTftlnr ■nd artillery of the guard brought np by 
Napoleon himself had a difficulty in filling it up. 
At >bont six o'clock in the evening Xapoleon, feeling 
mtidi eihausted. ordered bis page to place a carpet 
npoD tbo ground, upon which be slept peacefully for 
Hune time. The battle, which bad been hopeless for 
ITapoleoa from the beginning, wna tJiTniiuated by s 
fericNU ialvo of artillery, in which it is said that two 
tbcmsand pieoca of cannon took part 

~htt retreat went on during the night, ovw 




bridge of Lindenau, the only one whieb waa available 
for guns, carriages, horaes and men. Ab soon as 
the fog lifted on October 19 the allies made a com- 
bined attack, which was resisted to the beat of their 
power by Macdonald, Mannont, Poniatowaki, and 
Lauriston. Napoleon took leave of the King of 
Sa.\ony about eleven o'clock, and an hour later the 
allied sovereigns met him at the door of his palace in 
the market-place and declared him a prisoner of war. 
The Emperor then crossed the bridge of Lindenau 
and remained at a mill on the other aide until nearly 
the whole of the army had departed. He then rodo 
slowly along the road to Mainz. The empire of Na- 
poleon was at an end ; more than one hundred thou- 
sand men had fallen in this supreme struggle, of 
which forty thousand were French. Further, one 
hundred and seventy thousand troops were locked up 
in German fortresses. 

The Bavarians, with base ingratitude, tried to in- 




Tiu peace of Tilsit and Ae intimate commnnica* 
tioiM which took place in that town between tho two 
Emperora of France and RuBsia may he regarded as 
the culmination of the first part of Napoleon's aovc- 
leign care. We do not know, nor shall probabl/ 
CTcr know, what passed between tlie two rulers of the 
world during these confidences, still less what plans 
were ■cctliiug in the mind of Kapoleon. We mi.r 
however conclude from a general survey of his work 
that be had two ends in view, one by subduing Eng- 
land to force her to make peace, and tlie otlier to 
fonn that confederation of the Latin rnces under tho 
leadcnthip of Franco which was undoubtedly the 
main object of his political activity. In order 
to effect these objects it was necessary first to 
compel Portugal, which had been for more than a 
hundred years the commercial vassal of England, to 
break with her old connections, and to join the system 
r.f ciTitinental blockade ivhich Napoleon inaugurated 
in the Berlin decrees; and secondly, to drive the 



Bourbon family from the throne of Spain and re- 
place them by some dynasty more in accordance with 
modem ideas of progreaa. 

It ia probable, however, that Napoleon in con- 
ceiving these plans had a very inadequate Idea of the 
magnitude of the task he was undertaking. He may 
have thought that it would be aa easy, or nearly so, 
to deal with Spain as he had found it to deal with 
Naples. But he discovered to his cost that when the 
government of Spain was crushed and the rulers of 
Portugal put to flight, the task of subduing these 
countries was by no means accomplished, and that 
there remained to confront the Grand Army a whole 
people in arms favoured by its chains of mountains, 
its rocks, the rigour of its climate and the barrenness 
of its soil. He discovered, also, when it was too late, 
that in Spain and Portugal the English had found a 
means of combating on land the great military power 
which they never could have met upon the Continent 



tt om o d the Bidassoa od October 18, and four days 
Ulcr the Prince Regent of Portugal signed a treaty 
with England by which that country bound herself 
to aaaist Portugal in transferring the monarchy, in 
I of need, to Brazil. 
On October 27 two treaties were signed at Fon- 
in between Duroc representing France and 
I representing Spain, by which Portugal was 
partitioned, so that the northern part, with the 
■town of Oporto, should he formed into a kingdom, 
called North Luaitania, to bo given to the King of 
Ktruria in exchange for Tiisoauy, while the southern 
portion became a principality to be held by Godoy 
with the title of Prince of tho Algarves; both these 
dotniuions went to be under the protection of Spain; 
Um centre of Portugal, with a population of two 
Btillioiu, wu to rcinnin in Bequcstration, that la, in 
tbe poaMMion of the French, until the general peace, 
lAan H could be exchanged for Gibraltar, Trinidad 
or other colonics. The sovereign of this third di- 
Tiaioo, whoever he might be, was also to be under tho 
jmleelorate of Spain, and the King of Spain was to 
iHBme, with Nupnloon'B approval, the title of "Em- 
peror of both the Indies." The transatlantic possca- 
aioDS of Portugal were to be similarly divided be- 
CWMn France and Spain. It was also arranged that 
aFirendi umy should enter Portugal, and that whilst 
gBDCrftl commanding this army occupied tho 
portions of the monarchy, the northern 
•mttbem divisiona should be similerly occupied 
itgr Spaniah troope. 

Jnnut, marching rapidly through Spain, croswd 
tbe frontier of Portugal on November 12. Two 
dara Uler the Miaisters announced that the Hooee 
tl Bnginta bad oeaaed to reign, and that tbe Prince 



Regent of Portugal had lost his throne because he had 
listened to English intrigues, and because he had re- 
fused to confiscate English property in Lisbon. '• The 
fate of the House of Braganza," they said, " is a 
new indication that no one can escape destruction 
who allies himself with the English." Junot had 
orders to make no concession to the Prince Regent, 
even if he promised to declare war against England, 
and that he was to march with all speed to Lisbon 
and seize ships and docks. 

On November 27 the royal family set sail for 
Brazil, the advanced guard of Junot's army being 
then only a few miles from the city. Three days 
later he entered the capital with a force of twenty- 
six thousand men, and the day following the arms 
of Braganza were supplanted on all public build- 
ings by the Imperial eagle. Under pretext of cover- 
ing the army of Portugal several French corps suc- 
cessively entered Spain. First came Dupont, then 



now detoniiiued to throw off the mask. He 
oed to FJayoruie on April 2, tirat the young 
ing Ferdinand VII, and then the old King Charlfs 
tudsr the pretext of arranging their disputes. 
Vhon bo got them both into hia power, he persuaded 
riM IV. to abdicate in favour of his son, and hia 
to ftbdicatt! in favour of Napoleon ; he then gave 
crown of Spain to hia brother Joseph, who had 
ioualy been King of Naples. 
The Answer to this was the outbreak of a formi- 
insurrection in Madrid, which was put 
9wn by Marat with terrible severity. Bat the 
exaniplA of the capital was followed by the 
OOUDtfy. Eveiy province, every district, every 
and nearly every village established its junta 
Br the mainte&auce of independence. The movo- 
it was naturally supported by the Church, and 
priett «n<i monk were formidable opponents. In a 
•bort tino from the xVsturias to Cadiz the whole of the 
popnlctiou was in nntia for King Ferdinand VII., 
«nd the Fraoch armies wherever they might be had 
for their existence. In the meantime 
^li eould only be conveyed from Dayonno to 
Irid by form- of arms. Knt^ring Spain on July 
be found himwif opposed by an army uf his pre- 
Biibjecta, compo6<'<I of twenty-five thousand 
. and eominmoded by Blake and Don Grc^rio de 
la Csevta. It wo* easily crushed by ifarabal Bea- 
I at ICedioa del Kio Seco, anfl on July 20 Joseph 
abl« to take op hia quarters in the capital. 
Searcdy bad he been there a week, when lie waa 
ipellod to witiidraw at tJie news of the capitulation 
Baylan. WfaiUt Bossierut won advancing upon 
Irid, the o*h«r diriaionH of the French army wore 
;>wd in diileniat partu of Spaiu iu rwiucins ^ 



provineea under the authority of King Joseph. The 
division of Dupont, composed of twenty thousand 
men, was employed for thia purpose ia Andalusia. 
Dupont obtained posBessioo of Cordova and plun- 
dered it, but at Seville, the capital of the province, 
was established the central junta, which directed the 
operations of the country against the French and 
the army of Castanos, which was composed of the 
best troops of Spain. Dupont now retired to Andu- 
jar, which was soon invested by an army of thirty- 
five thousand Spaniards. They closed the defiles behind 
the army of Dupont and cut him o£E from his sub- 
ordinate, General Vedel. His force being reduced 
to eleven thousand and left without food or ammuni- 
tion, he signed a capitulation at Baylen on July 21. 
When the pen was in his hand he nearly threw it 
down at the sound of the guns of Vedel, who was in 
the full tide of success, and there is little doubt that 
Vedel could have cut a way for him through the 


The Engliih ooenpied a position on oonunanding 
beiglits, while their left flank was protected by a 
deep rmvine, inrisible to the enemy. Junot attacked 
in two eolnmns; hia right band column came upon 
the rarine above mentioned, and giving the English 
time to strengthen the defence, was eventually re- 
pnlaed with heavy loos, including several guns. But 
the main attack was in the centre, where the French 
waled the heights, sweeping the English skirmishers 
before them, but they had to face a crushing artil- 
1«7 fire, followed ttp by chaises with the bayonet. 
They were driven back faster than they had climbed, 
bnt rallied again and returned to the attack. The 
oopsen, vineyards and ravines were filled with dead 
and wounded; guns were taken, retaken and taken 
again. At last Jnnot, when he had brou^t hia last 
man into action, realised that his enterprise had 
failed. The result of this was the Convention of 
Cintra, signed on AugQSt SO, by which the French 
ajEreed to evacuate Portugal with the honours of war. 
The troops of .Tnnot were faithfully conveyed back 
to France in English veasela. 





After these two crushing reverses Napoleon de- 
termtued to take the affairs of the Peninsula into his 
own hands. After having, for a time at least, en- 
Bored the tranquillity of Central Europe by the Con- 
gress of Erfurt, he directed the best troops of the 
Grand Annv and the Imperial Guard upon Bayonne. 
The army of Spain, as it was called, consisted of two 
hundred thousand of Napoleon's chosen troops, and 
was divided into eight corps d'armee. The Em- 
peror assumed command of it at Bayonne on Noveni- 
ber 3. He imniediatelv crossed the frontier and 






ri|w>lpon entered Burgos and made it his head- 
qturten. CnfortunatelT the Spaaisli troops vrere 
Tctj good at ruuniog away, and it was more easy to 
defeat them than to destroy them. Napoleon now 
tnmed hie attention to his left, where ho was 
eppoaed by Castanos and Palafox. They were de- 
mled by Lannes at TudcU on Novembor 27 ; thoy 
lo«t abaat four thousand dead and wounded and all 
their artillen-. Thus by the end of the inontli Old 
Csatile and the whole of the line of the Ebro was in 
ibe poneaBioQ of the French and the road to JilaJrid 
WM open. 

Kapoleon now gave orders to Ney to follow Casta- 
&s and not leave a man of his army aljvo; Moncoy 
waa to nndertake tbe siege of Saragofsa; 8t. Oyr w&a 
to mairh throuf;h Catalonia and roUove Bari^lona; 
Lefebrre was to occupy Valladolid and Segovia. 
Soalt was to meet Sir John Moore in Old Castile and 
linre him back to Portugal. Mortier waa to take 
op a position at Burgos. In tlic meantime Na- 
poleon wafl to march upon the capital with forty 
tboosa&d men Lwforo the Spaniards had been able to 
moarer from their conBternatioii. The road to 
Ifadrid waa barred by a pass of the Gitadarumn 
Xonntaios, which waa carefully di?feiided by the 
Junta. Thoy placed tbrcc tboiisatid men in tho 
little town at Sepniveda and nine thousand on tbe 
aammit of Somu-Sicrra, dixiKwing them along the 
wiadiiig road, which was also defended by cannon. 
Napokon resolved to attack tlieir position and, as 
often bappuDcd, his o]>oralions were favoured by 
tlio morning miat. The nvigbUjurin;; hei^hta wero 
eoeapied without tho enemy perceiving it, and as soon 
aa tbe clonds liftt-d the a^i^iilt tn'irniL Napoleon 
Ordorcd a dotachmunt of Polish cavalry to charge up 



the road against tbe batten- n-tiich defended it. 
ThirtT-sevea horsemen were killed bv tbe first dis- 
charge, but the Poles re-formed themselves, killed 
the gunners, and captnred the gtins. A panic seized 
the rest of the Spanish troops; they threw their 
muekela awav and fled up the hill and down the 
opposite slope, Napoleon took all the guns, all the 
standards, two hundred ninnition waggons, and al- 
most all the officers. 

The effect which this brilliant passage of arms 
bad upon the Junta in Madrid may be imagined, 
for they had deemed this pass to be invincible. 
They first fled to Badajoz and then to Toledo. The 
inhabitants desired to defend Madrid to the utmost 
and to make it a second Saragossa, but milder coun- 
sels prevailed. The town capitulated after a short 
bombardment and the Prench troops entered it on 
December 4. 

It now remained to deal with the army of Sir 



that he camo up with their rear-guard, and at the 
Rirer Eala he lost one of hia cavalry generaU, Le- 
febrre-IJesnouetteB, who waa taken prisoner. He waa 
received by Moore with great courtesy, who asked 
bim to dinoer and presented bun with an Indian 
atbre. Xew Year's Day of the momentous year 
1809 waa spent in Astorga, where Napoleon re- 
nuined to collect his troops. Here ho received im- 
pottast news, which informed him tiiat Austria was 
aiming for war, which would break out in the spring, 
tiiat be eonld no longer depend upon the co-operation 
of Runta, and that Germany was becoming dis- 
tnrtied. The chances were, therefore, that he would 
have to fight alone against Austria, Germany, and 
En^tiod, and possibly Russia. His resolution was 
qnirkly taken. Tie left the pursuit of the English 
to Sunk Bn<I set out for Valladolid. He rode at full 
galloji, finding everj-where a change of horses, until 
b* reaehed Buyonne and then returned to Paris to 
prepare for that extraordinary campaign, the history 
of which has boen related in our third book. 

Moon continued bis retreat to Corunna. He 
chaekad the pursuers at Benavente and at Lugo, and 
baring ralliml his army on the heights for two daya, 
rainly offerrd battle. The troops were demornlisod; 
tha transport animals failed and could not be ra- 
plaeed; guns and ammunition waggons went ahnn- 
oooed; barrels of dollars were broached and rolled 
doTo tho rocka, tbo soldiers vndangoring their Uvea 
in their attempt to fill their pockets. 

At last Sir John Moore reached Corunna with 
fonrteea thousand tnen; he looked anxiously out to 
aea, bat could doacry no fleet in the roadstead or the 
oCBd^. the ahipB that were expected from Vigo 
having been dotaioed by adwrsu winds. The French 




were able to occupy tbe heights which commatided tlie 
harbour, but the fleet had, at laat, come ioto sight At 
two in the afternoon of January 16 Soult ordered an 
advance. Moore defended his ground with energy, 
and it may be said that the French attack was not a 
flucceas. The principal stand was made by Baird 
at Elvaa. But whilst Moore was watching the fight 
at this place he was struck from his horse by a can- 
non-shot, and was buried by torchlight in the ram- 
parts. The rest of the English army was now em- 
barked without diffiexiity, two divisions before day- 
break and the garrison of the citadel in tbe aftcr^ 





Waik>i.i:os might have believed that h<* had placed 
Iiu iwf mninii of Spain on a permanent basis, bv re- 
•tonng his brother t» Madrid and by driving an Eng- 
IWi amiy into the spb. But the war in the Peniii- 
ibIb wss not of Huch a nature that it could be tenni- 
sated hj victories. There was no difGciiltj' in routing 
and dispeniing the Spanish forces; thoy fled at the 
4nt attaok like mist driven by the wind. The very 
npidity of llioir diiwomtiture presen-ed them from 
oMBpIete deatruction, and permitted them to re-form 
■aev, to be again beaten and dispersed. With sueh 
•dvetMriefl to contend with, the French tn>ops had 
M» difflcalty in marching from one end of Spain to 
tin otber, but ever victorious in front, they were har- 
AMcd in their flank and in their rear, by tbe continual 
■ttadn of tbe gnerilleroH. 

Tbeae wen oollccto<I in small bands, composed of 
•droit tnd hardy men, who could liide in ditches 
or bdiiod roeka, and wait for the opportunity of nur- 
pvuii^ the isolated, cutting off the stra^lnra, robbing 
llift post or intercepting supplies. If they happened 
to oonie in contact with a superior foroe, they quick* 
iy diapanad to re-form anew. If thoy were in sufB- 
eitnt numbera, tiiey killed every one opposed to them 
— ^oldirra, both aick and wounded, and civiliana. 
Tbej delighted ia the robbery of munitions and sup- 



plies. Alt tbe inhxbiUnts of the country were their 
aooomplicM and tbeir spies, vhereas tha French 
nerer kneir snjthing that wss going on a bandied 
ymrdfl from tfaeir outposts. A body of French troops 
only c<»Dinanded the actual gronnd which it occu- 
pied; it might be oompared to a movable fortress 
in a perpetual eonditioii of blockade. The Spaniards, 
who were worthless and despicable in a pitched battle, 
were extremely formidable in the changing vicissi- 
tudes of their guerilla warfara 

The Spaniards also displayed great tenacity of 
courage when fighting behindwalls,whethertheywerR 
the walls of a convent or the ramparts of a town. 
The culminating point of this stubborn heroism was 
reached in the defence of Saragossa, the capital of 
Aragon, which lasted from December, 1808, to 
February, 1809. The army of Falafox, vanquished 
at Tudela, had taken refuge within its walls. The 
tfiwn was besieged by Lannes, who had little diffi- 




Typbtu raged in the town ; the coq)ses filled the cel- 
lars and choked the streets. 

Capitulation at last became a matter of oecesaity. 
After the sacrifice of fifty thousand lives the brave 
defender of Saritgossa surrendered the rains of the 
town. The French were moved by pity when they 
nw BOfBD twelve thousand sickly and starving tatter- 
demaliona, survivors of a force four times that num- 
hm, Ump painfully out of the city to lay down their 
anas. The siegeti of Oerona and Tarragona, though 
lem w«]l known in history, offer similar examples of 
tenacity and courage. 

The patriotism and devotion of the Spaniards were 
eonipicuous in other ways, and a noble example of 
tbeae qaalities was exhibited by the Marquis de la 
Ronana. Ho had been sent by Napoleon to the 
Dortb of Denmark with the express purpose of sepa- 
rating hioi aa far as possible from his country; but 
at the oows of the rising of Spain he embarked with 
foarteen thousand men in English vessels and landed 
in Galicia, where he was able to aasist the insurgents 
and to give valuable aid to the English. 

Wben Napoleon left the Peninsula he committed 
the charge of finishing the war to bis generals, but it 
«*■ characteristic of them that they could never act 
togather. King Joseph, who possessed excellent 
moral qualities, was incapable of commanding. 
Joordan, whom Napoleon bad attached to him aa 
majorgenoral, was old, and was despised by tho 
jOQBg generation of marshals and gcneral.t. They 
(TwiBaliy acquired the habit of paying no attentioQ' 
to their superior officers, and of not co-oporating 
witb each other. They received, it is true, orders 
and directions from Paris from the Emperor, who 
oUJmiiJ to xcsuUto their conduct ; but al to great a 



distance it was necessary to leave much to their own 
initiative. By degrees the same generals, who in 
other parts of Europe woiild carry out with humble 
docility the orders transmitted by Berthior, bcgau in 
Spain to act independently. They conquered and 
occupied territory; they issued edicts and collected 
taxes, just as if they were no longer military chiefs, 
but had become kings in their own departments. 
Soult, especially, conceived the ambition of creating 
for himself a kingdom and becoming the equal of 
Murat. In many ways they anticipated the privi- 
leges of royalty and created a system of plimder. 
Napoleon was perpetually reproaching them with 
their rapacity, but his remonstrances produced no 

Such was the character of the wur in the Peninsula 
from the year 1808. It thus came to pass that a 
pitched battle, which in any other part of Europe 
would, with a commander like Napoleon, have do- 


the Tagos. The French passed the Minho and ob- 
tained possession of Chaves on March 13. Soolt 
advanced upon Oporto, by way of Braga, and took it 
bj storm on March 29. Victor left Talavera on the 
Ta^;ii8, and scattered the guerilla bands of Estre- 
madnra at Medellin on March 28, but he stopped 
short at Merida on the Guadiana. Sebastian!, leaving 
Madrid for La Mancha, won the victory of Ciudad 
Real on March 27, and established himself in that 
province. If these generals had combined to press 
their successes the cause of the Spanish patriots 
might have become hopeless. 

But all these victories meant but little, becaiue 
behind the advance of the French armies the routed 
Spanish troops formed themselves again, and the 
guerilleroB blocked the advance of the conquerors, 
impeded their progress and held them in check. 
This was especially the case with Soult, who lingered 
in Oporto when he ought to have marched on Lisbon, 
hoping that he should be able to create for himself 
the kingdom of Kortbem Lusitania. When Ka< 
poleon heard of his conduct he said that he could onl/ 
remember Aoaterlits. 





A NKW complexion was given to affairs by the 
disembarkation of Sir Arthur Wellesley, with an 
army of twenty-five thousand English at Lisbon, 
on April 22, 1809. He determined immediately 
to attack Soult and to drive him from Oporto, and for 
this purpose collected his army at Coimbra, and, 
while he advanced along the direct road with the 
bulk of his army, despatched General Hill along the 
coast road to turn the right flank of the French. 
Sonlt was living at Oporto in a dream of perfect 
Hecuritv. believing his position assured. Far before 



tctvd clothes. Tnetead of summoning to hts aid the 
mpe of Ncj, who was defending North-west Spain 
•^iiut (he forces of La Komana, and again advanc- 
ing with renewed strength, be turned his back upon 
tfar mountnins of Oalicia, and retreated first to 
Zimom and then to Aetorga, witliout informing 
Key of hi» movements or plans, and this although 
Napoleon had expressly ordered from Schonbrunn 
tlist the three corps of Soult, Ney and Mortier were 
to be joined into one, the command of which was to 
bo given to Soiilt, 

Sip Arthur Wellesley, being master of Portugal, 
DOW determined to carry the war into Spain, follow- 
ing the valley of the Tagus. lie found thirty-five 
ifaoBSand Spanish troops under the command of 
CneaUt, who bad been route<l at Jkfodellin by Victor, 
but had since re~formed. Joining Cueiata, whom 
with preat difiiculty lie persuaded to action, be 
marched straight on Talavcra, the he ad quarters of 
Harahal Victor, with an annv of sixty thousand 
tnon. This thn>atcncd Madrid, and King Joseph 
nterted himself ti> rf[>el the enemy. They both made 
«[fpc*IiloSouIt, who from Zamorra might easily bare 
ittMcked the on their left Sank. But in- 
tbbtA of waitinj; for the arrival of Soult, Joseph and 
Victor attacked the English position on July 37. 
For two davH Wellesley was assailed by the united 
French armies, the English having eighteen lliou- 
tand men and the French forty-eight thousand, not 
IDcluding the army of Cuesta, for the Etiglisli bore 
tbe whole brunt of the fighting. The battle lasted 
two days. On the first the moft important attack 
was made by Jourdan on the left; on the second 
VictHr ordered a aimultaneous charge along the 
wboU ei hii front Tbo Driliab line was nearlj 


broken at the centre when a fierce bayonet chai^ 
burled the enemy down the bill. The English loss 
was very heavy, — killed, wounded and miflsing num< 
bered nearly six thousand, — but its moral effect was 
great, and it is generally regarded aa an English vic- 
tory. When, on August 3, Soult appeared with a 
large force in the neighbourhood of Flasencia, Wel- 
lesley evacuated Talavera and recrossed the Tagos, 
returning to the fortress of Badajoz. He had, 
however, with impunity braved the French in the 
very heart of Spain which Napoleon believed that he 
had conquered. Lord Liverpool wrote to him that 
be had raised the military reputation of England to 
a height which it had never reached since the cam- 
paigns of Marlborough. As a reward he was raised 
to 3ie peerage as Viscount Wellington of Talavera 
and of Wellington in Somersetshire. 

Napoleon held Jourdan responsible for the ill* 
success of Talavera. He recalled him to France 
and placed Soult at the head of King Joseph's staff, 
a step which was not likely to appease discords. In* 
stead of bending all their efforts to the reconquest 
of Portugal, the French continued what they were 
pleased to coni!ider the occupation of the province 
of Spain. St Cyr laid methodical siege to the strong 
placea of Catalonia, and Victor and Sebastiani, in 
the south, penetrated as far aa the Sierra Horena 
and kept guard over the outlets from that range of 
mountains. The Central Junta of Seville continued 
to make mistakes which made them an easy prey 
to the French. The capture of Oporto and the suo- 
eess of Talavera, with both of which they had bo lit- 
tle to do, swelled their pride in 1809 as the capitula- 
tion of Baylen bad done in 1808. Under the ad- 
fioe of Xa Bomana they insisted that the brare bat 


joathftil and mexperieoced Qeneral Areizoga should 
march into the plains of La Mancha in order to re- 
ocmquer Madrid. In vain did Wellington warn 
tiiem not to venture into a conutry which offered so 
favonrable a field for the enemy's cavalry, and recom- 
mended them to confine themselves to the defence 
of the forces of the Sierra Morena. All the regu- 
lar troops of Spain to the number of fifty thousand 
vere placed under the command of Areizaga, who 
with them crossed the Sierra Morena and marched 
upon the capital. 

He neglected all reasonable precautions, and only 
realised the consequences of his rashness when from 
the church tower of Ocana he saw the French armies 
dosing round him under the command of Soult 
After a combat of three hours he was entirely de- 
feated, losing five thousand dead and wounded and 
fifteen thonsand prisoners. Guns, ba^;age, horses, 
and thirty-two standards fell into the hands of the 
French. The result of this was that the French 
were again free to threaten Portugal either by Oin- 
dad Rodrigo or by Badajoz, and Wellington was 
forced to retire from that fortress and take up a posi- 
tion on the Portuguese Tagus. 

It would have been better for the French generals 
io Spain if, after this victory, they bad turned their 
attention to the defeat of the English, but instead of 
this Joseph and Soult undertook the invasion of An- 
dalusia. With an army of seventy thousand men 
they invaded that province and entered Cordova 
and Granada in triumph. If they had acted with 
promptness they might have surprised Cadiz, but 
Soult preferred to occupy Seville, and Joseph made 
his entry into that important city on February 1> 
1610. The Central Junta took refuge in the inf 




poKiMB of CU^ &K «Uck Ibey diiceb- 
cd s£ ^ a ^ gm c nr iganK ike ICanbalt of Ftbim3& 
Afar ^ fasnje <tf Tilsnsa Xapoleon detennined 
tD dKiCT tbe m«H «Uc^ he k^ liilfaertD followed 
IB ^«m. He *^*'— tKHviBBed tfamt Ifae eanae <tf 
his nii£foniiD» lav m ifce d iat g iaiu n of his fiHrces 
sad m hsTii^ p^^ ^oo ^nA power to Joaephj who 
ns noc a nuts of var. He had also iitr<mn eo&~ 
Tinted that it was for Us interests to eonoaitrata 
Iu5 sna^ Bpon the Ellg^i■h Br a decree dated 
Febroary S, ISIO, be look away fran JoaejA the 
prorioccs situated to the north of the £bn> and 
formed them into sepante militaiy e(»nmand& 
Three great armies woe created. The first was 
the anuT of Portugal, whoae dn^ it was to attack 
the English. Massena was placed at its head. Hioi 
came the armv of the centre, left to Joaeph to sap- 
port his ToraltT and to poisne dw gnerillenM. The 
third was the army of Andalusia, commanded by 





ToB »rmj of Portugal, sevcntv Uioiisand men 
■tronir, divided into three bodies, came together at 
S«lunmnoa under the command of Alassena, Ney, 
Jonot, toil Rcjnier being assigned to him as BMhor- 
dinate. Jilass^na prepared immediately to march 
aptm Lisbon, but be b^an by taking possesaioa of 
tbe fnmtier fortresses of Ciudad Rodrigo and Al- 
■Mada. Mass6na crossed the frontier of Portugal 
on September 16, 1810, Wellington retiring before 
bin and method ic ally devastating the valloy of Mon- 
dego, ao that the French army had to subsist upon the 
brawl whioli they had brought with them from 
OSnUd Rodrigo. Wellington now took up a pos)- 
tioti b<>hind Ooimbrft on the heights of IJusaco. This 
i« a ranffe of precipitous hills, eight miles in length, 
aloping down on the south to a ford on the Mondego 
■ad ooimected on the north with another sierra by 
a rugged and impracticable country. The allied 
forces, crossing the Mondego, were in the act of tak- 
ing op their position when the French under Noy 
and Reynier approached the ha«e of the mountains. 
N«7, with his militarv instinct, saw tliat the Kngtish 
had not completed their preparations; he therefore 
Brged Uaasena to attack immediately. But Mosafioa 
wm ten miles in the rear and did not reach the acena 
of operations till midday. The battle began on 
Boptcntber ST before daybreak. The French formed 



in five ooltmms of attack, and showed tlie most re- 
markable courage and agility in scaling the iron 
ridges. Bnt each colunm, as it arrived breatUeBa, 
was shattered hy a withering musketry fire or burled 
downwards by fierce bayonet charges. The scaling 
columns were also enfiladed by atorma of grape ^^ch 
drove along the face of the oli£^ The dogged cour- 
age of Ney at last succumbed, and in the afternoon 
the French withdrew. They had lost five ihonsand 
men and the allies thirteen hundreds 

On the following day Kass^na disoorered a patU 
across the mountains to the ri^t which enabled him 
to turn Wellington's position. The Engliah general 
was forced to retreat and the French entered Coim- 
bra. On October 10 he was approaching Lisbon, 
when to his great surprise he was stopped by a foi^ 
midable line of earthworks behind wluch the Eng- 
lish army had entirely disappeared. These were t^ 
celebrated lines of Torres Vedras, which Wellington 



ipliB. It is strange that the French, with their 
friends and partisans in Lisbon, were left in 
abtolule ignorance of tlieso preparations, and that 
notfaing should have been known iibont them at Panfi. 
iiaaa€n* only heard awidentalfj of their existcneo 
from m peasant 

iiam&aa. waited before the lines for a fortnight, 
knd tfam made up his inin<l for the assault, hut Ney 
refuMd to obey botli his verbal and his written or- 
Eren if these fortifications could have been 
^{itured tt firrt, each day added to their stronpth. 
la was deeply disappointed. lie had made a 
nd tturch to Lbbon, whicli he hoped would have 
driven Uic English to their ships, but he found bim- 
•df in front of a fortified camp, impregnable to 
Btorm, and never to be reduced by blockade, ne was 
alao suffering from hunger, as he had wasted thn 
rtarea taken at Coimhra and Leiria. Trant had 
•sised on O.umbra with the sick and wounded in the 
hatpiUla and the garrison left for their protection. 
Ittmtat waa obliged to retreat and retired to San- 
tarOD on the Tagus, where he established his head- 

?iurt«n. The army of Portugal was reduced to 
arty thonsand men. 

It was for a long time ignorant of the position 
but it ia possible that he might have 
, him if hu hud bti'ii vo disiM)afd. He eonlent- 
himanlf with covering the frontiers of Andalnsia, 
hj botieginj; Badajoz, which he took on March Vi, 
ISIJ. Wellin^D now retired to the fr-intier of 
8p«m and laid fiag« to Almeida, while ho sent Beres- 
ford le tbe aonth, towards Badajox, to hold .Sonlt in 
cfaek. Hasa^na was not willing to iiacrifice Alme- 
ida witlraat a struggle; he thrrcforo rrturned and 
attaAad Wellington on Hay 3 at Fuentos d'O&oro. 



This village lies in a valley with hills on either side, 
and the road to Ciudad Eodrigo passes throiigh the 
main street. On one side was a morass and a wood, 
which prevented approach, and the village afforded 
many opportunities of cover. The attack on May 
3 was repulsed, but on the following day Mass^na 
came up in person. The French were greatly 
superior in numbers, but the English made a gallant 
resistance. The carnage went on till darkness put 
an end to the conflict, and both sides claimed a vic- 
tory. But there is little doubt that the English were 
very glad not to be attacked for the third time, which 
would probably have been the case if Massena had 
not been superseded at this critical moment by 
Harmont. Massena returned to Erance in disgrace. 
Almeida now surrendered, and the army of Por- 
tugal retired to Salamanca, In the meantime Berea- 
ford was advancing to the relief of Badajoz. Soult 
advanced to drive him back into Portugal, and a bat- 





ILuHiUL 31abiio!(t on arriving to take commEod 
of tbe MTJUj of Portugal fonnd it in a very bad con- 
dHioo. Be roec^ised ibat it would be oaeless to 
•ttonpt the recoDqu«st of Portugal or to make an 
Bttaek npoo Liaboo. He therefore contented himself 
with keeping gaard over the frontier, to preserve 
SpMiiah lerritorr from tbe invasion of Wellington 
sad bis lieutenants. His first success was in pre- 
■erring tbe frontier fortress of Badajos from the on- 
•laagbt of Wellington and Bcresford, and he showed 
Us good sense by hastening to the assistance of Soult. 
TWb molt of this unwonted co-operation bet'iveen two 
aai^Ali waa that tbe siege of Badajos was raised 
and thai communication between the two armies 
of Andalusia and Portugol was secured by the forti- 
fied port of Almaraz on the Tagus. Driven from 
BadajoK, Wellington atlackwl Ciudad Rodrigo, but 
Slarmunt effwrted a junction between his otvn army 
and the army of the Xorth, tlitt is, tbe divisions of 
Oalicda and the Asturiaa. Wellington surrendered 
tbe enterpriao for the moment and rctirwi into Por- 
tugal without accepting battle. Tbe Portugueae 
frontier waa defended by French cavalry. Although 
Vannont had not ahown much energy in attack he 
hod at Icaat eoadocted a gallant and suoecasfol de- 

Tbe beat retulu ia the Peninsula had up to tbe 


present been obtained by Marshal Snebet in tbe East, 
Alone of Napoleon's marsbals he succeeded in estab- 
lishing a real domination over the regions he had con- 
quered. Having reduced Catalonia, he undertook 
^e subjection of the kingdom of Valencia. Na- 
poleon, not unnaturally, favoured his enterprise and 
withdrew troops from Andalusia and Portugal for 
the war in Valencia, though it would have be^i 
undoubtedly wiser to have directed all hia efforts 
to the defeat of Wellington. The important city 
of Valencia fell into Sucbet's hands on January 9, 

This last date strikes a note of iU-omeu for Franca. 
The year 1812 witnessed the expedition to Kussia 
in which tbe resources of the Empire were strained 
to the utmost. Napoleon was obliged to recall from 
Spain some of his best troops and some entire de- 
pots. In consequence of this he was obliged to 
change the position of hia corps d'armes and to 
assign to them new duties. Wellington profited by 
these circumstances to tbe full in order to recom- 
mence his attacks. Besides this there was a condi- 
tion of mortal hatred between Soult and iKIarmont 
which prevented them from acting together. Inex- 
cusable as is the invasion of Kussia from all points 
of view, to undertake it until the English army had 
been forced to retreat from the Peninsula waa an act 
of incredible rashness. 

Wellington laid siege to Ciudad Bodrigo on 
January 6, 1812, and captured it on January 19. 
He then turned his attention to Badajoz. He had 
hoped to have invested it in the early days of March, 
vhen the flooding of the northern rivers would have 
assisted him, bat no means of transport were avail- 
aUe to move the siege trains and supplies from 


Elvas to Badajoz. The fortress in the meantime 
had been made extremely formidable. Bedoobts 
and earthworks had been thrown up and heavily 
armed, there was abundance of provisions, but the 
am m n a ition was scanty. Ground was broken on 
Uarch 17, and the work was carried on with great 
difSculty and heavy losses. On the morning of 
April 6 the breaches were pronounced practicable, 
and there was great excitement as to the result, for 
Soult was known to be approaching. 

The storm of Badajoz on April 6 forms one of the 
most thrilling chapters in military history. The 
commandant, PhiUipon, had strengthened the foi^ 
tress in every manner which akill and ingenuity could 
surest As the clock struck ten at night the assault 
on the breachee began. The stormers crowded to the 
edge of the glacis and lowered their ladders into the 
ditch. When they had descended the silence was 
broken by a solitary shot from the ramparts. In an 
instant tiie whole glacis, which had been mined, was 
exploded, and the ditch, which had been paved with 
shells, belched forth its hideous artillery. The heads 
of the storming columns were absolutely annihilated, 
and the French stood on the breaches watching the 
deadly scene. But the alarm of the stormers changed 
to frenzied anger, and they swarmed np the breaches. 
Here they found that the broken parapets had been 
strengthened with sandbags and fascines and that the 
breath had been closed up by chevaux de frise of 
sword-plates, socketed in solid oak and secured by 
chains. Those who were first impaled on these dead- 
ly weapons made a path for the rest At the same 
time the breaches were defended by a storm of shot, 
both in front and on the flank. The stormers, re- 
pelled by the pitiless cross-fire, retired to the ditch 



and refused to renew the assault. In the meantime, 
however, Picton had been able to take the castle by 
escalade, and Walker had stormed a bastion at the 
other extremity of the town; the garrison therefore 
abandoned the defence of the breaches. The English 
obtained the fortress, but at a loss of five thousand 
dead and wounded. 

This double success, so easily obtained, revealed 
to Wellington the weakness of the French. He 
therefore detennined, for the first time since 1809, 
to attempt a direct invasion of Spain. He advanced 
bv the basin of the Douro, having the Pyrenees for 
his objective, and for his purpose the severing of the 
Spanish armies from their base of operations. The 
French army in the Peninsula still consisted of two 
hundred thousand men, and in command of this large 
force Napoleon placed his brother Joseph, who again 
received Jourdan as an adviser. Still, the French 
armies were scattered in Castile, in Valencia and in 



the object of attack, whereaa his efforts were 
directed to the uoUtioo of Marmont. 

Wellington croesed the Agueda and entered Spain 
on June 13, 1812, with an army of fifty-five thousand 
men, oompoeed of English, Spaniards and Portu- 
gaete. After several days' march, in the highest 
apjrita, through a delightful country, the allies lit 
their birouac fires in front of Salamanca, Marmont 
liaving evacuated the city on the previous day. Wel- 
Unf^n was welcomed in the town with passionate 
demonstrations of devotion. The streets and squares 
were decorated with Hags and flowers and illuminated 
after nightfalL The general rode to his quarters, 
with the crowd cheering and the women fall- 
ing on their knees and kissing his stirrups. The 
dreed of surrendering again this grateful city to the 
muaaj may have induced him to offer immediate 
battle. But having possesion of the ton'n it was 
BMMHary that he should take the forts and hold 
ibem, for his position was extremely precarious, as, 
if he hod been beaten and thrown back upon Eastern 
Csstile, he would have been crushed between the 
armiea of Marmont and Joseph. Marmont had ap- 
puently no desire to fight a pitched battle, but did 
nia best to mancenvro Wellington into a retreat. 

The forts held out for ten days, and every day 
Jfanoont was raising reinforcements. x\fter a 
Bionth'a weartaome delay Wellington heard at lost on 
July 16 that Marmont had suddenly marched upon 
the Doaro and was forming troops across the river. 
Be rejoiced at the news, but he was in a dangerous 
position ; his left was turned and Marmont had got 
■ fair start for Salamauca. If be could reach it be- 
fore the allies ho would seize upon the road to Oiudad 
Bodri^. Althou^ both armies must fight in a Bank 


position, everTthing wiu staked upon the battle, and 
defeat to eiUier would be irretrierable disaster. 
iUarmont, howeyer, changed hia plans and the iaaues 
became less criticaL 

At last the battle which we call Salamanca and 
the French Arapiles was fought on July 23. The 
Arapiles are two isolated hills rising from the high 
upland of the battle-field, one of which was in the 
possession of the English and the other of the French. 
Marmont had been manceuvring all Uie morning, and 
had, in attempting to reach me road which led to 
Ciudad Rodrigo, separated his left from his centre. 
Wellington threw his columns into the gap; Har- 
mont tried to retrieve the error, but did not see the 
third dineioD of the English which was advancing 
amongst the hills. Just at the critical moment 3far- 
mont was struck down by a shell which shattered his 
arm and inflicted other grievous wounds. Bonnet, 
who succeeded him, suffered a similar fate, and the 
command devolved on Clausel, one of the youngest 
marshals. He made heroic eSortd to redeem the 
day, which were nearly BuccessfuJ, and withdrew his 
army after the defeat with consummate skill. The 
effects of the battle were decisive, for the French had 
lost six thousand meo, and they were felt elsewhere 
than in Spain. The news of the defeat oi Sala- 
manca reached Xapoleon on the Moskva, the night be- 
fore t^ battle of Borodino, and this to some meoa- 
ore accounts for his inertness during ita eontinuance 
and bis sluggishness in following it up. 

After the battle of Salamanca the army of Fortn- 
gftl retreated on Burgos, and it is possible that if 
Welliogton bad pursued it with energy he might 
liave driven it into the Pyrenees. But, under the 
influence of political motives, he turned aside to enter 



3f adrid as conqueror. He was received rather as a 
god than as a mortal: he waa created a Qrandee of 
Spain of the first claas, Duke of Cindad Bodrigo, 
and was invested with the command of the Spanish 
armies. While Wellington had made this triumphal 
entry on August 12, King Joseph had taken refuge 
in Valencia amongst the soldiers of SucheL But 
Soult, urged at last to action, left Andalusia and 
joined the forces of King Joseph and Suchet The 
French were now in sufGcient strength to recorer 
poasesaion of the capitaL 




Os September 1 Wellington left Madrid to panne 
the army of Clausel, which was retiring on the line 
of the Ebro. Claueel exhibited remarkable capacity 
in bia retreat, and Wellington did not care to attack 
him. Burgoa was occupied on September 17, Mar- 
mont having only left it a few days before, but this 
alBO bad to be evacuated. Althongh the city waa aban- 
doned, the castle was garrisoned by eighteen hundred 
soldiers under Dubreton, a general of rare skill and 
determination. Wellington thought that it could not 
bold out long, for it was a fortress of the third order, 
and was conmianded by some heights to the east- 
ward within short gun-range, but it eventually suo- 
ceeded in baffling all his efforts. Four assaults were 
successively delivered upon it, but they were all fruit- 
less. Officers and men began to feel that tbey were 
engaged in a hopeless task, and tbey even lost con- 
fidence in their generaL The rain bad fallen in tor- 
rente, swampLDg the trenches and parallels ; the gar- 
rison also had been extremely active, breaking out 
into furious sorties, which were only repulse^ with 
severe loss. After the defences had been breached 
in a third place, a fifth and final assault was de- 
livered, but was as disastrouB as the others had been. 
Wellington therefore determined to retreat, and re- 
tired first on the Douro and then to Salamanca- 

Qn November 2 King Joseph again entered his 


capitaL Ho formed the army of Portugal by the 
valley of the Douro, and was now in command of an 
army of eighty-five thousand men. He advanced 
with this force against Weltington, whom he fonnd 
on the battle-field of Arapilee, where the fortunes of 
the preyious disaster might have been retrieved. The 
blame of failure is rightly or wrongly laid on Soolt, 
who is said to have lost a day by his sluggishness 
and timidity. It is possible that he had no desire to 
hazard an engagement. However that may be, at the 
moment of projected attack thick fog and heavy rain 
threw a ciirtain between the French and English 
armies, and when the veil was lifted Wellington was 
nowhere to be seen. His retreat was full of miseries, 
but he safely reached the walls of Ciudad Rodrigo. 

The catastrophe of Napoleon in Bussia, which has 
been narrated in previous chapters, deprived the ar- 
mies of Spain of all hope of reinforcement, and the 
Emperor was also obliged to recall a large number of 
officers and seasoned soldiers to fill up the gaps which 
had been made in his armies in Oermany. He 
ordered the concentration of his forces, which re- 
mained in the Peninsula, in the North and the 
Centre, the evacuation of Madrid and the trans- 
ference of the capital to Valladolid. He recalled 
Sonlt, entrusting future operations to King Joseph 
and to Jourdan as chief of the stafi. These measures 
were the best that could be adopted under the circum- 
stances, but unfortunately Clausel was detached with 
a considerable force to put down the guerilla bands 
in the north of Spain. Wellington took full ad- 
vantage of these circumstances. In Uay, 1813, the 
whole number of combatants for the Spanish cause 
nnder anns amounted to two hundred thousand men^ 
and the force directly under Wellington himself con- 

isa wahs of the century. 

BiBted of seventy thousand English and Fortugaese, 
while the flank of the land forces was covered by 
English fleets. The eflective flghting forces of the 
French armies may be estimated at one hundred and 
ten thousand. Wellington crossed the Spanish 
frontier on Kay 20, and marched first on Salainanca 
and then on Yalladolid. 

Joseph considered himself, without the aid of 
Clauael's division, too weak to oppose Wellington at 
Valladolid, and therefore retired first to Buigos 
and then to Kiranda, Anally taking up a position 
on the plain of Vittoria. At this town converge the 
three great roads leading from Bilbao, Pamplona, 
and Bayonne. Here, too, were crowded together the 
army trains and atoree, the wounded, the women and 
children and all the plunder. The French were 
formed in three lines behind the Zadora, Clau&el waa 
at Logrono, about thirty miles distant, and King 
Joseph sent him urgent messages to come up, but be- 
fore he could arrive the battle was over and lost 

The battle began at daybreak on June 21, like ao 
many of the battles which we have narrated, in a 
dense mist. Hill on the English right stormed the 
heights of Pnebla and occupied them; Wellington 
took charge of the centre, and on the left Graham was 
advancing by the road from Bilbao and was opposed 
by Reille. When Wellington saw that the French 
centre was weakened by their having detached troops 
to oppose Hill, he made a vigorous attack in. the 
centre with Fioton and the third division. The 
French made a stubborn resistance, but their posi- 
tion was tamed on the left and they were obliged 
to fall back, crowding together in confusion. A 
panic ensued and gun after gun was lost ; Seille still 
held his own, but he was isolated and in great; 

vrrroRiA, 197 

danger. The road to Iran and Bayonne was blocked 
by wagons and fugitives and the flight was directed 
towards Pamplona. The victory was complete and 
the f rench lost about five thousand killed and 
wounded and eight thousand prisoners. Clausel, 
marching up too lata towards the scene of conflict, 
nearly fell a prey to the victorious army. He was, 
however, able to escape and retired into Catalonia 
to cover the retreat of Suchet This general was 
compelled to evacuate Valencia, which he had con- 
quered with such distinction, and after garrisoning 
the fortress to withdraw his troops gradually 
across the £bro. 

Spain was now entirely recovered from the 
French. Joseph was recalled to ^France in disgrace 
and placed under arrest in his country-house of Mor- 
fontaine, whilst Sonlt was despatched to the South 
to reoi^nise the defeated armies. He took up a 
position along the Biver Nive, from St. Jean Pied- 
de-Port to Bayonna Wellington was in no hurry 
to cross the French frontier, but undertook the eiego 
of St. Sebastian, which was one of the most im- 
portant operations of the war. He did not gain pos- 
session of it till the last day of August. Then en- 
sued a series of struggles between Soult and Wel- 
lington in the defiles of the Pyrenees which are too 
complicated to be described in detail. One incident, 
however, is too picturesque to be omitted. Soult 
was advancing to relieve Pamplona, when Welling- 
ton galloped into the village of Sauroren. The 
French cavalry followed him into the village, and he 
had scarcely time to save himself and to reach his 
troops. The two armies were confronted on oppos- 
ing heights, and the generals were so near to each 
Other that Wellington could distinguiBb the figora 


and even the featiLres of his opponent When the 
Boldiere knew that their commander was on the field, 
loud cheers, taken up by raiment after regiment, 
rang along the line, Wellington said : " Soult is 
a great commander, but a cautious one, and he will 
delay his attack to ascertain the meaning oi these 
cheers ; that will give time for the sbctb division to 
come up and I shall beat him." The event justified 
the prophecy; Pamplona surrendered to Wellington 
on the last day of October. 

Before this date Wellington had crossed the 
Bidassoa, and on the evening of October 9 the allied 
armies were established in cantonments in France; 
the NiveUe was traversed about a month later. 
Wellington now advanced into France and fought the 
battle of Orthez on February 27, 1S14, and thos 
commanded the road to Bordeaux, which was entered 
by the Eng lish on March 12. Ten days later King 
Ferdinand Vll., restored by Napoleon to the throne 
of his ancestors, set his foot once more upon Span? 
isli soil and the Feninsolar war was at an end. 

THE WAS. OF 1814. 



Atoeb the disastrons campaign of Bnnift ITft* 
poleon had still great resources left, and he was only 
contending against one-half of Europe, but after the 
battle of Leipzig he could only depend npon him- 
self, and the whole of Europe was in anns againrt 
him. Ifothing was left of the Grand Army except 
R few fragments, mere phantoms of corp$ d'armie 
and divisions, which made no attempt to defend the 
frontier of ^e !Rhine. Along the course of that 
river, between Basle and Cologne, were posted Msr- 
mont with twelve thousand men, Macdonald with 
twelve thousand, Victor with seven thousand, Ney 
with seven thousand, as well as about nine thousand 
cavalry. Belgium was held by a body of fifteen 
thouaand troops. The frontier of the Jura was un- 
defended and was falling a prey to the allied forces. 
In Italy Prince Engine had quite enough to do in 
defending himself against the attacks of the Ana- 
trians; Soult, as we have seeOf waa being presaed 


back by Wellington into the south of Fr&nce. T^ot 
onlj had the gigantic empire of Napoleon Tanifihed 
like K dream, but the frontiers which France had 
acquired after the Kevolution were being assaulted 
by half a million enemies. 

France had no energy to resist these invasions. 
She had not only been exhausted by the demands so 
incessantly made upon her, but the iron will of her 
sovereign had broken her own resolution, she had 
lost the power of initiative, and could no longer 
oppose to attack the fire of patriotism or the stub- 
bom spirit of independence. The only moral qual- 
ity which remained to her was that of resignation. 
It is possible that the allies still overrated the 
strength of their great antagonist, or it may be that 
they hoped for the conclusion of peace on the basis 
of France retaining her natural frontiers of the 
Bhine, the Alps and the Pyrenees, and giving up 
all claims to influence in Germany, Holland, Italy 
and Spain. At any rate their forces advanced very 
slowly after the battle of Leipzig, and it was not 
till December 21, 1813, that the army of Schwarzen- 
berg crossed the Bhine by the bridge of Bale, nor 
till January 1, 1S14, that the army of Bliicber 
passed the same river between Mainz and Cologne. 
The object of the armies of Bohemia end Silesia was 
to march upon the capital of France. The strength 
of the two united was two hundred and fiity thou- 
sand men. 

After his return to Paris Kapoleon had worked 
with all the resources of his energy and his genius 
to repel this invasion. He had called up all the 
soldiers he could lay his bands upon as far back as 
the conscription of 1806, and had anticipated the 
conscription of ISIS. He had establi^ied new 


** cohorts " of national guards, had recalled troops 
from Spain, and thus bad collected together a force 
which showed on paper as five hundred thousand. 
Bat he could hardlj expect that his orders would be 
litarallj carried out • The two months' breathing 
Bpace allowed him after Leipzig was not auficient to 
drill these conscripts, nor even to collect them to- 
gether. He was Imdly supplied with money, cloth- 
ing, arms and all material of war. The conscripte, 
when they arrived at the depots, had but scanty uni- 
forms or none at all, many were dressed in blouses 
and wooden shoes, and these poor children, inex- 
perienced and uninstructed, merely food for the 
enemy's cannon, in spite of the courage and devotion 
which they often exhibited, went by the name of 
" Marie-Louises." 

In the darkness of all these difficulties flamed the 
bright star of the genius of Napoleon himself. As 
he had been before led from victory to victory by 
his good fortune, so now did the greatest qualities 
of his mind aud character seem to derive streiigth 
from the presence of ill fortune, stimulated to great- 
er efforts by the ever-present feeling that ho was 
defending the soil of his country against the pollu- 
tion of an invading foe. Commanding a few veter- 
ans and a few recruits, he thought to supply the de- 
ficiency by his personal qualities, by the rapidity 
of his movements, by the wise application of means 
to ends, by readiness to profit by the smallest division 
amongst the enemy and by the discovery of new re- 
sources. Thus the campaign of 1814 is scarcely less 
brilliant than the campaign of 1T96 ; his setting like 
hifl rising sun was attended by the gorgeous hues 
of victory. But the forces of nature, which are 
more powerful than those of war, which were on 


hiB side in Ital7, were now opposed to him in 
France; it was impossible to contend successfully 
against an overwhelming fate. 

The army of Schwarzenberg, two hundred thou- 
sand strong, marched into France by Besan^on, 
Langres and Chaumont; Bllicher, with fif^ thou- 
sand men, advanced through Lorraine to Vabsj 
and St Dizier. Their design was to join their 
forces and then to march upon Paris by the valleys 
of the Mame and the Seine. They had gradually 
driven back before them the small armies of Victor, 
Ney, and Marmont, and on January 27 Blucher 
reached Brienne with thirty thousand men in order 
to join Schwarzenberg, who had arrived at Bar«ur- 
Aube, about ten miles distant. To protect Paris 
Mortier was stationed at Troyes with fifteen thou- 
sand men, while at Chalons were collected about 
forty thousand imder the command of Victor, Ney, 
Ifarmont, and Macdon&ld. Thus when Napoleon 
arrived at Chalons he found himself at the head of 
fifty-five thousand men. The Marie-Louises, who 
came in gradually afterwards, did not double the 
number, and the Imperial army never at any time 
contained more than ninety thousand combatants. 

The plan of Napoleon was to attack Bliicher, who 
had the smaller anny, before he could join Schwar- 
zenberg, and for this purpose marched from Chal- 
ons to Saint Bizier, and from Saint Bizier to 
Brienne, in the valley of the Aube, where he came up 
with the Prussian marshal. After a spirited en- 
gagement he drove the Prussians from Brienne, but 
they retreated towards Bapflur-Aube, where Schwar- 
zenberg was posted, so that he would have to fi^t 
against both armies united, which together quad- 
rupled his own. Instead of retiring he establuhed 


himself &t Xa Botbi^re and on the hills sniromid- 
ing Brienne. The Austrian army had alreadjr 
moved forward to meet Bliicher, and on February 
1 the small forces of Napoleon were attacked by at 
least one hundred and fifty thousand of the enemy, 
who outflanked him on both sides, and tried to thrust 
him into the Anhe. After a struggle of eight hours 
La Bothi&re remained ia the hands of the allies. Na- 
poleon had lost six thousand men and fifty-four gunSi 
and was obliged to retreat, first to Troyes and after- 
wards to Nogent-Bur-Seiue. The allies thought that 
the campaign was at an end and the ofBcers ex- 
pected to be dining in a week's time in the garden 
of the Palais RoyaL 

In a council of war held in the chateau of 
Brienne on February 2 the invaders determined to 
inarch immediately on Paris, and for this purpose 
divided their forces into two parts, Blucher ad- 
vancing to Chalons, where he was to receive rein- 
forcements, and then by the valley of the Mame; 
Schwarzenbe^ by Troyes and the valley of the 
Seine. Bliidier showed that he well merited the 
name of " Karshal Forwards." He pressed on with 
all speed, hoping to arrive at Paris before Schwar- 
cenberg. The consequence of this was that his 
troops were distributed over a very long line. On 
February 9 Yorck was at Chateau Thierry with 
eighteen thousand men, Sacken at Montmirail with 
twenty thousand, Olsuvief at Champauhert with six 
thousand, whereas Blucher with his eighteen thou- 
sand men had not got further than Etoges. 

Napoleon was carefully following from Nogent- 

SQp^ine the movements of the army of Silesia, and 

on February 7 he despatched Marmont to S^anne 

and joined him there two days later. As he had 




left the corps of Victor and Oudinot on the Seine he 
had with him only a body of twenty-five thousand 
men. He marched by the road from Sezanne to Eper- 
nay, which passes by Champaubert and would bring 
him right upon the flank of the Rusaians, Heattacked 
them on the foUoB'ing day and almost entirely anni- 
hilated them, only fifteen hundred escaping. By 
this action the army of Bliicher was cut completely 
in two, and Napoleon had the choice of turning to 
the right on Bliicher himself or to left upon hia 
lieutenants. Ho determined upon the latter course. 
He left ilarmont at Champaubert to keep Bliicher 
in check, and marched upon the corps of Sacken at 
Jlontjnirail. Sacken fought bravely, but was en- 
tirely defeated with the loss of four thousand men. 
Napoleon then on February 12 marched against the 
division of Yorck at Chateau Thierry, This in its 
turn was beaten and driven behind the Ourcq with 



up In coofosioQ. Bliicher retired in disorder with 
the Ion of six thousand men, the French loss being 
only BIZ hundred. 

The intention of Napoleon had been to purane 
BliJcher to Chalons, conijitele the deatmction of his 
army, and then move backwards to Vitry, thus threat- 
eoiDg ihe rear of the anny of Bohemia. But he heard 
that Sebwarronberg had driven linek the forces of 
Victor and of Oudinot, and waa threatening Paris. 
JoRiini had indeed advised the allies to march on 
Psria, hut, diBcoricerted by the fate of Bliicher, they 
dvtennined to " wait for the development of thn 
KiatWDUTre* of the Emperor Napoleon." Tlie plan 
of tlieN nuuKBDvrea was formed on the battle-field 
of Vanchamps. On lYliniBry 14 the army of Bo- 
bemift was much scnttcreil, Wittgenstein waa at 
Pronna, Wrcde at Nangis, the Wiirteinlxirgcrs at 
Mont«r«an, and the reserve between Bray and No- 

SV Naptdeou on February 14 and 15 marched 
t buk towards Meaus and then south to Ouigties, 
t^ian be joined hia two marshals, Victor and Oudi- 
Doi, and brought his numbers np to aixty thoa&and 
men. On February 17 he fell upon the enemy and 
iron them first on Momant and then on Nan^s; 
Iw then aent Ondinot, Macdonald, and Victor in threa 
diraetiona to push tbo oncmy before them, orderin|{ 
tbt lut to occupy the bridge of Montereaii, which 
howir er he failtnl to do. On February 1 H Xapoleon 
hlft**^ to repair thia error and force*] the Wiir- 
tamhergcn into Montorcau, occupyint; the famous 
tiridgo, by which he hoped to reach the army of 
Bcfawammberg. The Austriana, however, thought 
it prudent to retire to Troyea, 

On Febmary 33 llie grand army of the alliea wu 
•mu^ed in order of battle, ita right on tho Selo^ 



ita left on the village of St. Germain. It was too 
late for the Emperor to attack it, because all hia 
troops had not arrived, but he had great hopes for the 
morrow. True, the allies were one hundred and 
fifty thousand and the French seventy thousand, 
but they were demoralised by their defeat and had 
a river at their back. Bliicher could not come up 
in less than twenty-four hours, and in that time 
Schwa rzen berg would have been beaten. TJnfot^ 
tunately for Napoleon the Austrians were of the 
same opinion, and did not care to sacrifice a mag- 
nificent army to the glory of France. So on the fol- 
lowing day, at five o'clock in the morning, they re- 
treated to Bar-sur-Aube, sending propositions for an 
armistice. On February 24 Napoleon entered 
Troyes, where he was received with the greatest en- 
thusiaam. On February 26 the general position of 
the armies was as follows : Napoleon at Troyes com- 


thousand men bad b^;an to take the offensive against 
the twenty thousand men of Bubna and Lichten- 
stein. Augereau had express orders to oocnpy a 
position between Bale and Langrea bo as to cat off 
Schwanenberg's retreat The possibility of this 
catastrophe caused continual disquiet to the Austrian 
general, and made him fear that the situation of 
affain might at any time undergo a sudden change. 

208 wabs of the centoby. 

BOisBons Ain> laon. 

Thb success of the French arms at this time was 
confined to Champagne, and the enemy was slowly 
advancing on other points of the frontier. In Bel- 
gium General Maison with his small hodj of fifteen 
thousand men was ohiiged to retire before the 
Duke of Saxe-Weimar with thirty thousand, aup- 
ported by the army of the North under Bernadotte. 
Antwerp, commanded by the famous Camot, was be- 
sieged. In the Pyrenees, Marshal Soult, with fifty 
thousand conscripts, was no match for the eighty 
thousand soldiers of Wellington. His gradual retreat 
has already been narrated. In Italy, Prince Eu- 
g^e was holding his own with dilGculty against the 
Austrians on the Adige. After La Hosiers the 
Emperor thought of recalling him, but his subse- 
quent victories made him change his determination 
and EugSne remained in Italy. On the other hand, 
Marshal Suchet was in command of fifteen thousand 
men in Spain; who, after the ratification of the 
treaty of Valengay, would be available for service 
in Erance. 

Under the pressure of the victories of Napoleon 
the allies formed some important resolutions at 
Bai^Bur-Aube on Eebruary 25. They determined 
that Bliicher should resume hia march on Paris by 
way of Meaux, and that he should be supported by 



coips of Billow and Winzingerode, both of tliem 
forming part of the army of the North, which now 
in to enter upon thi3 scene. Also to su]t[x>rt 
tubna they gave orders for a new corps to enter 

ritzcrlaod undor the command of the Prince of 
to neutralise the efforts of Augereau, These 
two determinations were of the utmost importiince, 
and indMd cveotually decided the issue uf the ciuu- 
pai^ in favour of the allies. 

As »oon aa the plan of action had been decided 
upon Dltichcr put himself in motion to proceed from 
tbo Aubo to the Mamc, inclining slightly towards 
tbe north to meet the reinforcements which he had 
baan told to expoct Mannont and Mortier did 
their beat to hold him in check, but they were forced 
to retire On February 28 he crossed the Marno 
at La Ferlit-sona-Jouarrc, while the two French m»r- 
ahala nilirud behind the Ourcq, which they held 
against the adranoing Pruasiana. Bliicler on roach- 
inf; the rigbt bank of the Marnc found no trncos 
eitbcr of Billow or of Winzinperodo, and he eoou 
lirnt that hu would bu attacked by Napoleon in 

Tba Emperor bad deeisted from the pursuit of 
tlw Austriana on Fcbruiiry 26, leaving forty thou- 
Mnd mvQ on the Aubo under the commund of Oudi- 
noC and 3Iacdonald. Setting out from Tn>yed on 
Pebruary 27, he reached Sezanne on the foUowing 
day and arrived at Ijt Ferli^tufi-Jounrrc on llurch 
S, with an army of thirty-fivo thousand %ht!n); men. 
li Btiicbor bad not tukcn Uio prtvaution l^i destroy 
the bridp acroBB the Mame, the army of Silcaiu 
wtmid hare been (lcatroyc<I. But b^ was now able 
during ibe neit two days to crou the Ourcq and to 
pttin ujwa tho Aiaoo. Hi« aoidiera were in tbo 



voret extremity of fatigue and misery. In serenty- 
tvo boars they had fought three battles and made 
three night marches; they had received no regular 
sapply of provisions for a week. Some of the 
cavalry had not nnsaddled for ten days, the horses 
were in a terrible condition, the artillery stuck 
hopelessly in the muddy roads, and quantities of 
ammunition bad to be abandoned. The infantry 
marched barefooted and in rags, carrying rusty mus- 
kets, grumbling against their generals. 

There were two bridges across the Aisne in these 
parts, one at Soissons and one at Berry-au-Bac, but 
the fortified town of Soissona was held by a French 
garrison. Napoleon moved in the direction of 
Fiaraes, hoping to intercept the passage at Eerry-aa- 
Bac, that of Soiasons being already closed. If he 
could succeed, Blucher would have to fight a battle 
under the worst possible conditions, which could 
lete disaster. But the unex- 



treuoD may well be imagined. He wrote to Clarke, 
the Hiniater of War : " The enemy was in the great- 
cat csnbairassmeiit, and we were hoping to reap the 
frnit of several days of labour, when the treason or 
stupidity of the commandant of Soissons delivered 
this fortress to him. Arrest this roiaerable wretch, 
•nd tha members of the councilof defence, bringthem 
bsfore a court-martial composed of goncrala, and, in 
Ood'a name, have them shot in the Place do Greve 
in twenty-four hours. It is time that example should 
U nude," 

\apoleon now crossed the Aisne by the bridge of 
Berr3"-au-Bac, hoping to reach Laon before Bliicher. 
The Prussian Marshal, wishing to attack the Em* 
pcror on tho march, occupied the plateau of Craonne 
with thirty thousand men, and it was necessary for 
Napok-on to dislodge them before he marched on to 
the city. This gave occasion to the battle of Craonne, 
fought on March 7. 1B14. The Kusaians were 
drawn up in three lines on the grand plateau, which 
oonld only be rfjachod by difficult detilcs. During 
■evemi houra' conflict the French troops were not 
ibie to altaiu the plateau, until at lengtli the Rua- 
lian lines were broken by the artillery of Davout. 
Bliicher now perceived that a cavalry charge, which 
he bad prepared with the design of dealing tho 
fhmeh a dcciMivc blow, could not be made widi sue- 
oem, and he ordered the retreat of the Russians from 
tbe pUt«au. Tho battle was iheroforo undecided, 
■ad wu certainly not a victory for Napoleon. !jc- 
etnw tho alliM were able to carry out their original 
intention of retiring to Laon. 

The city of Laon, crowned by it« cathedral, is a 
natural fortreas which dominates the surrounding ' 
plain. Bliicher established himself there stronglj 


wahs of the centuey. 

and Napoleon endeavoored to dislodge him, hoping 
in this way to prevent the advance to Paris. He 
thereforu attacked the advance posta of the army of 
Silesia, towards the south, on March 9, and ordered 
Marmotit to make a similar attack upon the east. 
Marmont did not arrive on the ground till late in 
the day, and with eome difSculty established himself 
at iVthies. He left his troops there for the night, 
going himself to sleep at the chateau of Eppes, some 
three miles off. 

In the evening the best soldiers of Marmont, 
wearied by eight hours of march and four of battle, 
were dispersed looking for food in the neighbt^uring 
farras, while the larger number, paralysed by cold 
and weakened by hunger, were sleeping like ahoep 
in a pen, round the bivouac fires. At seven o'clock 
the Pi-usBiana penetrated into the village, and find- 
ing the troops in their first sleep cut them to pieces 




XapoleoD Btill oontiuued to threaten Laon, hoping 
to intimidate Bliicher into a retreat ; but the marghal 
was too aure of hie position to bo frigiitened in this 
manner. AH tho attempts of the Fnuch to dislodge 
a rsatljr superior body of tho enemy from extremely 
ttrong ground proved fruitleaa, and they at length 
retired U> Soissima, having lost, altogetlier, more 
tfajui BIX ihouK&ud men, killed, wounded and taken 
pmooers, while the loss of the allies had only been 
■boat that munbcr. The check of Napoleon at 
LaoD vria t)ie first consequence of the council of war 
■t Bar-tur-Aubo. Augereau had been compelled to 
■top hit movemeDid from Lyons towards the Juru, 
beei»»e tlte army of the Prince of Hesse had beaten 
tbfl French at Poltgny on March 4, and Augereau 
bad withdrawn his forces in tho direction of Lyons. 
It will bo remembered that when Xapoleon set 
out in pursuit of the army of Bliicher he had loft bo- 
hind him tho corps of Macdonald and Oudinot. 
Tlwae were immediately attacked by Schwarzenberg, 
and were bcaton at Vernonfays, upon which they re- 
timd to Troycfl. They did not stay there long, but 
retraatod first to Nugent and then to Proving, so that 
Schwanenberg was again upon the Seine. The im- 
portant town of Rlieims also bud been captured by 
a body of Russians under the command of Saint 
Priwt, a lieutenant of Lungi-run. As soon as Na- 
polcoD beard of this he gave orders for Marmont 
to advance upon Kheims. Ho sent Ney there also, 
aad left Soisaons in peraon for the same place at day- 
break on March 13. Halnt Priest could hardly believe 
that be was being attacked by the French, whom 
rappoanl to bo a long way off. I'he t^mperor ar> 
at nhcima at four o'clock in tho aftonioon, 
inuncdiitoly garo orden for the oasaulL Saint 



Priest BOOH recognised by the number of tbe enemy 
and by tbe vigour of the attack that Napoleon was 
present in person. He immediately began to gire 
orders for the retreat, but was mortally wounded 
by a fragment of shell which shattered his shoul- 
der. The battle continued during the night, but the 
Bussians were eventually defeated and Napoleon 
gained possession of the town, thus establishing him- 
self on the lines of commuuication of both the hos- 
tile armies. 





WiTK!i Napoleon set out to follow Bliieher on 
Februsr? 27, he bad formed the whole plan of oam- 
, p aigp in his miilTl. lie intended to crush the army 
taBf SiWia, and to drive it beyond the upper waters 
^B( tbo OiBp, then to oollcet the garrisons of the for- 
^MMWs in the north-east, and to return with t$n thon- 
^^»»d sabres and forty thousand bayonets to the rear 
of the Grand Army of the allies, which was opposed 
in front by Macdonald, and harassed on its left 
flank by Augereau. But everjihing had ttinied 
■piiut bitn. Blucher bad been saved by the capitu* 
laiion of SoiMons, and the stubborn resistnm-e of 
tbe army of Silesia at Craonnc, and at Laon, as 
mil aa the retreat of Mnoionnid on Proving, and of 
Augereau on Lyons, rendered this whole scheme 
unpowiblc^ Bat the capture of Kheims brought his 
original project to the mind of the Emperor. He 
Ifavight that it would be possible to onrprise Schwar- 
aaberg in his operations, defeat one or two of bis 
dJTtsions, and, when the Grand Army was in retreat, 
marcfa npon Lorraine. 

BeCween Uaroh 11 and ^(i Schwnnenbrrg had 
driren tbo troops of Macdonald from Xogent to Pro- 
rins and from Provins to Nangia, but wlien he heard 
at the capture of Ubeims he had stopped bis advanco 
md befiin hi* retreat anew, being afraid of a move- 
t of Kapoleon on bia communicatioua. Uo 



vrote OQ March 13 : " I hare no oewti, and I most 
confefiB that I tremble. If Bliicher is defeated, 
caa I riBk a battle myself ? for if I am conquered, 
what a triumph for Napoleon, and what humiliation 
for the BOvereigoB to have to recrosB the Rhine at the 
head of a conquered army!" On March 17 Na- 
poleon was BtiU hesitating as to whether he should 
join ilacdonald and meet the enemy face to face, or 
whether he should march to Troves in order to fall 
upon the flank or rear of the allica. The firstplanwas 
in his opinion the safer, but be chose the second be- 
cause it was the bolder. Before Betting out he sent 
orders to Marmont and Mortier to use every effort 
to keep Bliicher behind the Aisne; if he did not suc- 
ceed in thia they were to retire towards Paris, disput- 
ing every position on the road. They had with them a 
force of twenty-five thousand men ; Mortier was in- 
vested with the command, but the Emperor had more 
(.'oniidenco in Marmont. 



wliich implied a retreat upon Bnr-Biir-Atibe. 
Scbwarzenberg pasBed from the heights of confidence 
to the depths of piisiltaniuiity. At 1 p.m. he was 
holding .Uacdonald behind the Seine, and lighting 
I battle with Nap*^leon between the Manie and the 
Anbe ; at 8 p.m. he left all this ground open to his 
ftdvonarii.-s, und retreated tliirty railea with an urray 
of one hundred thousand before an army of fifty 

Napoleon waa, not unnaturally, ill-infonned of the 
attoation. He believed that the great army was on 
right bank of the Seine fighting with Macdnnald ; 
therefore determined to march straight on to 
ir-Aubo and to traverse its rear. But arriv- 
al F6re-ChampoDoise, be beard of Schwarzen- 
;*• retreat and, changing hia plana, prepared to 
tbo Auho at Boulapea and the Seine at Mfiry, 
ley at the aame time making a parallel march. Na- 
Ijnleon met with so little resistance at the passage of 
tbuM rivera tliat he became convinced that the Grand 
^Anny was retiring by forced marches on Brionne or 
ir«Dr-Aubo. This cnnfirmod hia opinion that the 
fest plan he could adopt would be to march towards 
tbegarriaonaof I^rrainoand, collecting all available 
troope, throw himself on the rear of the allies with 
_mn army of ninety thousand men. For this purjKtso 
determined to march on Vitry-le-Francoia and 
dOM iho road which passed by Arci»-sni^Anhfc 
[On the morning of l^rcb 20 he wrote te the Minis- 
rcf War; " My movement baa lieen perfectly itie- 
foL I shall neglect Troyes and march with all 
htato upon my fortn«»(^ ; " anrl again : " I am atart- 
fng for Vitry." lie contemplated as a poasibility 
Uie capture of Paris, feeling that alt moaanra at 
■ecari^ had been taken, and that wherever bia bead- 



quarters were, there was the capital of the Em- 

It happened, from some reason which has not been 
sufficientij explained, that Schwarzenberg was on 
March 19 seized with an access of energy, and sud- 
den ]j determined to stop hia retreat and to engage 
Napoleon, Consequently on the following day tho 
first columns of the allies fell unexpectedly on the 
French positions at Areis and Torcy, situated on 
either side of the Aube, and drove ttiera back in great 
confusion. Napoleon, galloping up, restored order 
at great personal risk. Finding that his troops were 
fleeing pell-mell over the bridge, he rode to the end 
of it, faced the fugitives, and cried in a voice of th\in- 
der: " ^Vho will dare to cross the bridge before me ? " 
At another time when even the firmness of the guard 
seemed to waver, he rode hia horse close up to a bIicII 
and remained till it exploded. The horse was killed, 
but the Emperor was uninjured. None of the " bear- 



AreiB- The allies attacked the town, but every street 
«nd erery houao was defended, and by the time they 
gUD«d poeaession of it the passage of the Aube wsa 
■ecu rod. 

After the two battles of Arcis-sHr-Aub© Napoleon 
continued, with more boldness than prudence, his 
march towards the fortresses of Lorraine and upon 
the conuQunications of the allied armies. On the 
aftemooa of March 23 he enltred St. Dizier, which 
lies between the tworouteswhichthearmiesof Bluchep 
and Scbwarzenlierg bad followed from Strasburg 
■nd Bale. Ho had no doubt that the Grand Army 
woold return and £ght him, but until he knew which 
route it would follow, he was reduced to inaction. 
Schwnrzenberg was equally ignorant of the direction 
of Kspoleon's march, and also waited for infomia- 
tioa. Suddenly an intercepted despatch gave the 
allies tbe light which they desired. A council of 
wtr Vka held at Pougy on March 23, and opinions 
were much divided. Some were in favour of a re- 
treat, other* were in favour of abandoning tbe com- 
BBDaication with Switzerland and marching on Cba- 
lona to approach the army of Bliichcr. This im- 

Ejint resolution was eventually adopted, although 
warzonberg atigmutLM^d it as rash. 
Intercepted despatches bad determined tlte marcb 
on Cholona; information of a similar character was 
10 produce even more important results. This was 
contained in Iett«i« from high functionaries of the 
Empire, describing tbe exbauatioD of the treaaotj, 
the arsenal and the magazines and tbe growing dis- 
coDtent of the population. Schwarstuborg hod not 
paid mncb attention to tliese deapatcbaa, mi baving 
opaoed oommnaicationa witli Uliieher, was now pm> 
paring tu pursac Napoleon with tbo two umiea uai^ 



ed. But the letters made a great impressioa on tte 
mind of tlia Emperor Alexander, and he spent a 
aleeplesa night in their contemplation. The King 
of Prussia and Schwarzenberg had already left in 
pursuit of INapoleon, but Alexander remained he- 
hind at Sommepuis. He summoned his Russian 
generals to his presence and asked them: " Now that 
our communications with Bfiieher are re-established, 
ought we to continue the pursuit of Napoleon, or 
should we march directly on Paris ? " Barclay deTol- 
ly was strongly in favour of continuing the pursuit ; 
Diebitsch was iu favour of dividing the army into 
two portions, one to pursue Napoleon, the other to 
march on Paris — a fatal suggestion. At hearing this 
Barclay cried: "There 13 only one thing to be done 
under our present circumstances — to march on Paris 
as quickly as possible with all our forces, and to send 
ten thousand cavalry against Napoleon to mask our 
movement." Diebitsch then followed on the samo 





Os March 25 Uie two oriuiea bogau tiieir march on 
'nrU with a bod; of two liuudred thousand men. 
the ume day they caiiie into conflict with tho 
troope of Harshuls AlannoDt and Mortier at Furo 
Chuupeooifio, which they drove baclc after some ro- 
■iltui(% On Uie eanie day also, a little to the north, 
■MOe tbouaands of national guards, who were escorted 
bjr ■ largo convoy of a hundred artillery waggons 
and cigh^ other vehicles, with munitions of war 
and two hundred thousand rations of bread and 
brandy, were attacked by the army of Silesia, de- 
fondtd tkomwlvca with horolo courngc, and rather 
than SDrtender sufTcrod tbemselvea to be des- 
trojed to a man. The Emperor of Russia, who wit< 
ngMed the close of tho engagt-ment, never foi^t tlio 
laaaoti which it tniighl. The two marehalB conlinited 
tlielr retreat towards Paris, making a long detour 
by Proriiu, in order to avoid thoir advancing foea. 
Tbo allies marched np to the ontakirta of the capital 
witboDt ueetiug any n:«istanoe except that of a small 
body eamtnanded by Compans, who dispntod their 
cnruod foot by foot for three days from Mruux to 
Pantin. Oa ibo erenitig of iijarch 29 the alliee eo' 
eampMl before Paris. 

We left Nap-tleon at St Diiior, waiting for ntrwa 
of tho march of his cni'mio*. On March 25, lieing 
^^ill ignorant of their advance upon Paris, but bsaf 



ing that Bar-sur-Aube uid Troves bad been evacu- 
ated, he decided to occupy these towns, in order more 
effectually to intercept their communications, and 
moved for that purpose to Doulevant, some twelve 
milee to the south; but hearing that some Austrian 
cavalry, the one hundred thousand men o£ Win- 
zingerode, had shown themselves in the direction of 
St. Dizier, he returned and dispersed them. They 
left in his hands two thousand prisonera and 
eighteen guna, and lost five hundred men killed or 
wounded. The victory, however, brought great con- 
fusion to the mind of the Emperor: he believed that 
he was engaged with the army of Schwa rzen berg, an<l 
found that he was fighting the army of Bliicher. 
How could Bliicher, who a few days ago was threat- 
ening Soissons, benow on the frontiers of Lorraine i 
and how could Schwarzenberg, who was marching 
on Vitry, have disappeared so suddenly ? At length, 
on the afternoon of Sunday, March 27, when before 





to sleep at Villencuve-flur-Vanne, but his impatience 
overcame him. He threw himself into a postK^haiso 
intb Caulatscourt, and galloped at full spoed on 
the road to Paris. 

On that verv daj, Wednesday, Mareh 30, 1S14, 
the decisive battle was being fought under the walls 
of the capita). PariB, at that time, was not forti- 
fied, and during the two months of the eampaign 
DoCfaing had be«n done either by Clarke, the Minister 
of War, or by King Joseph, who was President of 
the Council of li«^'ncy, to place it in a condition 
of defence. Napoleon himself had given no positive 
Ofden with regiird to it. Putting things at their 
TBiv brat, not more than fortyUirec thousand soldiers 
Mud militia wuld he got together to oppose tlio vast 
force* of tlio allies. Under these circumstances 
honour might be preserved, but victory was impos- 
ible. To make tlii« last effort, Marmont estab* 
ibvd himself on the plateau of Jtomainville. and in 
root of Pantin; Mortier waa to the north in front 
of La ViUet<- and l.a Chapclle. The soldiers of 
Usnoont defended their ground with the nrinost 
kerottm, but the ]ilateau was euptured by force of 
nnmbers, and he withdrew to Bolleville and Henil- 
Bumtant, where he held out for several hours. But 
ihe alliua occnpied Charonne and drove Mortier back 
Id Ifaa wry gatea of the city, capturing Montmartre 
ulting the barrier of Clichy, which waa 
ided by the aged Marshal Moncey. At four 
in the afternoon Mannont, using the power 
faich Joi*eph had given to him, began ne^tiations 
:or ■ capitulation. The French evacuated the city 
the night and the allies made their triumphal 
on the following day. 
Ucanwhilo Kapoleoo, hastening with all speed 



towards the capital, was receiving bad news at every 
post-house. At Sens he heard that the euemj were 
approaching Paris; at Fontainebleau, that the Em- 
press had left for Bloia; at Easormes, that a battle 
was being fought. At last, at eleven o'clock at night, 
be reached the post-house of Froment«au, called 
Cour-de-France, about fourteen miles from Paris. 
Here he leamt the news of the capitulation from 
General Belliard. He refused to yield to circum- 
stances: he would go to Paris, sound the tocsin, 
illuminate the town, call the whole population to 
arms, and he drove on to Atbis two miles further. 
From this point he saw the bivouac fires of the 
enemy on the left bank of the Seine and met the ad- 
vanced guard of Mortier. He returned to La Gour- 
de-France, despatched Caulaincourt to Paris with 
full power to treat for peace, shut himself up in a 
room and busied himself with his maps. 




It is impossible to writo an account of the cam* 
pugn of Waterloo without saying something of the 
political occurrences which led to it, the return 
of Napoleon from Elba, and the rising of united 
Europe for his destruction. The restoration of the 
Bourbons to the throne of France ioeritablj car- 
ried with it the re-establishment of the Ancien 
Begime. Under any circumstances it would 
have been extremely difficult to reconcile the 
new and the old — the ideas of the Revolution 
with the system which it displaced. Bat a task 
of this nature, easy at no time, had been ren* 
dcred impossible by the twenty years of war 
which had succeeded tfao Revolution. The partisans 
of the Bourbons regarded everything that had been 
done since the abolition of monarchy as a usurpation, 
and were impatiently waiting for the time when they 
were to enjoy their own again. The adherents of 
the new state of things, however much they might de- 
sire a condition of peace and settled government, 
looked upon the Ancien Regime with horror, as 
the embodiment of tyrauuy and injustice and its 



restoration as a return to barbarism. I^apoleon 

said frequently at St Helena that the Bourbons 
would never again be able to reign in France, and 
experience has shown that he was right. 

Therefore to recount the mistakes of the Boiir- 
bons on their return to Paris is merely to narrata 
the inevitable. A reasonable settlement was impos- 
sible, and measures more or less erroneous could not 
appease or exasperate the inherent antagonism of the 
situation. It was soon seen that they had learnt 
nothing and forgotten nothing. They took every 
pains to obliterate the memory of the Revolu- 
tion and the Empire; the tri-coloured cockade 
waa abolished and the white cockade put in 
its place; the palace of the Tuilleries was filled 
with the old aristocracy, who treated those who 
had supplanted them with acorn and contempt, 
and drove them from the court which was dominated 



parties to 30. While these reductions were enforced 
a number of officers were admitted into the army 
who had received their military edncatioa either in 
tbe anny of Conde or in the service of Aus- 
tria or Engiatid. The old royal household 
troopa came back with all their privileges ; a 
large number of officers were placed upon half- 
pay, which formed a solid nucleus for discon- 
tent Tbe two Slinisters of War — Dupont, who 
wu tainted with the disgrace of the capitulation of 
Bayleu, and Soult, who bad all tbe zeal of a convert 
—ripened wide the gates of promotion to tbe emigres 
and ekwed them to the children of the Revolution. 
On the other hand, the worship of tbe Emperor, tbe 
nwmoT7 of his triumphs and tho longing for his re- 
drew every day more passionato from one end 

France to the other. 

Kapoleon, from the island of Elba, followed these 
moraneDts with a watchful eye. He noted tlie mis- 
takas of the Bourbons, and tho growing desire of the 
people and the army for his return. There were 
other reasons why he should not remain where he 
was. The treaty of Fontainehleau bad promised him 
a rermne of two million fritncs a rear and propor- 
tionate donations to his mother and other membera 
of his family. Not one |>eimy of this had ever boea 
paid, and while tbe allied sovereigns might urge that 
tt would bo madness to place the weapon of money 
into fats bands, Napoleon was aware that his rcsourooa 
waf« ooarly exhausted and were not Nufliciont to pro* 
rida for his army or his bou^chold. Schemes were 
also formed at Vienna for kidnapping Napoleon and 
eoBwejiag him to the island of St. Uclena, or to some 
flthar aafe pla« of cnstody, so that if ho felt it to bo 
for bta intorosta to land in Franco tiiere was no 



reason whj aeatiments of houour gliould hold him 

Animated by these motives and encouraged by 
messages wbich he received from Paris, Napoleon 
left Elba on February 26, 1815, aud reacbed Gk)lfe- 
Juan at one o'clock in the afternoon on March 1. 
He had with him about eleven hundred men, consist- 
ing of about six hundred grenadiers and chasseurs 
of the old guard, about one hundred light Polish 
cavalry, of course without horses, a certain number of 
gunners, four hundred Coraican chasseurs, and a few 
unattached officers who had come to Elba to enter hia 
service. It is not necessary to relate the details of 
the march to Paris. Napoleon had said that his 
eagles would fly from steeple to steeple until they 
reached the towers of Notre Dame, and this boastfid 
prophecy was fulfilled. His advance was a triumph 
in which the people and the army vied together to 

tHEBEnntx ntoH blba. 

Louis XYHI. to bring him back in an iron cage, now 
declared that the cause of the Bonrbona was lost 
for ever . N apoleon entered Paris on March 20, 
Louis XVm. baring left it the night before, flying 
fitst to Lille and then to Ghent. The whole of 
France accepted the restored empire ; the high digni- 
taries of the army, who had welcomed the Bourbons 
in 1814, now sang a different note. If a sovereign 
has any right to his crown by a people's rote, Na- 
poleon could, after the retnm from Elba, feel hiat- 
self to be the choaeu uioiutrch of fiaiioe. 



chapteh XXXIX 


East as it was to rally France around the Im- 
perial regime, it was impossible tbat it should be ac- 
cepted by Europe. By declarations signed on March 
13, the sovereigns at the Congress of Vienna had de- 
clared Napoleon an outlaw, and a fortnight after- 
wards they had formed a new Coalition. Not less 
than eight hundred thousand men were advancing 
against the frontier of France ; no representations 
were listened to; it was necessary to prepare for a 
terrible struggle. When Napoleon entered tho 



troops h«d enmpleted their concentratioD, He wrote 
OQ April 10 that it would be Buflicient to move sixty 
thouxaiirl Anglo-Dutch, sixty thousand Prussians and 
ooe handred and forty thousand Austro-Bavarians 
^ioto Uie countrj- between the Sambre and the Meuse 
^Hin order to occupy France with forces superior to the 
enemy and to be able to manoeuvre in the direction of 
PariB, He was anxious above everything for the 
nsioration of Louis XVIII., and thought that de- 
]»y would give Napoleon strength. Schwarzen- 
hetf was characteristically anxious for delay. 
Eventually it was agreed that bis armies should 
invade France simultaneously : Wellington with 
the army of the Low Countries, ninety-threo 
tboiuaiid strong, between Maubeuge and Beau- 
mont; Bliicher with the Pnissian army, oua 
red and seventeen thouaand strong, between 
Ippevillo and Givet; the Russian cavalry 
undfT Barclay do Tolly, with one hundred and fifty 
ithotuand men, bctweetm Suardorics and Snarbrueh; 
wftMcnberg with two hundred and ten thousand 
^ilustriini and South Germans, partly by Sarregui- 
iaec and partly by Bale. These four armies wero 
tnArcli concCTilrically on Paris, by P^-ronne, 
Nancy and Langres respectively. On the 
cztroDe left the anny of North Italy and the army of 
Ifiriea were to cro^s the Alps and to advance, one 
on Lyana and the other on Provence, the lalter to be 
mpponcd in its operations by tlie English fleet. 

To meet this attack, ^Napoleon, as be has himself 
related, hesitated for a long time b<.'tweeM two plana. 
The first wa« to collect a large body of troopa near 
Paria, to concentrate the army of the Alps and th« 
eorpa of the Jnra at Lyons, to let the allies mareb 
■funat the fortrataca, which were well proviaioned 



and garrisoned by one hiandred and fifty thousand 
raen. As the campaign was not intended to com- 
mence tin July 1, the enemy couid not reach Lyona 
till July 25, or Paris till July 25. By that time 
the fortifications of the capital would be completed, 
and would bo well furnished with defenders. The 
army of Paris would amount to two hundred thou- 
sand men, and there would be eighty thousand men 
in the depota and one hundred and fifty-eight thou- 
sand recruits. Of the six hundred and fifty-four 
thousand allied troops who entered France seventy- 
five thousand would be engaged in Provence and in 
the territory of Lyons, and not less than one hundred 
and fifty thousand would be left behind to protect 
their communications, so that the four grand armies 
on reaching the Oiso and the Seine would not num- 
ber more than four hundred and twenty thousand 
combatants. To these Napoleon would oppose two 
hundred thousand soldiers capable of movement, be- 



lus genius and partly by political conaiilorationa. 
He did not itiink it safo to expose tbe country again 
to tbe strain wLich had been put on it in tbe previous 
jesr. Besidee, he felt confident that one decisive vic- 
tory would destroy the Coalition ; the Belgians would 
join the French, and if tiie Whiga came into power 
in England tbey would make peace. On tbe other 
hutd, if his army were compelled to retreat, he could 
retire on Paris and take up the first plan; at the 
■une time he did not conceal from himself the dia- 
Mtroiu consequcnceii of u signal defeat such as be 

KMled was not likely to happen to him. 
Uaving decided on the second plan, be next had to 
termine at what point be should make bia attack. 
lui moved by Lilfe on Wellington's right, he would 
urive tbe English army into the arms of tbe Prua- 
atans and would soon huvo tt> fight them both united ; 
if be deboDclied by Qivet and tlic valley of the Heu^, 
ba wiHild drive the Prussian army into the arma of 
tlw KnglUh. He thr-rcforo determined to aim 
itniight at the point of juncture of the two armiM 
^^od to commemre the eain]>nign from Cbarleroi. 
^B Napoleon lerft Paris on tbo night of Juno 10 and 
^^hadied Laon, that tiiwn of ill-nmen, at midday on 
Hpinia 11. On Jane 13 he slept at Avesnes, and on 
tbs erening of Juno 14 moved \m bcadtiuartera to 
Baaamoot, aboal thirty miles distant The next day 
b« addraaaed bia men thus: "Soldiera, this day w 
tbe mniversary of Marengo and of FritMllatid, hattlea 
wUeh bam twice deddLsl the desliny of the Kmpiro, 
TbeOi at after Auaterlitz and after Wagram, we 
wan too gencrooa. To-day, in a coalition against 
Ba, ibe princee, whom we liave left nnon their thrones, 
are attacking the independ'-nee nnd Ibe moot sncrod 
of Fraaoa. Tbey have U^u tbe mo«t uu* 



just agressions. They and ourselves, are we no 
longer the same men ? " The French army was now 
concentrated in a line extending from Solre-sur- 
Sambre to Philippevitle, a distance of about ten 
miles, with Beaumont for its centre, each corps 
having not more than about fifteen or twenty miles 
to march to reach its objective, Charleroi. 

By these operations, in ten days, a body of one 
hundred and twenty-four thousand men, considerably 
scattered, had been brought to the frontier, within 
cannon-range of the enemy's outposts, without the 
allies having adopted any measures of defence. 
Never bad such a manoiuvre been better conceived, 
and, with some exceptions, better carried ouL On 
June 14 the headquarters of Bliicher were at Namur, 
and those of Wellington at Brussels; each of these 
armies would require three days to concentrate 
on their point of contact, and twice that time to con- 
centrate either on the English right or the Prussian 



To hia honour be it said, Bliicher, disgusted at see- 
log a soldier dressed in the uaiform of a general of 
division deserting his colours on the moniing of 
battle, would scarcely speak to him. Notwithstand- 
ing tbew checks the advanced posts of Ziethen wers 
driven back to tlio Sambrc, and the French became 
masters of the two bridges over the river, one at 
Ifarehieniie-aii-Potit and the other at Charleroi. At 
middar Napoleon rode through the town of Charleroi 
and, silting in a chair before a small tavern, saw the 
troops defile beforu him. Tradition says that he fell 
asleep, which is perhaps not to be wondered at on a 
bot day in the middle of Jnne after seven or eight 
boars in the saddle. 

After Charleroi the road branches into two, that 
to the right leading to Flenrua and Soinbreffe, that 
to the left to Gosselies, Quatre-Rras and Gonapi>e, the 
fint being the road to Xainur, tlie socoml t)ie road 
to BrusMts. At 2 p.m. General Gourgaud brought 
tb« ncwB that the Prussians were visible in force at 
Ooiselies, that ia, on the Brussels road. Napoleon 
at once ordered General Reille to march on Gome- 
liea, and, besides taking other measures, sent D'Erlon 
to rapport Reille. lie was naturally disturbed, be- 
eauae the presence of Prussians on the Brusttets road 
nemed to indicate a juncture between Blticlier and 

At a little after three o'clock in the afternoon Ney 
raddrnly arrived upon the scone, to the great delight 
of the troopH. The Emperor said to bim: "Good 
day, Ney ; I am very gloil to see you. You will take 
eoounand of the first and second corps. I giTe you 
alao the light cavalry of the guard, but Jo not use 
tbem. To-morrow yon will bo joined bv the 
eairaaaiert of Kellenuann. Go and drive the enem/ 




along the road to Brussels and take up a position at 
Quatre-Bras." This plaoe, bo famous in history, 
lies at the spot where the road from Namur to 
Niveilea crosses the road from Charleroi to BnisseK 
It ia about eleven miles from Charleroi, a little more 
than a mile from Oenoppe, and about nine miles 
from the battle-field of Waterloo. Napoleon had 
now good reason to believe that hia plan had aoe- 
ceeded beyond hia expectations. He would be able 
to place his left wing at Quatre-Bras to meet the 
English, his right wing at Sombreffe to meet the 
Prussians, while, taking hia position at rieurus, the 
apex of the triangle, he would be able on the follow- 
ing day to throw himself with decisive effect on 
whichever of the enemies was the first to show bim- 

Aa Napoleon was giving his instructions toNey, 
Grouchy camo up, who was destined to take charge 
of the right wing. Ho had found that the Prus- 


before Qnatre-Bras and were joined by reinforce- 
ments nnder Prince Bernard of Saxe-Weimar. Key 
came to the conclusion that he could not successfully 
attack this body of four thousand five hundred men 
with his aeventeen hundred cavalry and a single 
battalion of infantry. Therefore a little before 8 
p.ic be recalled his cavalry to Frasnes and went 
bimself to sleep at Gosselies. 

No doubt tiie failure of Key to occupy Quatre- 
Braa on June 15 was one of the chief causes of Ka- 
poleon'a ill auccess. If, when be arrived at Gosse- 
lies at 6 P.M., instead of stopping Keille's corps, 
be bad taken with him only part of the troops which 
the Emperor bad placed under bis orders, he might 
have cmsbed the forces of Prince Bernard and placed 
himself between the poeitions of Bliicher and Well- 
ington, but for once " the braveet of the brave " pre- 
ferred cautioQ to hardihood. 





Ox the morning of June 16, although Sombreffe 
and Quatre-Bras had not been occupied, the French 
army was in a good position. Napoleon had thrown 
himself into the centre of the allied position, and 
had one hundred and twenty-four thousand men en- 
camped in a triangle measuring about nine miles 
each way. During the whole day not an English 
uniform had been seen, and the Prossians had no- 
wiiore shown any largo number of troops. The Em- 
peror therefore had some reason for supposing that 




fug to fight a luittle, but he saw no reason to alter 
the orders iilrcady given. Just as he was leaving 
for Flcunis news came from the left wing that the 
ooemy was appearing in force on the side of Quatre 
Braa, 11|h>u which Napoleon sent to Nej the follow- 
ing order: " Blticher having been yesterday at 
Namur, it is not probable that ho has led bis troops 
to Qaalro Bras; therefore yon have only to deal with 
tboM whieli i.'oine from llnisaels, join together the 
oorps of Comles Iteille and D'Erlon, and that of the 
Comt« de Valmy (Kellermann). Witli these forces 
you will bo able to beat and destroy all the strength 
of the ooemy which may apjwjir before you." Lobau 
was ordered to remain at Charleroi to assist Ney if 
MMmrT. Having given these orders, the Emperor 
irt oat for Flenms, whieh he reached a little bcfora 
11 A.U. He. found to his 3Uri»ri»o that Grouchy 
bad Dot yet started for Sonihreffe, but that general 
g»rci as his reason the faci that largo masses of th« 
cneniv won? to I)o seen a little to the north of Fleunis, 
which he had only <.ici-npii-<I tliiit morning. Hearing 
this, NajKileon took up his p-jsition in a brick wind- 
tuil] which Commands (he plain, having madu a 
breach in ita wooden cowl for purposes of observation. 
Pliichi-r. as *<»on us he heard of NB[)oIeoii'a at* 
tiek, had hastened from Namur to Sombreffe, wiiich 
he r«ache<I on Jniio 15 at 4 r.x. Ite immediately 
tO«k steps to put his trwps on the bri"«ik of l.igny, a 
ponitton which he had prcvionxly »eh-ctc<i as n tieh! 
of battle if the French should debouch by Oharleroi, 
He wa» full of ardour and had written to hi:* wife: 
"Willi one hundred and twenty thousand Pniaaiana 
T Would him) myself to take Tripoli, Tunis, and 
Aljtiers if I had not got to pass the sea." But be 
bid Dotuv difficulty ia oooceutrating hii foreoi, whicb 



were much dispersed. At 11 a,m, only the corps 
of Zietlien was in line, the corps of Pirch did not 
arrive till midiiay, followed by that of Thielmann, 
while the fourth corps, under Biilow, was much be- 
hind. Still, he determined to fight, hoping for the 
co-operation of Wellington, of which ho had re- 
ceived a conditional promise. 

Wellington, who was at Brusaela, had been in- 
formed at 8 A.M. on the morning of June 15, by 
Zietben, that his outposts had been attacked, but not 
being certain that this was not a feint, hesitated to 
concentrate all hia troops on his left. That night 
the famous ball of the Duchess of Richmond was 
given at Brussels. Wellington went to it, probably 
that he might not alarm the somewhat doubtful 
courage of the Belgians, and left it after supper at 
S A.u. He set out at 6 a.m. and reached Quatre 
Bras at 10 a.m., a distance of a little over twenty 




the eeotro is tho villngo of Ligny with its two largo 
farms, the ancient castle of the Coiinta of Looz, and 
1 clinrcli willi ft gravuyard enclosed by a wail. By 
the villages which border the stream, the position of 
the Prussians may be described as a continuous ditch 
with (en baHtions, some in front of and some behind 
the ditch, tho most iniiK>rtant, Ligny, being traversed 
throu^out its whole length by the brook. From the 
mi]l at Fleurtis Najwleon could not see the whole 
atreogtb of the position, because the ravine of the 
tigoy WKfl bidden from him. The ground looked 
like a rsat corn-field, sloping down towards the 
centre and gradually rising towards tlie horizon. 

We have seen that Bliicher was only able to as- 
•pmblv his Iroops gradually, therefore the Emperor 
had at first only a corpa d'armce before him. It 
VM plain also iliat tlio Prussians were lookiug for a 
jnnetioa with the English army on their right. This 
fact induced Napoloon to write to Ney at 2 p.m. 
tiitt «fter having attacked the enemy vigorously at 
Qtutn Bras he was to retire towards the Emperor's 
pccition to take the Prnasians on the right flank. A. 
copy of this order m-hs also sent to O'Erlon, who wu 
oader Key's command. Napoleon soon became 
■ware that he ha<l beforn him the whole of the Prns- 
■ian army and bo was pro[>ortionately delighted. In 
■ faw Imurs, if Ney appeared on the heights of Brye, 
Blilober would be destroyed. He said to (Jerard: 
** It is poMible that in thrtK* hours the fate of the war 
irill be decided. If Ney carries out his orders well, 
Mt a gun of the army will Mwape." At .1.15 p.m. 
a mors pressing order was sent to Xer. lie is told 
thai tb« Pnustana are lost if he acta vigorously — 
thai the fate of Franco is in his hands; hut jtiit at 
tliia moment the Emperor beard that Ney bad twenty 



befon him. He tlieref ore 

t^ he ■■« eoBtect himself 

«f D^&ka, mad went orders to 

OB the i^iht td the Prassian 

' to he iiiMenmii iHiT to Xey. 

at 3 F.M. Vandamme ad- 
the c wfi e M a npon &. Amasd. and 
Oaeid ■poa Ijgi^. TW Fimdi succeeded in 
ci|itBziB£ Sl Amaad, bat it was reefmred by the 
Fi— liiii Onlr half of the t-UU^ of Lignj was 
te^^ tbe Fmsfians still holdini: their own on the 
other side of the stmrn. Tber abo t-xtk paitienlar 
pains to defend their ri^t, by which thev conld com- 
municate with tbe Engli^. At last, at 5.30 p. u., 
Xapoleon made preparatioDS for the advance of bis 
reserve aeainft ibe PriBsian centre He expected 
XeT to arrive at 6 p.m., and the defeat of Bliicher 
would then be complete. As the attack was forming 
news was broo^t that a body of the enemy's troops, 


two wings of tlie Pnusian arm; were able to re- 
treat in good order, althougli they Buffered much loss. 
The whole loss of the Prussians amounted to fifteen 
thousand, that of the French to about nine thousand. 
The battle of Ligny was a great success, but the 
victory was not complete. The Prussian army was 
mutilated, bnt not destroyed, and the plans ela- 
borated for its annihilation by Napoleon bad failed. 





DcRiNQ the course of June 16 the Emperor tad 
sent nine successive orders to Marshal Ney, the first 
at five o'clock in the morning, the last at five o'clock 
in the evening. It is the opinion of military ex- 
perts that, if Ney had acted with promptitude, he 
might have been in a position to attack Quatre-Eraa 
at 9 A.M. with a force of nineteen thousand in- 
fantry, three thousand five hundred cavalry and 
sixty-four guns, and a reserve of twenty thousand 



been attacked. About 3 p.m. Wellington ar- 
rired OD the field, after Lis interview with iitiiclier, 
and Donsidercd the aitnation to be critical ; but ho 
wMO received reinforcements, Picton with eight 
Knglisli battalions and four Hanoverian, and Van 
Herliu with some Dutch and Belgian cavalry. 
1, vith Kempt and Pack under him, marched 
i»«Mablish the broken left In the meantime 
Prince of Orange defended his centre against 
r, who was pressing tlie attack, but was with Wel- 
3ti driven into confusion along the Brussels 
About the same time the farm on the allied 
jht waa captured, and the wood of Bussu attacked. 
Aboot 4 r.u, ifey received the Emperor's order 
prOM the enemy vigorously and then to attack 
flank of the Fruseian army at Brye. He there- 
font ffiudu ■ general moveineut in advance. The 
■Uka began to yield on their right and centre; the 
Bla^ Bninswickera were driven back by Foy ; they 
dialed once more.lod by their Duke Frederick Wil- 
liiuii Id person, but hu wus shot in the stomach and 
was carried into a house at Quatre-Bras, where he 
divd in thu evening. Ilis troops were dressed in 
bUek, with a badge of n skull and crossed bonps in 
nMoior^ of tlio iluke, his father, who had been 
mortally wounded at Auer^tadt. On the allied left 
Uw French column of attack waa met by the fire of 
Pktoa'a troops, bidden l>y the standing com; it waa 
Uma dkai)^ with the bayonet by Kempt'a brigade 
and driren back to tlio farm. The English cotild not 
Id hia advanced [xnition and rGtimd, gallantly 
illuwml by the Frvnch. The 38th n^imont formed 
ito square to resiat the French cavairy, and wfaon 
ihry M>cnicl likely to bmak Pteton called out to 
tiiuii, " Xwouly-eijjbth, rciuambcr Egypt" Pack's 



brigade was Ipss fortunate, and the FreQch opposed 
to them advanced as far as the Namur road. 

For the suecesa of his attack Ney had reckoned 
on the twenty thousand men forming the corps of 
D'Erlon, who formed the reserve, but by a strange 
fatality this body was to prove equally useless to 
himself and to his master. D'Erlon had, from 
various reasons, been retarded in his march, and at 
4 P.M. was atill about five miles from Quatre-Bras, 
when the order came from Napoleon ordering him to 
march to the heights of St Amand and fall upon 
Ligny. Uu fortunately he misread the order, and iu- 
stoad of taking the direction of Brye and Ligny to 
attack the Prussians in the rear, he marched to- 
wards St. Amand and Fleunis, which merely had 
the effect of prolonging Napoleon's left, first 
sending a message to Ney to inform him of what he 
was doing. Ney on receiving the news was beside 




wickers from the liouaesof QHatre-Uras, and of otheT 
Otrmuu from the Brussels mat). EeilermanD's 
bona wta ldllod,an(l hia soldiers broke and fled. 

At tliis moment Nev, having had two horses killed 
mider him, was standing in the most exposed poai- 
tioo, transported with rage, his face suffused with 
blood, brandishing his sword like a madman. An 
crdcrl^' sent by Napoleon found him in this condi- 
tion, and expressed the Emperor's wish that D'Erlon 
ifaoold support him at ail hazards, so that ho might 
milce an end of the Prussian army. Noy admitted 
that be had juat sent D'Krloii an imperative order 
to return, and it waw impossible to make him recall 
it Wellington received reinforeemcnts between six 
•ad atmm in the evening, but the battle continued till 
nine o'dot^k, the two armies continuing to occupy 
the positionii whieh they had held in tho morning. 
Jnst at this moment D'Krlon advanecH from Fraanes 
along tbo I3nuitels rosd. In this bloody but in- 
deeinTe battle the Freneh had lost four tliousand 
thren hundred men, and the allies four tliousand 
•eren hundred. 

As wv have already narrated, although ttio centre 
of the Pmaaiana had been broken at Ligny, the two 
wings Wftro able to retreat in good ofiKt. mid there- 
''on the Emperor did not at tirst think of pursuing 
tbom beyond Sombreffc. Mn^ ho was anxious about 
Lis left wing, aa during the whole of the day be had 
not noeived a single dooiiuteh from Key. So when 
Groocby came to htm at Flcurus at 11 P.M. to ask 
'lot orders, ho t^dd him to pursue the enemy at day- 
lireak with the cavalry of Pajol and Exelmana. 
VThilst Xapoluon was at bn'akfaHt ahont soven 
'eloek in the morning of June 17, ho r«eeiv«] a re- 
port of Uie battlo uf Quutre-Uras, and atto a (leapatch 



from Pajol, reporting that the Prusaiang were re- 
treating in the direction of Liege aud Namur, and 
that he bad already made a number of priflonors. 
At the same time Grouchy came for orders and was 
told to accompany the Emperor to the mill of Brye; 
Soult also wrote to Ney about the same time, that 
he was to send accurate information about his posi- 
tion. If tlie English army was at Quatre-Bras, the 
Emperor would attack it from the Namur road, but 
if there was only a rear-guard, Ney was to attack it 
find take possession. A little before 9 a.m. Na- 
poleon left Eleurus to visit the field of battle. Ar- 
riving at the mill of Eussy, he passed his troops in 
review, and the shouts of " Vive I'Empereur 1 " were 
heard by the enemy two miles off. He then had a 
long discussion with Grouchy about politics, ap- 
parently adjourning the moment of decisive military 




I /,.n..„ 


middle point between Jfamur, Li^ge, and Wavre; to 
soouU in the direction of Namur and Maea- 
idit to SBCi-rlnin the line of tho enemy's retreat; to 
follow llict I'nissiana and to discover their plana in 
the pursuit; to ascertain whether Bliieher is intend- 
ing to join the English. He also stated that his 
lqu*rtera would bo at Quatre-Braa, about ten 
distant from Genibloux, and that Grouchy 
to oommimicate with him by the Namur road. 
It will be remembered that in the battle of Ligny 
tiehcr vus thrown from his horao and nearly made 
<er. He was eiirried into a cottage, bruised 
lainting, and his stuff did not know whether 
u a prisoner or free, dead or alive. The eom- 
d dpTolved Hi>iin Qneiscnau, and tho reaponsi- 
ty of determining the line of retreat depended 
him. On horseback, in tlie middle of the road 
Brje, he consultetl his map by the liglit of tlie 
Doon, and gave the order that tlie retreat would bo 
oa Ttll^T and Wavre. Wellington wrote a few days 
terwarda to the King of Holland that this was 
Uw decisive moment of the generation." Following 
tlw I«tti*r of his inKlriictions but not the spirit, 
Oniucby occupied Gemblou.x on the night of Juno 

17, and prepared to follow the PrusaiauB; partly on 
le road to Wavrc, and partly on that to Liege oh 
le luorning of June 18. 
Ai Qaalre-Brns French and English remained in 
^b positions during the morning of June 17. 
Hlngton had slept at Genappe, bnt returned to 
|natn^Bra8 early in the morning. He sent a 
BWweng'T who heard from Zietben that the Pnift- 
■an army had been beaten and waa retiring on 
Warre, and delircm! the information to Wellington 
abcnU 7.30 a.u, ' Wellington now knew that he 



niUBt retreat, to avoid being attacked by TT^ey in 
front and Napoleon in the flank, and be determined 
to take up a position on the plateau of Mont-Saint- 
Jean which he had carefully reconnoitred in the 
preceding year, but was obliged to delay the retreat 
till 10 A.M. At this moment a Prussian officer ar- 
rived, sent by Gneisenau to inform Wellington that 
it was intended to concentrate the whole Prussian 
army at Wavre. The Duke replied : " I am goin:; 
to take up a position at Mont- Saint- Jean, and shall 
there await Napoleon and engage a battle, if I have 
the hope of being 8upi>orted by a single Prussian 
corps. But if this support fails me, I shall be eora- 
pelled to sacrifice Brussels and to retreat behind the 

Tlie English now retired from the position of 
Quatre-Bras, leaving the cavalry of Lord TJxbridge 
to cover their retreat. About 1 p.m. Napoleon ar- 
rived at Marbais, about three miles from Quatre- 




and Ittshpd b_v the rain. Lord Uxbridga rode by the 
•idc of hia troops crying, " FnsWr, faster, for llie 
loTB of God, gallop or you will be taken," the 
Frenc-b lancers following quickly at their lieels. 

Tfao English arrived at Gcnappc, crosgod the Dyle, 
■nd took up a position to the north. A combat eu- 
Mied in the etrct-tsof the village, and the Knglish were 
•loivly driven back. Napoleon arrived niwu the 
Bceac, dripping wet, and, placing a baltcry in posi- 
tiOD, called out to the gimnera in accents of rage and 
hatndt " Fire ! iirel they are English." After pass- 
ing Qcnappe the pace slackened considerably and the 
nwds bocamo almost impassable from tho rain. Na- 
iwleon arrived at an inn called the *' Belle Alliance," 
ao DiniN] because tho old and ugly innkeeper had 
ourried a young and pretty peasant. At 6.30 p.u. 
tbo French hussars were pursuing the Brunswick in- 
f«nti7 down tho hollow, when they were brought up 
hy tbo 6ring of the English artillery. The rain 
Md oMsed, but a damp fog enveloped the plain. 
The Empi'ror at last became ct^rtain that he had the 
wbole of Wellington's army before him and detor- 
mined to halt. 

After marking out tlie bivouacs for the different 
diTistons tbo Emperor retired to sleep at the fnnn of 
Le Caillou, where the riwms which be occupied are 
■till to bo aeon. The French pasaed a terrible night 
in tbo wet com-fielda; the English were Ixlter off 
becauce tho balk of tjieir amiy had readied th«ir 
[Mifition U-fore the raiu The cavalry of Lord 
Uxbriilge sufTi-red rn'mt. Itoth commanders B]>ont 
tbe night in anxiety: Xapoleon felt certain that ho 
flonld destroy the English, provided that they did not 
ntrMt, and if the Prussians did not oomo np in 
fanm to aaaiat thotn. Wellington Karcely dar^ to 



fight unless he was sore of Fraasisn co-operation, but 
he received a letter from Bliicher at his beadquartera 
in the village of Waterloo about 2 a.m. saying that 
he should be able to give the English some assistance. 
Napoleon slept but little; at about 1 a.m. he visited 
the outposts with Bertrand, the rain falling in tor^ 
rents. The army of the allies was plunged in steep, 
bnt red fires gleamed on the horizon. There was no 
sign of retreat, and the Emperor knew that the 
day would witness a decisive battle. He felt certain 
of victory, and that the pale sun which now began to 
pierce the clouds would witness the destruction of 
the English, but his patience was sorely tried by 
having to delay the attack. The rain had ceased, but 
the ground was extremely heavy; orders, however, 
were given to be ready for the battle at nine o'clock. 





Tub battle of Waterloo was fought between two 

itB, each rising lo tho elevation of about sixty or 

ligbtjr feet, numin^ (parallel to each other from 

to east. They are separated by two valleys, 

■Tcreci] by tho high-road from Charleroi to Brus- 

■b, iho valley of Smohain to the east, and that of 

le-I'Alleud to the west; the distance between 

rile AUiaao* and Mont St Jean is about three- 

irtcra of a mile aa tho crow fiios. The British 

■ition was well protected by hedges and a deep 

ftd; there wi^ro two outlying natural fortresses, 

^le chateau of Ilougoumont in front of the British 

right, and La Hayo Sainto in front of tlkcir centre; 

bchtnd their position the ground sloped considerably, 

to that neither tho position nor the movement of 

tnops in their rear coiild U' olisorved by the enemy. 

The British troops woke at brt'sk of day, lighted 

eir fires, prepared their breakfast, cleaned their 

iniforms and their arms, and at about G a.m. took 

ip their poaitioa for tlie bnttlr. The first line was 

'drawn lip U'hind the road to Ohaiii, d-ep and lined 

bed^M, tho guards of Byng and Maiilund, then 

l^olin ilalkett and Kiehnansef^in, and Ompttnia, 

(rrtehing from tho Xivfllcs road to the BniaBcli road. 

tOn the other side of the road followed Kempi, Pack 

and Pieton, tJio Dtiteh -^-f Bylandt and tlie Himo- 

of Bo6t. These nine brigades formed tbfl 



front of tha allied army, which waa drawn tip with 
a right and left centre and two wings. The right 
wing, eoDsiatiDg of the troops of Adams, Mitchell, 
Williams, Halkctt, and Duplat, waa drawn up at 
right angles on the other side of the Nivellea road, 
the Belgians of Chasse being at the extreme right 
in front of Braine I'Alleud. The left consisted of 
the Nassau brigade of the Prince of Saxe-Weimar, 
and the Hanoverian brigade of Wineke, flanked by 
the cavalry of Vandeleur and Vivian. There were 
also two lines of reserve, the composition of which 
we need not particularise. 

Wellington, who bad experienced in Spain the 
impetuosity of the French attacks, employed special 
tactics to resist them. He placed bia first line of 
infantry behind a ridge, bo that it might be invisi- 
ble before the attack and during the attack itself 
Not till the assailants had actually gained the sum- 
ifiiscd by the fire of skirmishers 

THE Battle of Waterloo. 



ThiB waa the first occasion on which Napoleon 
had ever come into direct conflict withEngHshtnxtpB, 
and ttie confiJenee which he felt was not shared by 
tbotx^ of his generals who had bad experience of them. 
Sonlt deoply regretted the separation of thirty thou- 
sand mett under Grouchy and pressed Napoleon to 
recall them, but the Einpt?ror roplii^d with temper: 
** BeeaUM you have been beaten by Wellington you 
oooflider him a good general, but I tell you that 
Wellington is a bad general, that the Engliab are bad 
troopa, and that it will all be over before dinner." 
"I only bopo ao," replied Soult. Soon afterwards 
Oeneral Reille, who had so often fought against the 
Eogli^ in Spain, entered the room, and Napoleon 
aakcd liiro his opinion about tbe English army. Ge 
■aid: ** Well posted, according to Wellington's usual 
manner, and attacked iu front I consider the English 
in&ntry as invincible, on account of their calm tena- 
city, and tlio RUpcriority of their fire; before cbarf<- 
tng with tbe bayonet, you will have to wait till half 
tlie attacking party is kilk-d. But the English army 
U Imb agile, less supple and loss able to nianifu\-ro 
tlun OUT own ; if it cannot be cmquered by a direct 
attaek, it might bo by mantruvring." Napoleon 
eeemod to bo irritatod by thcw remarks and refused 
to belici-e them. 

Napoleon now rode forward in front of I^ Bi-llo 
Aliianeo; ho employiHl as guide a man named Decoe- 
ter, who was tied upon a borse, which was itaclf at> 
iacbM to the saddle of one of tlie escort. It is said 
that he purposely gave false Jnfomiatinn. He then 
teoknphis position on a little lull, about a mile to tbo 
raar of l.a ISi-Ut! Alliance, where Lo had clitiir« plaeed 
and a table upon which he could spread hia mapa. 
JeroBM Bonap&rto about this timo told hia broUiar 



that a junction was expected between the English and 
the PruBsiana arriving from Wavre, but the Eraperor 
said that they were certain to be stopped by Grouchy. 
Napoleon now proceeded to pass his troops in review; 
the drums beat, the trumpets brayed, the bands 
played a patriotic air; as they passed their com- 
mander the ensigns dipped their colours, the cavalry 
brandished their sabres, the infantry hoisted their 
caps on the point of their bayonets; while cries of 
" Vive I'Empereur " drowned all other sounds. 
Never was greater enthusiasm exhibited thaTi in this 
last review, and far away in the distance was seen 
the dark red line of the English troops. Napoleon 
had under his command seventy-four thousand men 
and two hundred and forty-six guns against the 
sixty-seven thousand soldiers of Wellington. Never 
up to that time had so large a number of combatants 
been conEned in so small a space ; the distance from 
the last reserve of Wellincton to the position of the 




muB appearing about six miles to the nortK-eaat, and 
at the samo time au intercepted iettcr from Biilow to 
Wellington waa brought in which ho announced the 
arrival of hia corps. Napoleon also heard that the 
vbole Prussian army had passed the night at Wavre. 
Upon this tlie Emperor sent fresh instructions to 
QroQcby, telling him to manccuvre in his direction, 
And to lose no time in attacking Billow's corps. He 
wu not much put out by this unwelcome news, but 
■aid to Soult: " This morning we had uinety chances 
out of » hundred in our favour, we now have sixty, 
asd if Grouchy repairs his errors, we shall gain a still 
more dccisivo victory, because Biilow'a corps will 
be entirely destroyed." At the same time ho de- 
tached some divisions to protect his right fianli. 

It was not till 1.30 p.u. that Kapoleon gave Ney 
tin order to attack, and after half an hour's cannon- 
ade, tbe aspauItoatlioF.ugliHhpositionbegan. Thesol- 
dion desooodod into the vnlJcy under an arch of buN 
leta which passed over tlieir heads. AUix attacked 
the farm of I^ lluyo Sainte, which like Hougoumout 
was atroDglj defended. Wellington watched the 
fif^t from the foot of a large elm trec> which grew 
in the angle between the Ohaiu and the Brussels 
roada. At first evorytliing sc-enicd to go well for iho 
Fnoeh, and if ther could only reach the ridge and ' 
hold it long enoDgn for the cavalry to eomo up Uis 
battle would be over. But, as wo have said, the 
Kngjffh troops woro withdrawa a hundred yarda 
htm tho ridge and were lying down ni the com to 
aToid tho bnlleta. At tho critical moment Pictoa 
eaUad on bis men to rise ; they firod at forty paoe^ , 
tba Fmieh wavorod; Picton cried, " Charge M 
Oiatsel Hurrah I" and drove the French back, 
bat fell in the moment of suoocsa, pierced by a ball 



in the temple. In a similar maimer the third colnma 
waa repulsed by tbe Highlanders of Pack. At the 
same instant Somereet's cavalry, consisting of the 
first and second Life Guards, the Blues and the Rojal 
Dragoons, chased the French cuirassiers and drove 
the brigade of Travers down the valley, Ponaon- 
by's brigade also fell upon the column of Donzalot, 
the Highlanders and the Scots Greys exchanging 
shouts of " Scotland for ever 1 " The French troops, 
much too thickly massed, were slaughtered like sheep, 
till at last not a single Frenchman was left standing 
on the slopes of Mont St. Jean. The English now 
galloped down the valley and up the opposite slope, 
but tllfey were received by the French reserve and re- 
pulsed with considerable loss, the gallant Ponsonby 
being killed by a laneer. The slopes of the hill, 
lately instinct with vigorous life, were now covered 
with corpses, as they would be on the day after a 
battle, although the battle was only just beginning. 



to attack his troops, which were waiting, perfectly 
fmb, behind the ridge. The men were formed into 
■qnans, ounnun placed before them with orders to 
fire, and then leaving their guns, to retire into the 
■qturea. The cavalry rode against the artillery, 
expoied to a mnrderous fire upon their Hank, as tliey 
laborknuly mounted the slope. The guns were for 
tbe noment captured, but the French had no means 
of spiking them or carrying them off. Twenty bat- 
talions of the allies were thus formed into squares, 
tb«ir fire rattled upon the cuirasses of the enemy like 
bail on a slated roof, but no eiTorts of the French 
CBfalry could break the British squares. They wero 
■t last driven from the plateau by a charge of Ux- 
dgv's horau, and the gunners recovering their 
yieoM tamed them with murderous effect against the 
On«e more the bravo envalry of Milhaud and Le- 
fobvTfr Dean ouet tea, ro-forming in the hollow, re- 
Mned tbe charge, once more thoylaboriouslyclimbed 
th* heights and cai)tured the guns. Some of tho 
Kngliah thought the day was lost. The Emperor, 
when at last he saw what bad occurred, remarked to 
Soult tliat thiji premature attack might lose the bat- 
tle; it afaonld havo been made an hour later, Itill it 
was nec«Haary to support what had been done. He 
nve orders to Kellermann to charge with his heavy 
brigade, but at this very time ho was lieing attacked 
by the Pnusiana on his right flank. 

Blilcher joined Billow about 1 p.u. and the tvo 
genorala marched in the direction of Planconoit, ar- 
rinag within three cniloo of it at 4 r.M. The vil- 
lage WIS defended by Lobau, but ho was compellml 
to OTBCTUite it just aa the direct attacks on Mont St 
Jmd were Bc«a to be ■ failore. At about fi.SO p.k. 



more tlian sixty squadrons of cavalry were monntins 
the slopes, ei^t or nine thousand horsemen in a 
space only large enough for one thousand to deploy 
in ; thoy covered the whole ground between Housou- 
mont and La Haye Sainte, and their files were so 
close that the horses were pushed upwards by the 
pressure. The mass of cuirasses, helmets, and sabres 
resembled a sea of steel. They were met by the same 
tactics as before — abandonment of the guns, and for- 
mation into squares upon which the French produced 
noefFect, although some squares were charged as many 
AS thirteen times. Ney, after having three horses 
killed under him, stood close to the side of an aban- 
doned battery, striking the mouth of an English 
gun with the flat of his- sword. At last Wellington, 
having left the square of the 73d regiment in which 
he had sought refuge, urged his cavalry once more 
upon the broken French, and they were driven down 
tlie slope for the third time. Once more they 



anxioQs; he saw tLo Prussians on the French flank 
but n-ceived no support himself; when asked for or- 
ders he replied, " I have no orders to give but to re- 
sist till the last num." Ney saw the opportunity, 
but be had no troopa at hia disix>sal. He sent an 
orderly to the Emperor to ask for some infantry, 
but Kapolcon replied: "Soldiers! where do you 
think I can get them fromt Do you wish me to 
make themt" It is true that Napoleon had at his 
disposal at this moment eight battalions of the old 
gnard and six of the middle guard, and it is possiblo 
that if he had U3ed them just at that moment, the 
Eoglish lino might have been forced. But, having 
BO reserve of cavalry, ho needed them to defend his 
own position. The Prussian artillery were already 
pUying upon the heights of La Belle Alliance, and 
the gUBid was needed to drive the Prussians out of 
Planoeooit, which they had just captured from 

It was now past 7 r.n., but there were still two 
boon more of daylight, and the canoon of Qrouchy 
men heard seven miles to the right. It was natural 
to nppose that he was engaged with the Prussians 
and would be able to prevent them from elfcctivoly 
helping the Snglish. The Eni)H>ror imagined that 
Wellington had engaged tho whole of bis troops, 
while bo still held in his hand tlie old guard, that 
army of Inviocibles. lie gave orders to Drouot to 
adraoce with nine batlaliona of the guard, formed 
into squares, leaving two at Planccnoitand three on 
the riagfi. Napoleon put bimsolf at the bead of the 
first sqiiare and desoended the slope down to I^ Ilayo 
Satntei. It is joat possiblo that tho attack might 
bare sueeeeded if undertaken half an hour rarliiir, 
■ hut tho deeiaive moment was now past, and dui^ 



ing the recapture of Plancenoit and the prftpora- 
tions for the final attack Wellington had been able 
to strengthen his jMsition. 

Just at this moment a fresh body of Prussians was 
seen to be approaching the field of battle on the Eng- 
lish left at Smohain, and the first effect of their ar- 
rival was to set free the cavalry of Vandeleur and 
Vivian which were covering that side of the British 
army. Ziethen, whose corps it was, had arrived at 
Ohain, with his van-guard, at 6 p.m. Here Colonel 
Freemantle came to him, sent by Wellington, and 
begged him to send bis chief three thousand 
men without delay. Ziethen was unwilling to 
run the risk of having his army beaten in de- 
tail, and he was not persuaded until Miiffling, a 
Prussian general attached to the English army, had 
pressed the request in person. The Prussians were 
marching over Smohain just as the guard was de- 
Bcending to La Have Sainte. The troops began to 



(jaickpn their fire nnd tbc cavalry to support the ad- 
vance of the guard. He also charged La Bedoyere to 
pass among thu soldiers and to announce the speedy 
arrival of (jrouchy. The troops were encouraKed 
by this nPWB and reiterated cries of " Vive I'Em- 
pereurl " whilst the wounded made way for tbo 
march of the columns. Wellington made full pre- 
(Mumtions to meet the attack. He brought up his 
reserve artillery and charged the gunners not to re- 
ply to the French cannon, but to concentrate their 
fiK on the columns of attack. 

The five battalions of the guard, formed into 
squares, marched in Echelons with the right fore- 
BiiMt, an oblique formation which has been blamed 
by military critics. The consequence of this was 
that they attacked the English line at five different 

lints, and at each of these points, except one, the 

tack was at the first moment successful, although 
the goard waa speedily overpowered by thi; elMidi- 
nen of their opponents and the deadly artillery fire. 
The third fcliolon reached the ridge without meeting 
any infantry, and they were approaching the Ohain 
d, when suddenly at twenty paces the guards of 
itland stood up in the corn, four deep, like a red 
wall. Their first volley killed three hundred 
the French liesitnttrd and wavered, then the 
_ iah guards were ordereil to advance, ami they 
drore the enemy victorionsly down the slope to 
Ilougouniont, French and English being in such 
oonfiuion that firing became im[)oegible. 

The cry which was raiwiJ of " The guard givea 
way" Bounded the knell of the Grand Army. Tlio 
cavalry of the guard who were to support the attack 
were paralTsod. There was a shout of " Sauve qnj 
" " Wlo aro betrayed," and a general rout be^gaiL 



The Prussians pressed on to the pursuit, and on the 

east o£ the great road there was the wildest confusion. 
There was the moment for which Wellington had 
■waited so long. He rode to the edgo of the ridge, 
took off his hat and waved it in the air. Immedi- 
ately the whole British line advanced just as they 
happened to stand, passing over dead and wounded 
alike, forty thousand men, of all arms and many 
nations, marching to the sound of drums, trumpets, 
and bagpipes in the first shades of the evening twi- 
light. The French made no resistance. La Haye 
Sainte was abandoned, so was Ilougoumont and its 
wood. The cavalry of Vivian and Vandeleur cut 
the fugitives to pieces with cries of " No quai> 

The Emperor was forming hia best troops in 
columns of attack when he saw his line of battle 
suddenly collapse. He knew that he was irremedi- 
ably defeated, but ho still bad hope of organising 



It might still be possible to cover tho retreat. Tho 
peror was seated on horseback in the centre of 
e square of the first battalion, and for some time 
cj held their own against all attacks. At length 
ty were compelled to give way, and the Emperor 
before them, accompanied by SouIt> Drouot, 
rtrand and Lobau. At the fann of Le Caillou 
he found that his baggage bad been sent on to 

At 9.15 P.M., when it was already dusk, Welling- 
ton and Bliioher met outside the tavern of La Belle 
Alliance, and it was decided that the pursuit should 
be continued throughout the night. The English 
mm worn out with ten hours of fighting, and the 
PnuBiAns had marched fifteen miles over bad roads, 
evortheleea BliicLer ordered his cavalry to pursue 
le enemy so long as they had a man or a horse able 
sUnd. Wellington's troops stood still, and as the 
iana marched past them saluted them with a 
Hip! Hipl Hurnih!" The pursuit continued 
past Qcnappe, past Frasnes, the remains of the old 
guard alono pn^8e^^'ing any order, and at five o'clock 
oti the following morning Napoleon reached C'har- 
i, from which he had set out with sacb high hopoa 
dayi bef oift 


.11 .. 




The causea of the Crimean "War, and the atrango 
series of events which brouglit into close alliance 
the twoEuropean powers whose hatreds and struggles 
have been the subject of the preceding book, belong 
history, and even if it fell within our 



Un agreed with him, aa being the best method of 
tnnibilating the naTal powers of Russia in the Black 
Sm. Fifteen hundred men of the allied anniea had 
already perished in the pestilential Bwampa of the 
Dobradaha, but the remaining iorees, to the number 
of fifty-five thougaiid with seven thousand Turks, 
ludad on September 14 at a short distance from 
Snpatoria, on the west coast of the Peninsula. 

Thia point had been chosen becaaee there was suffi- 
cient space for the two anniea to land together and be- 
eanM the troops would be protected by the fire of the 
tpa. It was four days before the whole of the 
irocB wore disembarked and in a eondition to ad- 
TADoc The British force numbered about twenty- 
brtfat Uitnuand infantry, sixty guns, and the Light 
P^pigsde of cavalry alxiut one thousand strong. Tho 
FroDch had twenty-eight thousand infantry and the 
Tnrka acren thousand, with sixty-eight guiia, but ao 

The advance of the armies began on September 

19, tho French being on the rifrlit. next tlie aen. 

I They were moving straight for Hcbaatopol, about 

^^renty^To milue diittimt. Through their front ran 

^^k pMt-road to Eupatoria, but tho ground was such 

^Tiat the army could niov© anywhere and roads were 

needleas. The cattle, sheep, cnrringea and pack- 

nulea were in the rear, and iho cavalry still further 

behind kept everything moving. Early in tho after- 

□ooD tbf Bulganak was reached, and it was here that 

tiw enemy waa first soon. After a few shots had 

tiQSO interchanged, the army bivonacked on rho 

stream and paiued tho night unmolested. On (he 

aast morning the army moved onward, creasing a 

loaeeariott of grsasy ridge«, and about noon from thfl 

lop of a ridge they looked down opoa the valley of 


tbe Alma, on tlie opposite eide of which the Hussians 
had taken up a defensive position, theit army of 

thirty-tli ree thousand infantry, three thousand four 
hundred cavalry and one hundred and twenty guns be- 
ing commanded by Prince Menchikoff. Tbe allies 
halted for some time on coming in sight of the enemy, 
whilst Lord Eaglan and St. Arnaud arranged the 
general order of attack. The position before them 
was, according to General Hamley, very difficult ci 
access on tbe right, very advantageous for defence 
in tbe centre, and with open and undefended groimd 
on their left. It would probably therefore have been 
better to have neglected the part near the sea, to 
have carried their whole lino inland until their right 
was across tbe post-road, and their left extended be- 
yond the Husaian right, in which case a defeat would 
have been destructive to the Russians, Menchiko^ 
on the other band, could with advantage have formed 



it of this battery, the guns were withdrawn, 
excepting two which were captured. Notwithstand- 
ing this, the first onset failed, for Codringtoa's 
troops, being without support, surrounded br fresh 
I minnrfl of tlie euemj and threatened br a liir;;o body 
of cavalry, gave way and descended the hill. On 
tlio other hand, the Grenadier Guards and the Cold- 
I ttrpams continue<l to advance in lines absolutely un- 
broken, exct^pt when they were stiuck by the enemy's 
shot, their advance pnxlneing a great effect on the 
minds of the French. The Highlanders also climbed 
^^be bill to the left of the Guards and the whole of 
^^Bio English army began to close upori the enemy, 
^^ffbis advance of the Guards and the Highlanders 
^^■nally decided the battle, and the Russian forces 
^Bdod began to retreat all over the groun<l. In the 
^Veutimo CanroWrt's division of the French had 
ooeopicd the Telegraph Hill, and the allied forces 
w^icb had Iwi-n sfpitrated in the engagement were 
now connected again. Lord Kaglan would have 
liked to have piirsnod the enemy in their retreat, 
^^■|£t Anutud objected that the men could not march 
^^^^OQt their knapsacka, which tbcy had left behind 
^HEni. In tlio battle the English lost two thousand 
BHnd two killed and wounded ; the French, probably 
■ much smaller number. The Russian losses 
amounted to nearly six thousand. 

The next two days were passed on the Alma, and 

tht ailvance waa resumed on September 23, and on 

following day tho army erossed the Bclb<-k. 

bad now reached the point from which tho 

and fortificationa of Sebastopol could be w>en 

DO great diotanee, and the question aroM whether 

tb<> eity should b" nttnckpd at once from the north 

The beet authorities mrt strongly opposed 



to such an attempt. The harbour of Sebastopol la 
over a thousand yards wide, and the city and all the 
principal fortifications were to the south, while the 
harbour was full of war-ships, and was protected by 
seven line-of-battle ships sent by llenchikoflf on his 
arrival from the Alma. So, on the afternoon of 
September 24, a flank march was determined upon. 
The march b^an at noon on the following day, the 
army passing Mackenzie's farm and the Traktir 
bridge, where the road to Balaclava crosses the 
Tehemaia, The next day from a high ground was 
seen the harbour of Balaclava, a deep pool, lying 
between enclosing cliffs, crowned with walls and 
towers. An English steamer soon made its appear- 
ance in the port, showing that the harbour had been 
captured, and communication with the fleet estab- 
lished. Only four shots had been fired by the garri- 
son, and the commandant being asked why he had 
fired at all, said that he thought he was bound to 





Thk outer harbour of Sebaatopol is about four 
niilM loi>K from ita entrance up to the point where 
tli0 River Tchcrnaia flows into it. It is extremely 
doep even close to the shore. It was at this time de- 
fended at its entrance hy two stone forts, named 
OotwtJUiUnc and Alexander, by the quarantine fort 
ontndo, and tlic artillery fort inside. There was 
alao an inner hnrlKJur, running at about a mile from 
the entrance into tho southern shore for a mile and a 
half, defended also at its mouth by two forts, 
liicbola* and Paul. On tho western shore of this 
iaoer oreok stood the city of Sebastopol, and on tho 
Mstern ahore the KaraWlnaia suburb which con- 
tbe garrison barracks. There was also on this 
cre«k on which the dock-yarda were built, and 
it a mile from the inner harbour, on tho same 
raa Careenage Bay, terminated by Careenage 
Tho plateau on which the allied armies 
potted wan cut off from tho valley of the 
Tcboroaia by a wall of cliff, which eventually formed 
tlie boundary of tho valley of lialaelnva. The 
plateau ia channelled by many cltaanm and ruvinus, 
and ia reached by elevations which aftemards bo- 
eame hiatorically famous as the Alalakoff, the Kedau, 
tad other names. The extreme point of the 
OberaoDenu in thia diroetioD hu th« eaiDO of Capo 



Chereon, and just to tlio nortli of it lie the two inlets 
of Kazatch and Kamiesch which were used hy tlie 
French for their harbour base and were in every re- 
spect superior to Balaclava, which was assigned to 
the English. These two harbours were connected 
with the French positions by the paved road. A great 
ravine continues the depression of the inner harbour, 
and this for some time formed the line of separation 
between the French and the English armies. 

Another feature of importance was the so-called 
Woronzoff road, which connected the WoronzofE 
estate at Yalta with Sebastopol, crossing the valley 
of Balaclava; a branch of this road crossed the 
Tchernaia and went along the heights by Mackenzie's 
farm to Bakshisherai. The effect of this was that 
the Biissians could approach Balaclava out ol range 
of our guns posted on the plateau. 

The defence of Sebastopol was directed by Lion- 



in tfio Peninsular War, and he was in favour of em- 
ploying; the sicgo trains before commencing the as- 
Miilt. The ejBtem of fortification perfected by 
Vauban in the reign of Louis XIV, was still in vogu© 
■t tlie timo of the Ci-imean War. It had been modi- 
fied to meet the altered range of artillerj- and 
XDU«ketry fire, and it prc3cril>ed thai the first parallel 
should be traced nt six hundred j-ards from the 
eoemjr'a works, but for sjtecial reasons our £rst bat- 
tery was at a much greater distance. 

At r..30 A.M. on October 17. 1854, the signal 
given by three French shelb, the allied bat- 
opened, the ]!iissian works replird, and the 
most tremendous conflict of artillery which up to 
that time the world had ever witnessed began. It con- 
timted unabated for four hours, witli no obvious re- 
ia]t. AImhiI ten o'clock an explosion took place on 
Moot Rodolph, held by the French, which blew up 
the principal magazine, killod about fifty men, and 
in naif an hour silenced the tire of the French 
battery. I'he conaeijuence of this was that the French 
were pot ont of thu fighting, and tlie hope of de- 
livering a general assault had disappeared. Tho 
Englisb 6ro was more puccessfiil. At 11.30 a.ic. 
Admiral Kosniloff was mortally wounded in the 
UftlakofF, and the batteries in the surrounding enrth- 
vorks gradually ceased fire. By 3 t.u. a. third 
of the gnns in the Kcdan were silenced, and a maga- 
aB» turn was blown up, which did mueh damage 
Todleben, in his history of tho siege, admits that in 
tbat part of the line tlie defeitco waa eomplctely 
paalyacd, and that an assault was expected. The 
fet^i*b fire continued till dusk, and then tho csn- 
Booade entirely ceased. If the French hud Im-ii as 
■HesMfol aa ounolvea the allies might thuj carl/ 



have secured a lodgment on the main works of tlio 

The bombardment was renewed by tlie English 
on the following day, but the Kussiau position had 
been enormously strengthened, and the principal 
damage repaired by the energy of Todlebeo. The 
loss ou the English side was slight. Up to October 
25 the number o£ killed and wounded did not average 
more tbaa seventeen a day, whereas the Kussian loss 
up to that time amount-ed to 3,834 men. 

The valley between Balaclava and the Tchernaia 
is crossed by a line of low bills, and along their 
course lies t!ie WoronzofE road. Four of these hills 
had been crowned with earthworks of a very slight 
description, armed with nine 12-pounder guns, the 
garrison having but very slight support. On Octo- 
ber 25, the liussians, whose force now amounted to 
twenty-two thousand infantry, three thousand four 
hundred cavalry and seventy-eight guns, crossed the 



pridt towards The TcLernaia, numbering six hundred 
end BOTonlj men, and the Heavy Brigade on the aide 
towards Balaclava, numbering nine hundred. Sud* 
iealy « large body of Bussian cavalry attacked the 
Heavy Brigade, leaving the Light Brigade un- 
noticed, but, checked by the fire of a Turkish for^ 
wavered, some halting and galloping back. The 
Xnglish regiments charged in succession. The Ru»- 
liana were far superior in number, and the event of 
tbe eombat appeared doubtful until the 4th Dragoon 
Goarda charged the Buasian flank, and the wbolo 
of the English troops come up. Then suddenly the 
eomplete RuHsiau mass gnve way and dcd behind 
the hill, disuppeuring bt^youd the slope Bome four or 
Ire minutes after they wero tirst seen upon it. 
The Heavy Brigade of cavalry was under the 
aand of General Scarlett, the Light Brigade 
Lord Cardigan, while the whole cavalry di- 
Tiiioo was commanded by Lord Lucan, to whom 
[>rd Raglan now sent tho following order: 
ivalry to advance and take advantage of any 
lity to recover the heights. They will be 
by the infantry, which have been ordered 
to adrancc on two fronta." On receiving this order 
Lord Lucan moved the Heavy Brigade to the other 
■idfl of tbe ridge, to await the promised sup> 
port of the infantry. Aa it waa seen that tho Ru»- 
aiaiui were attempting to carry off tho guns tht-y bad 
captured, a aeoond order waa sent to Lord Lucan in 
tha following words: " I^rd Ruglan wiahta the 
wvalry to advanoe rapidly to the front, and try to 
prvTcnt the enemy carrying away the guns. Troops 
of artillery may oocompany. French cavalry is on 
your liifL Immediate." The order waa carried by 
Oaptain Kolan, who found I.ord Lucan between lit* 
two brigade*, divided b;* tbe WoronzoS road. 



Ix)rd Raglan had intended the chai^ to be made 
against the defeated Russian cavalry who had re- 
treated down the valley towards the Tchsmaia ; bnt 
Lord Lucan, strengthened in his opinion hj some 
blunder of Nolan's, understood it to be directed against 
a large body of Russians posted right in front, sup- 
ported on either side by lai^ numbers of artillery. 
Although both Lord Cardigan and Lord Lucan knew 
the chai^ to be desperate they did not hesitate, and 
the order was given for the brigade to advance. 
They moved at a steady trot, and in a minute came 
within the range of fire. After five minutes they 
came under the fire of twelve gnns in front, and the 
pace was increased, but when they reached the bat- 
tery more than half the brigade were dead or wound- 
ed, the rest were now lost to view in the smoke of the 
guns. The Heavy Brigade moved in support, but 
soon had to retire with heavy loss; a brillunt diver- 
was effected by a regiment of Chasseura 






The plateau alwvo Sfbastopo! was accessible to the 
Kuasiaiis at many points, but ospecially by tho 
Carcenape Ravine, which was a continuation of the 
Careenage Harbour. At noon on October 26 a Ruaaian 
forco of six battaliona and four light field-guns came 
out of the town, and aBccnded the ravine and the 
ftlope which led tn the camp of tbe Second Divisioa. 
Ib a abort tinio both the artillery and the infantry 
were Bwcpt back into the walla of Sebastopol. It is 
probable that tlicir intention was to establish a re- 
doubt on Shell Hill, in order to cover a more serious 
ittacli to Ik- madu at n future time. In order to pre- 
?ont 1 similar movement on the part of the Russians, 
tbo English built a baltcry on an adviinccd ridge, 
armed with two eightecn-pouiidere, and called the 
"Sand-bag Batt^^ry." When it had done ita work 
of alannlsg tho Russiana, the guns were removed, 

t the {mint afterwards becunie important in Uw 
ry of the battle. 

On N'ovembor 4 it was known on both sides tliat a 
eriiiB was impending. The allied infantrv before 
Sebaatopol con8ist<^'d of thirty-one thou.iaud French, 
sixteen thoosand Engliah, and eleven thouMnd 
Turlta. Tho French siege corps was retrieving its 
disaster of the previous months. The English were 
■tKngtbeoing their batteries and repleoisbing their 

l_of al 




magazines, and the dail7 Bussian loas far exceeded 
theirs. A meeting of the allied commanders had been 
arranged for November 5 to uoncert measnree for da- 
livering the final aseault The total of KenchikofPs 
forces in and around Sebastopol were not less than 
one hondred thousand men, without counting the 
seamen, bo that about one hundred and fifteen thou- 
sand men were opposed to sixty-five thousand. 

In the early dawn of Sunday, November 6, the 
bells of the Sebastopol churches were celebrating 
the arrival in the town of the young Grand Dukes 
Uichael and Nicholas. Menchikoff's plan woa to 
make a combined attack upon the English position 
on the plateau, by SoimonoS moving up the Careen- 
age Ravine witii a force of nineteen thousand infantry 
and thirty-«ight guns, and Pauloff advancing across 
the causeway and bridge of the Tchemaia with six- 
teon thousand infantry and ninety-six guns. Qor<- 
tschakofi in the valley was to support the general 



tlie atUck. He posted twenty-two heavy guna on 
Shell nill and opened fire, and attacked with his 
rnlumiis at about 7 a,u. The pickets of the Second 
Division were at once driven back, but the main body 
vofl pushed forwards to support the pickets, the crest 
only being held by twelve nine-pounder guns. The 
morning was foggy and tbe ground muddy; the mist 
waa very partial, but sufiicient to cimceal from the 
Btwaians the fact that the troops attacked had no 
inunediite support 

The &Tst attack took place on the English left 
Loddly the strength of the Russian forces was not 
known, and the troops fought in ignorance of the 
enormous odds against them. By extraordinary acta 
of individual prowess and daring seven of Soimon- 
off's fourteen battalions were repulsed and Soimonoff 
himself was kilh-<l. Of the seven which remained, 
one joined tbe forces of Pauloff, and six advancing 
against the English centre were also defeated, Paul- 
off advanced by what was called the Quarry Ravine, 
leading up from the Tchemaia. When a regiment 
OD tbe right reached a wall of stones placed acroaa 
the head of the vmil, called tbe Barrier, a wing of 
the 30th regiment, two hundred strong, leapt over it 
and ohargod the two lending battalions with the bayo- 
IMt The charge proved decisive and the whole body 
were swept off the fi<lil. Ac^inat the remaining five 
battalioDS which numbered four thousand, the 41st 
legunent, in number (ire hundred and twenty-five, 
dMoendod in extended order, drove tbe Russiaoi 
down the bill until they reached tbe hanks of tbe 
Tflbernaia. " Thus," says Hamlcv, " in open ground, 
affonling to tbe defenders none of the defensive ad- 
rantagra, walls, hedge* or enclosum of any kind 
which moat battle-fields have been found to oBw, 



these fifteen thousand Kussians had been repulsed 
by less than a fourth of their number." 

A new actiou eomnienced with the arrival of 
General Dannenberg. He had under bis command 
about ninoteen thousand infantry and ninety guns. 
He directed his main attack against the centre and 
right of the English position in order the better to 
co-operate with Gortachakoff. By this time the Eng- 
lish had received reinforcements, the Guard had 
turned out at the sound of battle, and others were 
coining up. The battle raged furiously about the 
Sand-bag Battery, the Kussian troops now fighting 
better than they had done earlier in the day. The 
Hussians repulsed returned again and again to the 
encounter, until the two lines were separated by a 
rampart of fallen men. At last Cathcart arrived 
with about four hundred men of the Fourth Division, 
and descended the slope beyond the English right; 
but he was suddenly assailed by a body of Russians 


there, and eaptured and spiked some Engli^ gmia. 
This attack was finally repulsed hj the combined 
efforts of the French and English. It wag by thia 
time eleven o'clock, and the fortunes of the day were 
taming decidedly in favour of the allies, as none of 
their artillery had come up and the French were 
taking an important share in the battle; Bosquet 
having been before held back from fear of being at- 
tacked by Qortschakoff. 

This ended the battle of Inkennan with no appar- 
ent decisive results on either side; the English had 
not the numbers nor the French the desire to turn 
the defeat into a rout The gloom of the November 
evening descended upon the gloomy facets. The 
Russian losses in the battle were twelve thousand, of 
whom the greater number were killed. The English 
kat S97 killed and 1,760 wounded ; the French, 143 
killed and 786 wounded. The battle, how- 
ever, bad a great mora! effect, and the Russians lost 
all hope of driving the alliee from the plataan which 
ihey lud occupied. 





Three days after the battle of Inkerman it wflB 
determined tbat the allied armies should winter in 
the Crimea. Up to this time the troops had nndei^ 
gone no groat privation. " The -weather," Hamley, 
who was present, tella ua, " had been mild and sunnv 
with cool nights ; the tents stood on dry and level 
Bpaees of turf. The surface of the plains had been 
good for transit, and rations for men and horses had 
been supplied with sufficient regularity." But on 
November 14 arose a fearful storm, which dispersed 
whole camps and scattered them over the plain, so 


in water; the soldiera feared to draw off their 
leet the; should not be eble to put them on 
■gam. Tho difficulty of cooking made the men eat 
cir Itxxi raw, and this largely increased the number 
the sick. There was generally a Bufficiont supply 
of Bait meat, biscuits, and rum, but the fare was 
monotonous, and means for preparing it were want- 
ing. The most painful reflection was that there was 
■tacwl at Balaclava plenty of fuel, rice, flour, vege- 
taUet,and t«a, supplies which might have made the 
condition of tho army happy, but which were not 
available from the absence of an army corps. The 
auffcringa of the animals were frightful, they died 
all round the camp and on the road to Balaclava, and, 
when dead, lay unburied. The labour of toiling 
through the muddy roads to Balaclava to fetch their 
om forage killed many horses on each journey. 

The result of all tliis was that at the end of Novem- 
bsr the English hiid nearly ci|;ht thousand men in 
boapitaL The jottrney to the great hospital at Scutari 
was the death of many. The hospital itself was 
"crammed with misery, overflowing with despair." 
Tbouaaodi of bravu men lay in the wanla and cor- 
ridors, cniwdcd in a manner to increase their misery. 
. Great cfTortx wcro made both at homo and on tho spot 
I to remedy these disastera, and on January IS Lord 
L^Nglan WAS able to write, '' I believe I may assert 
^Bkat every man in this army has received a second 
r Ttlanket, a jersey frock, flannel drawers and socks, 
' and some kind of winter coat in addition to his ordi- 
nary great coat;" but still tho nomhcr of sick 
mounted up till it reached fourteen thousand. 

During this time the French had be»>n better off 
because their hnrboara were more convenient, they 
ttad nude a jtavcd road fnaa the shore to their camp, 




their transport was well oi^anised, while the EnglisTi 
was not, and they were at a shorter distance from 
their naval ports. On the other hand, their tents 
were a very imperfect protection against tlie weather, 
and their rations were hardly sufficient to keep them 
in good health during severe labour. For these rea- 
sons thjy lost many men from sickness, especially 
from frostbite. The strength of their army went on 
increasing from forty-five thousand in October to 
fifty-six thousand in November, sixty-five thousand in 
December and seventy-eight thousand in Januar;'. 
In this month England had only eleven thousand 
men fit to bear arms on the plateau, and Lord Rag- 
Ian estimated the strength of the French army to 
be four times that of his own. General Canrobert 
in consequence relieved the English troops from the 
duty of guarding part of their ground, and thus set 
free fifteen hundred men. 

The narrative of these sufFerings would not be 


jnnmal, to its great credit, for the benefit of tbe 
tick and wounded, Improvemciits, Iiowever, were 
slow to take effect, and in the four winter montbs 
nearly nine Ibousuitd eoldicDi diid in the bospitala, 
wbilo at tbe end uf February 13 six hundred men 
were iyiag sick there. 

Meanwhile tJie business of the siege was proceeding 
ilowly; tbe traosports, which ought to have been 
used fop bringing up guns and munitions of war, were 
rmiitoycd in conveying food, clothing and shelter. 
In the trenches the men stood ankle- or knee-deep 
ia mild and snow; there was great dcticioncy of fuel, 
the bnisbwood and the roots of vines having beeu 
exhatuti>d. The conseijuence was that tbe men us<^'d 
tbe gabions and fascines of tbe parapets to boil their 
coOm with, which they ground with ^lortions of the 
uieniy's shells, and roasted in iheir nie^ tins. 

The slow progri-as of the siege enoouruf^ed the Em- 
psror of Russia to a more oI)«tinate resistance. Ho 
rejected the f>>iir puintn which wore offered to him 
«s conditions of peace, although they were supported 
^^)r Austria nnd Pruiisia. In consequence of this 
^Huslria joined the allies at the beginning of Deocin- 
^Her, olthuugh she did n<>t send any troops. A few 
^Pa«eks later tlie kingdom of Sardinia made an alli- 
taeo with Frniice and Kngland and sent General 
La ]i{amorB to the Crimea with an anny of tiftocn 
tbtnuand men. Pnuuia remaineil steadfast in her 
■wfttraltty. In England I^jrd Aberdeen, who had 
known as th« friend of the Emperor Nicholas 
peace, left the Ministry, giving ploco to Lord 
ibtierfton, wfaoae energy- and capacity were wnll 
Franco nerved herself to new exertions 
mdef the direetion of Prince Nnpol<^n. and KuMia 
orerjr nerve to meet tlio ocuvil^ vi bvr vav 



iili««. There was « genenl ievy of troops tfaroogb- 
out the KosaiaD Empire, famt the allies had li^Hj 
eiicoUt^ti the results of an attack npoo so dkbuU a 
territory aa the Crimea, whidi was at the same tiiae 
extremely difficult to defend and iin{>ofisibIe to sor- 
rcnder. In order to reach the scene of action the new 
levies had to march over the long etretche^ of sontbem 
Rnseia corered with snow, and countless numben 
found their grave upon the march. On February 
10, 1856, the Russians made an attack upon Enpato- 
ria, which was repulsed by the brarery of the Turk- 
ish garrison under Omar Fasha, assisted by excellent 
earthworks by which the place was strengthened. 
The Emperor Nicholas had long been suffering from 
the demanJa made upon him by the difficulty of de- 
fending the Crimea and of meeting the new enemies 
who wore arising against him. It is thought that 
the defeat of Eupatoria gave the final blow, felt 
more keenly by that proud spirit as it was a vie- 


rufor to perish Uian to yield. In a similar manner 
honour of France, especially of the Napoleonic 
pire, required u creditable and dignified tormina- 
ion of tbia murderous conflict, and it was felt that 
would be inii>ossible until after the fall of 


In Jnnusrv, 1h.')5, the Emperor Xapoleon ILL 
dospatched General Xiel to the Crimea, an esperi- 
roood and well-instructed enf^inecr, with orders to 

vestigatc the condition of things, and to report 

h!i< master. Niel soon came to a conclusion na to 
tlie right spot upon which to direct the principal at- 
tack, und n-commendcd the besiegers to advance 
their parallels and batteries in the direction of the 
Karabelnaia, Iho eoutheni suburb of the citj. In 
the mcaotimo Todleben gave additional strength to 
the fortllicat ions on his side. In the front of the 
lUakhof, alwut five hundred yardu from it, waa a 
conical hill known as tho Mamelon. The Knglish 
wovld have undoubtedly occupied it if Uioir num- 
bvts had boon sutiicient, and the allies now prepared 
two balteries, with the object of placing it under a 
aew fir«. lint nu February 22 the French eaw that 
BCw works had been erected on n part of jtlount Inker- 
uui, which flanked tlie approaches to tho Malakbof 
and tho Mameton, and waa iloelf powcrfulljr pro 
iKtrd. A vii>Hrons atiack was made on this new 
work by the French, but it was repulsed with consid- 
erable loss. Todleben, therefore, was left to arm 
and oomplett) this work, and another not far from 
it, the two being known as tlie " white worka," from 
tltt chalky toil un which they went conatructed. 

On the night of March 22 a great sortie wa« mado 
i^iut the French, batwtun fire and six thousand 
attacking the French trenches bcfora tlio 31auie> 



Ion and for a time entering tbein,drtving id thegnards 
and working parties. A simnltaneotis attack was 
made upon the British right, which was, however, 
caiiilj repulsed, and another of less importance opon 
the left. The object of these attacks was, probably, 
to obtain an opportunity for executing further wor^ 
and on the following night they connected their rifle- 
pits in front of the Mamelon by a trench, thus form- 
ing or occupying an entrenched line within eighty 
yards of the French, covering and at the same time 
supported by the Mamelon. 

On February 24 a truce was agreed upon for bury- 
ing tho slain, of which Hamley, who was an eye- 
witncfls, gives an interesting account. White flags 
were floating from the Mnuielon and the works of 
the allies, while the hillside was crowded with spec- 
tntors. llundrcds of Russians came from behind 
the Mamflon, and the soldiers of both parties mingled 
friendly terms. Tho RL'siaps looked dirty and 


id both sides were expecting a bombardment 
assault. The cannoiutde l>egan on Easter 
Monday, April 9; the RiiasiaDS were b<j much unpre- 
pared tliAt they did not reply for twenty minutes, 
while tlie wind carried the smoke of tlie allied bat- 
teries over the enemy and impeded their fire. At sun- 
set tbe guns were silent, but all through the night 
the mortars continued to plfiy, and their huge sheila 
were eeen cleaving the sky. 

Thia terrific fire continued for ten days, the Iliis- 
lian troops sufTcring severely as they were massed 
in (he trenches expecting an imme<liate assault 
During thin time they lost more than six thousand 
Ban in killed and wounded, whereas the French lost 
oaly 1,5SS men and the English 3r)5. The suffering 
in Sebastopol was torriblo. and heartrending scenes 
hare been described by eyewitnesses. Xor was the 
stale of things outside of the walls any better, as 
tlia route from Simphero[*ril ti> Sebaslopol was so 
eneaiDbered with dead bodies, dead horses and dead 
cattle, that no vehicle could paaa, while the air was 
blfaett^ with pestilential vapours. 

At this timn a portion of the allied fleet sailed to 
llie Sea of Azoff with the purpose of destroying the 
pnmsiona and supplies which were collected in the 
towns of Kertsch, Yenikale, Mariopol, Taganrog, and 

apa, an enterprise aooeeaafiilly carried out, but 
it is said with unneoeflMry cruolty and barbarilj. 
Plana were also formed for the investment of Sebasto 
pol and catting off its communications with tho reat 
of RoMia, and alao for tbe jouniey of tbe Emperor 
Nqoleon to the Crimea to take command of his army 
in pmon. Thix la»t idea was prevented by the strong 
rppoaition of the English, and as theaft tdiemra were 
Mver carried to a eonclosion tbej need not rccdv* 



further attention in onr narrative. It was, however, 
thought that Marshal Canrobert, who had hitherto 
conducted the operations of the allies in conjunc- 
tion with Lord Raglan, was not of that hard, tin- 
compromising nature which could secure success in 
the face of the difficulties which we have described, 
nor was he on the best of terras with his English col- 
leagues. Therefore the resignation of his command 
was accepted, and General Pelissier, who had 
acquired a great but a not altogether enviable reputa- 
tion in Africa, was sent out to take his place, Can- 
robert, with admirable self-denial, placing himself 
under the orders of his new chief. 

After changes had been made consequent upon the 
new command, a fresh bombardment began on June 
6, 1855, the English guns being mainly directed on 
the Hedan and the Malakhof, the French upon the 
Mamelon ; another important object of attack being 
the 80-calIed Quarries in front of the Redan. The 


irripfl, Biid drove out the defenders, but could not 
i tliem, as they were open to the fire of the Ras- 
ftiMn batti^ries. It wita found in the morning that 
elissicr h.iJ succeeded in driving the enemy from all 
'their outworks, uud restricting them to their main 
line of defenw, and that the siege works had been 
■dvADCcd by the ground which had thu"* been gained. 
These advantages had heen won with the loss of 5,440 
French, 6&3 English and 5,000 Russians. 

A new assault was [iroparcd for June 18, the anni' 
vereary of the buttle of Waterloo, but it ended in 
disMtroua failure, and all the attackii.g troops were 
recalled to the trenches, after suffering heavy loss. 
However, on this day Todleben, who was the soul 
of the Russian defence, was slightly wounded, and 
two days later was disabled by a shot through the 
\t^ and had to be removed from Scbastopol. The 
failure of this attack, from which so much had beeo 
npcct«d, also cost the life of Lord Kaglau. Five 
d«y« after tlio event an ofKeer of the Staff wrote: 
" I fear it bos alTected Lord Raglan's health ; he looks 
far froin well, and has aged very much latterly." 
On Jnno 20 ha was seized with cholera and died 
vithoDt much suffering two days afterwards. The 
next morning General I'clissicr, who greatly re- 
■pected hia colleague, stood bv the side of the bod on 
which tbo corpBO was laid for upwards of an hour, 

ing like a child. 

The defenders of Sebastopol, under Priiu-o Gor- 
iff, now determined to attack the allies in the 
lod on August 16 thry advanced against the 
npper Tchemaia, which was defended by about sixty 
thousand men, consisting of Sardinians, Turks and 
■ ecrtain number of Freneh. Thu Sardinian ont- 
posts were driven back, and an atudc was laonchod 



on the heights held by the French. This attack 
reached the French lines, but could proceed no fur- 
ther. It, was driven down the hill and across the river 
with great slaughter. Assaults in other parts of the 
position were equally fruitless, and early in the after- 
noon Gortschakoif left tho field. His losses had been 
very heavy — 2,369 men killed, and 4,160 wounded, 
a large number having also disappeared. The 
French !os3 of killed and wounded amounted to one 
thousand five hundred; that of the Sardinians who 
conducted themselves with credit, two hundred. 
This defeat took away from the Eussians the last 
hope they had of redeeming their misfortune. Their 
losses in the war had been ouormoua and were esti- 
mated from official sources at two himdred and forty 
thousand. It is said that in the six months from 
March to August eighty-one thousand men had been 
killed and woimded in aud around Sebastopol. 

From tlijs moment the bombardment went on con- 


snd planted tlio tricolour on tLc walls, but inside tbe 
^le was most obetinate, and every traverse was 
ken, retaken, and taken again ; nor could the 
Drka bo considered as captured until tbe attack upon 
lie esst<*ni face Iind been successful. The Malakbof 
fell at 4 P.M. with a loss of .3,020 killed aud wounded. 
The English attack on tbe Redan failed, and the less 
Mtd about it the better, as, although the troojis 
fought bravely, their efforts were neutralised by a 
keries of blunders. In their final eflorta which 
brought al¥>ut tlie capture of Sebastopol, the French 
lost in all 7,507, the English 2,271, and the Rus- 
turns ts many as 12,913. 

With the fall of the Malakbof tower the fate of 
8«bMtopol was decided. During the night Gor^ 
taebakoff blew up all the f orti ticationa which still re- 
mained uncii]ilTired on the &)uth side, and sunk in 
lie harbour the remaining ships of the Russian fleet 
I« then lc<l the remnants of his army across the 
to tlie north side, destroying the bridge of 
''7 which ho had crossed. Thus ended the 
Crimean War, which, although it was a death strug- 
gle between souio of the moat powerful nations iii 
the world, was yet confined ahooat entirely to * con- 
flict tn • distant and obscure part of Europe, a com- 
paratirely late acquisition of the Russian Empire, 
ftnd to tlie capture of a single fortress to the de- 
fvtaee and attack of which tlm resources of Uut 
might; Empire were ungrudgingly devoted. 





Omitting, for reasons which we have already 
given, the political causes which produced the war 
between France aiid Sardinia on the one side and 

Austria on the other, it will he sufficient to say that 
Austria had presented an ultimatum to Sardinia 




eommnnd of Stadion, Zobel,and Bencdck respectively, 
ihe corps of Schwarzenberg which had arrived from 
Vienna in tlie £ret days of Januar;r', and that of 
LichWnstein in the middle of April; Weigl's corps 
vna joBl reaching Vcnetia, and tiat of Clnni Gallas, 
coming from Uobemia, was not expected till the end 
of May. These five corps gave a force amounting 
in all to two hundred tliousand men, of which sixtv 
uousand or eighty thousand were employed in gar- 
riaona and detachments, leaving one hundred and 
twenty thousand or one hundred and forty thousand 
for the operations in Piedmont, All these troops 
were under the general command of Field-Marshal 
Giulay. They advanced in fuur columns by Pavin, 
Bcreguardo, Vigevano and Ruffalora; a detached 
eolutno to the right passing by Sceto Calendo, and 
UMtber to the left croaeing the Po at Piacenza. 

The Atutrians did not reach the lino of the Seaia 
and the Po till May 1, and by this time the French 
had occupied the two points of Genoa and Susa in 
•tm^th and had made them their base. Three 
diviiions of French infantry, with their accompany- 
ing artillery, were at Alcssamlria, having the whole 
of the PiciJmontcse army on their left; every day 
added from Suaa and Genoa some twenty thousand 
mat more, and it is difficult to understand why iho 
Anitrians n)oved so slowly. 

Tbo Sardinian army consisted at this timo of 
■ereoty-six thousand infantry, five thousand four 
hundred cavalry and two thouaand seven hundred 
artillery, making a total of eighty-four thouaand 
men; but this strength was not really present in tho 
Arid, and after making the necessary deduction, tho 
forces of the Rub-Alpine kingdom cannot be placed 
higher tlian 63,338 men with ninety gata, B«- 



sides these we must reckon tliree regiments of 'Free 
Corps under Garibaldi, and a National Guard of 
twenty-six thousand. The French troops consisted 
of the Guard and five army corps, the component 
parts of which, as well as their generals, had been 
very carefnlly chosen. The Emperor assumed the 
chief command, with Marshal Vaillant as chief of tha 
staff, and the other generals were Eegnaud de St. 
Jean d'Angely, who had served in the Russian Cam- 
paign of 1812; Baragnay d'Hilliera, who had also 
fought under Napoleon I. ; MacJIahon, who had dis- 
tinguished himself in Algiers and in the Crimea; 
Marshal Canrobert, a soldier of great merit, and 
General Niel. The force of the French may be 
reckoned at 107,056 infantry, 9,708 cavalry, 
10,000 artillery and 362 guns. Thus the allies to- 
gether numbered not less than one hundred and 
eighty-seven thousand, considerably more than the 



In the enPiny'a country and were living nt the eneniv's 
expense. On the other hand, the enemy obtained 
full knowledge of their movenients, whereas their 
own information was very defective, and the head- 
quarters were freqiu-ittly better informetl bv the 
newspapers than by thuir own agents. At first they 
hud spent their spare time in healthy exorcise, but 
on the evening of May 14 it began to rain and thej 
withdrew into their campp. 

Afl the Austriaiis were almost entirely without in- 
f'>riiiatiun as to the movementa of the nllies. Count 
Stadion was sent forward with eighteen tlioosand 
men to reconnoitre. This led to the first encounter 
between the two amiios on May 20, an affair which 
ia generally known as the Battle of Montebello. The 
AusLrians reached Caste^io about midday and found 
the place entirely deserted, with windows and doors 
sliut as if no one wore living in it. The infantry 
took pOMeaaion of it, and the hussars of the ad- 
TSooM giurd went on to Gcnestrullo. \Vhen the 
liuaaars reported that the village was held by the 
^sncmy's infantry, Count SehafTgot^che determined to 
ire them out, althougli contrary to orders, that be 
Uigbt not bo attacked himself. Genestrello was 
occupied without difficulty, when SchaffgoUche ob- 
ierved that he had a strong body of the enemy in 
front of him. He therefore began a new attack at 
about I iMi. These were the troop* of General 
Forey, who bad marched up from Voghera to de- 
fend Ilia outpost*. The first French c4iDuon-sbot wm 
fired at 1.1& p.u., and the Auatrians, up to this time 
toperior in numben to the French, continued to ed- 
Vance, but by 2 p.m. the rest of General Forey'a di- 
rUJou had arrived on the Seld and the oondiUoua of 

' Wttle were changed. 



At 3 F.u. ScluifFgotsche vas compelled to retira 
from Genestrello, and an hoar later tbe AnBtriinB 
had taken up their position at Montibello, aitoated 
on a hill of coneiderahle strength. The strength of 
the two opposing forces was now about equal at 
Montebello, but the Austrian troops were fresh, 
and they were able to support themselrea by several 
walled country-houses in the south, and a walled 
graveyard to the north. Forey, howover, did not 
hesitate to attack this formidable place. The 
cavalry, artillery and two battalions of foot-soldiers 
advanced along the main road, while the bulk of the 
infantry, leaving their knapsacks behind them, 
climbed the precipitous and wooded slope to the 
southern point of Montebello, from which the village 
descends into one long street towards the high-road. 
As the ridge is too steep for flank movements, the 
French were obliged to capture house after house, to 
fight hand to hand in narrow streets with great loss 


enemy with troops tired with a hot and weary march; 
but the battle once begun, Schaffgotacbe should have 
been supported at all hazards, and not to do this was 
to court defeat The loss of the Austriana on this 
oocasioQ was 1,293 men, that of the French 723. 





GiTiT-AT bad in the beginning confined his atten- 
tion to the north side of the Po, but the affair of 
Montebello made bim imagine that the main attack 
of the French would be directed towards the south, 
in tbe direction of Piacenza and be began to con- 
centrate under that impression. Napoleon bad, 
however, determined to march towards the north, 
to attack the right wing of t!ie Austrians and to ad- 
vance upon Milan. Tbe orders for tbe march of 
tbe French army on tbe left flank were issued on 



Tittle bettor off, as it was almost impossible to traverse 
lliv rice-iieMs cut up by ditches and canals. 
Only a few raised points offered a view over 
tlw plain, oue of which is the village of Palestro, 
wbieli rises about ten feet above liie ordinary level. 
It appe«rvd to the Sardinian attack a somewhat steep 
elcration to the south-west, but sank into tiie level 
plain on the north-east Paleatro is about six miles 
distant from Vereelli, on the other side of the River 
Seaia. It happened at this time that the Sesia, 
wbicb is usually dry, was very full of water, and 
I bridge was constructed willi some difliculty about 
a mile below the railway bi-idge of Vercelli which 
bad be^en destroyed. 

Althon^ the bridge had been very badly con- 
Mraetcd, King Victor Emmanuol would wait no 
loager, and for several Lours, until another briilge 
bill been formed lower down the stream, the Sar- 
dinian army defiled across it. The passage con- 
tinued during tho whol« morning without attracting 
tbe attention of the Austrian)^ The passing having 
been cffectetl, shorlly after midday the King niadu 
an attack on Palestro. At tirst all assaults were re- 
pulsed, the Austrians being greatly assisted bv tho 
nature of tlie ground, and not until, by the bridging 
of the CaTo del Lago, an allnck on tho north side of 
tbe Tillage as well as on the south became pos.'tihle 
did tbe Auslrians retire. An attempt was made to 
retake it, but thia was repulsed by Oialdini, who ad- 
vaooed with su|icnor forces, and tho Austrians re- 
tIMled to Robbio; the Austriami having lost IGO men 
Sardinians 140. S'multaneoosly with thia 
another Ausitnau division was driven out of 
Tinzaglio, and a third out of Borgo Vereelli, nil llio 
troopB retiring to lUtbbio, so tliat in the night of Hay 



80 the SBrdinian army occupied a strong pontion 
bebiod the Busca. 

The King, however, did not feel hinuelf oom- 
fortable in this poeition, and knowing that Palestro 
was the key of the situation, aeked for reinforoe- 
menta from the French. His request was granted 
and Palestro was sooa occupied by fourteen thou- 
sand men. On the following day the French were 
to cross the river ; if Palestro were taken the passage 
became impossible. The Austrians, at last realising 
the importance of the crisis, prepared to make the 
assault with a force of about seventeen thousand, the 
reserves remaining in Bobbio. The first gun was 
fired at 10.30 a.u., and the battalion of Jiigem rushed 
to storm the village. Although the Sardinians had 
thrown up earthworks in the night, the Jagers pene- 
trated to the first bouses of the village, but they could 
not become masters of them or of the churchyard. 
They were compelled to yield ground and drew with 



In the meantime Garibaldi, who had been made a 
■general in the Sardinian army, assembk'd hia troops 
m Vareae, repulsed an attack made upon him by the 
Austrian general, Urimn, occupied Como, and 
throRtened Monza; failing, however, in an assault 
upon the strong frontier of Laveno on the shores of 
tfae Laft*) 3Jaggiore. The Austrians were now in full 
ntreat towards the Ticino. Their circumstancea 
were in no way better than if, without declaring war, 
thej had pa^siv^lj waited tn be attacked. They 
might >n that ease have completed their arrange- 
menta and met the allies with seven full army corps 
at the paasagea either of the Po or of the Ticino. As 
it was, they were dispersed in a long line from 
VareBO to Piacenza; these troops were weary with 
marching, weakened by fighting and disheartened by 

The decisive battle of Magenta took place on June 
i, tfa« day on which the Emperor had d<>tcrmincd to 
crow tho Ticino. iMageota is a small town of about 
foar tboiirand inhabitants, aitnated on the high-road 
between Xovara and Milan, about four miles from 
the left bank of the Ticino. Alwut half-way between 
it and the river runs tho cunal of the Niiviglio Grande 
which carries tlie waters of tho Ticino to Milan. 
Tbe canal is deep and runs between hifch banks bo u 
to be rery difEcult to cross. The canal in this part 
of ita oonrsc is crowci by six bridp-s, liiat of Hi'mato 
in the north, BufTalora about a mile below, and Fonte 
Xnovo Hi Magenta on the hi^h-road; by tlie railway 
bridge about a third of a mile below, by Ponio 
Veeehin di Mageotm and 1^>becco to the south. All 
thmi hridp-M bad been mined and placed in a condi- 
tion of defence; a strong redoubt Iiaving been built 
tlut railway brid^ Buffalora and Ponto Nuovo 



had also special defences. From the bridge of St 

Martino on the Ticino fo\ir roads diverge: io tho 
middle the right road to Milan by Magenta, to the 
]eft the road to Buffaiora, to the right the railway 
and still further to the right the road to Ponte 
Vecchio and Kobecco. 

Magenta thus formed a formidable defensive 
position. Giulay had intended to concentrate the 
whole of his forces there ; biit he was not able from 
various circumstances to get together more than a 
third of them, but at the same time the French were 
not able to dispose of more than a quarter of their 
entire strength for the attack. The morning of Juno 
4 was passed by the Austrian army in perfect peace. 
The troops cooked their food without interruption 
and had finished eating it when news came that the 
heads of tho Prench column were advancing upon 
Buffaiora. A brigade was immediately sent to pro- 
tect the two bridges which had not been destroyed, 




impffim to a poailion five hundred yards in ad- 
nce of tfio Ticino, 

At midday MacMKhon'a tiring was heard on the 
ft, and Wimpllen resuiued iiia advance. Buffalora 
u attacked with such spirit that the French were 
driren back across the Caual, witliout having time to 
lode the inincs which were designod to blow up 
c bridge. Attacks in other directions were re- 
lied by the arrival of Austrian reinforcements, 
in the French assault was invigorated by similar 
kid, and again the allies found themselves over- 
imwcnd by Bnpcrior numlters. The bnlUe swayed 
baekwards and forwards as the forces were relatively 
tor or smaller on either side. At 2 p.u. (wo 
iportant points on tlio Naviglin, the redoubt of 
Monta Rotondo ond the Ponte Nnovo were in the 
poMeoaion of Mcllinet's division. But that division 
mntaiood only five thousand men and bad no reserve 
lo support it. Nothing hail been heard of Cnn- 
robiTt or Xiel and the advance of MacMahon bad 
been arrcated. 

Qiulay coming up from Abbintesmaao now arnit 
two divisions against Mellinct at BiifFnlora and Fonts 
Ifooro, and drove them baek with );roat loss; indeed 
nurd lost one of its guns. The houses on tlie 
t bank of the Xaviglio were retaken, those on tlie 
it ncro steadily hrld by the Zouaves and the grena- 
diet*. At this critical moment the fortunes of the 
French were r«torcd by the arriviil of PJcanra 
irigadr. forming a part of Panrobert's corps. Ap* 
iving at full speed, they rca<'Iie<l iho hridgit of Sl 
"artino at 2 p.m.. and immediately supported 
WimptFen, who was in groat difGcultica. The rush 
I'icardS columns was irrcaiatible, and they bad 
it which seldom falls to the lot of a French regi* 





ment, that of saving the guard. They succeeded in 
getting possession of the village of Ponte Vecchio, 
making immerous prisoners, but they could not pene- 
trate to the left bank. It waa now about 3,30 p.m., 
and the aspect of affairs had undergone much altera- 
tion in the last hour and a half. 

At the same time the position of the Emperor was 
very serious. The Austrians threatened to force 
the passages both of Ponte Nuovo and of the railway. 
The Emperor, when asked for reinforcements, re- 
plied, " I have no one to send. Bat the passage, 
keep your ground." The French columns on the 
Ponte Nuovo bridge were visibly thinning; they 
could not advance and would not retreat. For boura 
nothing had been heard of MacMahon on the left, 
and the enemy was pressing with terrible force on 
the right. Just at this moment Mac^Iahon's cannon 
was heard again on the left, and Canrobert came up 
in person to announce that reinforcements were at 
hand. The fact was that MacMahon, who had 



wliicli the division of Motterouge wonid not be 
Hrong onongh to resist. He also saw that the right 
knd left divisions were getting too far separated and 
tbat Caniou's division was in the rear. He there- 
fore ordered Motterouge to retreat towards Cug^o- 
no, and orders were sent to Camou to hasten his 
march and to Espinasse to advance quickly upon Mar- 
cello. The division of Motterouge remained in their 
position for two hours, isolated and exposed to an at- 
tack on the left flunk. 

The Anstrians had indeed met MacMahon's at- 
tack by pr-jceeding from Magenta in three columns, 
one directed against Motterouge, one against Espi- 
^and a third in the centre between the two. Tiic 
lion was critical until Caniou's division coming 
filled up the gap betn-een the two columns of 

Bfl French attack. })at ?lIacMahon could do nothing 
itil Kspinasae had rt-achid his ohJLsrtive; he per- 
fectly understoo<l tho situation, and was as anxions 
to reach tho Kmjieror as the Emperor was to receive 
fail assistance lie and his staff had to remnin still 
JQ a condition of foverisJi impatience whilit tho 
ntukctrr and cannon firo sonndod fiercely from tho 
Xaviglio and the south wind brought the smell of 
powder to their noetrile. 

MacMahon rode in search of Kspinasse, to whom 
he explained the situation, ordering him to tak« a 
firm position with his left at Mareello, to extend hia 
right in the direction of Buffnlora, and to march to- 
wards the vtceple of Magi<nta. Motterougn received 
■Imilar orders, and at Bufalora joined some French 
troopa who had croaaed at St. Mnrtino. Uniting 
with them, La Alotterougit ailvandxl upon Magenta. 
Thcrff wa.* heavy ligbting at Caasino Nnovo and at 

> brickfield in the roar. Espioaase acvompli«bed tho 



task allotted to him with great difficulty and con- 
Biderablc loss; and it was not till 5 f.u. that the 
junction of the two columns was effected. 

MacMahon now reformed his line and, placing 
Camoii In reserve, gave the order to advance from all 
aides on the steeple of Magenta. His troops marched 
forward with drums beating and colours flying. 
Little resistance was made until Magenta itself was 
reached, but here every bouse was pierced for 
musketry ; the streets were barred by barricades, the 
gardens were turned into redoubts, the churchyard 
and even the spire were armed with artillery and 
riflemen. The battle raged with especial fury at the 
open space of the railway station, and Espinaase was 
killed. The struggle was maintained with equal 
rigour on the Naviglio canal, and no essential pro- 
gress was made nntil the arrival of Trochu at the 
Ponto Yecchio at 7 p.m. It was not till 9 p.m. that 
the field of battle was completely in the possession of 

_ . ■_■- _ 1 





On June 5 the Austrian army began ita retreat 
wiihoDt much interference from the French, who on 
thtar side expected to bo attacked. But on June 6 it 
vu evident that the Austriana were intending to 
werifioo Ixtmhardy without further struggle, and on 
this daj the Emperor moved his headquarters to 
IfigonU. On Jane T a French corps d'armet 
marched rapidly through Milan, and on the follow- 
^ing morning ihe ulHi'd sovereigns entered the capital 
■f Lombardy in triumph amidst tlie (enthusiastic joy 
" the population. It was now evident that Giulay 
ntvnuml to withdraw to the Mincio, where he would 
protected hy tlie fnmoui qimilrilnt^^rnl of for^ 
Hintua, Vrrona, reschkfra,and I>ognago. To 
irapedo thia movement the Kmperor dospfltolieil Ihe 
first and second porpa in the direction of Lodi, hoping 
that they wonld reach the Adda l>cfore the rear-guard 
of the pn«my and would then cnt them in two. This 
operation was entnialeil t*^ Paraguay d'llillicrs, 
tinder whoso orders MacMahon was placed, both of 
these genera la having been created marahaln afti-r tlie 
battle of Magenta. This movement failed ; Gtnlay's 
rear-gnard paused the Lambm a few hours before tho 
Fnoch reached that river, and a brigade which he 
left tbcro encountered tho French at Melegnnno in 
Ihe eveuiog of June d, aud by their tinn countvnaiioo 


WARS Of the centubY. 

stopped the march of tbe alliea, and allowed the Aua- 
trians to continue their retreat in peace. 

No other event of military importance occurred 
till the battle of Solferino, fought on June 24. 1859, 
which put an end to the war. This was fought in a 
space Ixiundcd to the north by the Lake of Garda and 
the railway, to the south by the Oglio, to the west 
by the Chieae and the east by the Mincio; being 
about twenty miles in deplb and twelve miles in 
length. South of the Lake of Qarda run three parallel 
chains of hills, in the southernmost of which, over- 
hanging the plain, are the heights of Valsana, Jlonte 
Fenile, Solferino and Cavriana, which played an 
important part in the battle. On the central chain 
are the heights of Castel-ven^ago and Madonna della 
Scopertn, and on the northern line of hills, San Mar- 
tino, Ostaglio and Feniletto, which lay in the sphere 
of the operations of tbe Sardinian army. The cul- 
minating point of the field is the tower of Solferino, 
from which the 



sooth. On the right of the high-road ]ie the villages 
of Curpeiiedolo, to the «>uth-wcst of Castiglione, 
Hedole, to the west of Guidizzolo and Cenesara bo- 
fore mentiinied. The ground between Guidizzolo 
ind Medole is covered with many houses, whose red- 
tiled roofs are visible through the troea, the hamlet 
of Rebecco forming the prinoipal group. Still fur- 
tbrr to the right are situatoil Acqua Fredda, the 
walla and towers of Caslel Goffredo, due east of 
Aoqna Fredda, and south of Medole and other 
villages. We sboold also mention the Strada 
Logina, which leaves the Lake of Garda east of 
Rivoltelle, passes the railway and reaches Poezo- 
Itogo bv San Marline, the ordinary road from Rivol- 
trila to Pozzolengo, and the road from L>onato to th« 
aaue ptaee. 

Thu forces on either sido were as follows : The 
French army consisf'd of five corps d'armee, as be- 
fore, with the Guard, and five Sardinian diviaions, 
the loasefi in previous o|)cration3 having been made 
Dp. Thus the allied army contained seventeen di< 
Tiaions of infantry and five of cavalry with a large 
nmnbcr of cannon, making n totiil of one hundred 
and sixty thousand men. The Austrian army had 
been entirely reorganised. It poesM^ now eight 
corps of infantry besides a detached brigade, and one 
corps of eavalry, forming one hundred and twenty- 
four battalions of infantry, and sixty squadrons of 
oaralrj, amounting altogether to alwut the same num- 
ber of one hundred and sixty thousand, under tha 
omnmand of tlie Kmperor Francis Josi'ph in persoo. 
lie monting of June S3 tho hoadquarlen of th« 
iror of Austria were at Villafranca; thosv of 
^M firrt army, under Wimpffeu, were at Mantua; 
tboH of the second ami^r, under Schlick, werQ 



at Custozzn. The eighth corps, under Benedek, 
forming the extreme right, was at Peschiera, and the 
Becond, under Liclitenstein, forming the extreme left, 
at Mantua. 

It was intended that, on the morning of June 23, 
the Austrians should advance from these positions 
to surprise the allies, falling on their right flank and 
driving them towards the AJps; it waa hoped that 
the decisive hattle would be fought on June 24, 
Therefore on that day the army crossed the Mincio 
at six different points, and occupied on the evening 
the line of Pozzolengo, Solferino, Cavriana, 
Guidizzolo, Kehecco and Jledolc, their advanced 
posts being at Madonna della Scoperta, Le Grote, 
Camarino, Mcdole and Castel Goffredo, the reserves 
at Foresto and Castel Grimaldo. On the following 
morning at 9 a.m. the army was to advance to the 

But before that could be done the Chiese bad been 



partioular day. The victory would be likely to rest 
with that army who could moat rapidly tranBform 
ila line of march into a line of battle. 

The battli^ of Solferino may bo divided into two 
principal periods, the lirst of which contaios the en- 
gagement resulting from the fortuitous shock of two 
ho0ta neither of whom expected to meet the other, 
and before the orders given for the march on either 
li4e bad been modified. The second period b^ina 
when the action of the battle becomes general and 
concentrated, and may again bo divided into two 
tiDAller periods, the attack of the French on the 
eentr«, and that of tlie Austrians on the left. Tbo 
Sardinians and tlie eighth Austrian corps hnd as it 
wore s b«ttle to tbeinselvcs. To describe the battle 
■bortly we may say that the t\vo armies, nearly equal 
in strength, marching towards each on a front of 
eqnal depth, without knowing each other's position, 
met on the lino of San Martino, Solferino, Gnidiz- 
colo and Ifedole. The Austrian army tried at first 
to execute its original plan of turning the French 
right The army of the allies concentrntcd toward* 
its centre, s movement which wa« hastened and em- 
phasiaed by the Kniperor. Tbua it happened that 
the positions of Solferino and Sun f'aaciano were atr 
tacked by three French corps, and were also de- 
landed by three Austrian corpii. The French auo- 
eeoded in pitTcing the centre of the Austrian artoy, 
bacaiMe their three corps attacked simultaueoosly, 

.vbereas the Aiutrian corjM only came up to the di^ 
enco in succession. At the same time the four 
loitrian corj)* which acted on the left wing were d«- 

ffeatcd l)T two French corps, because they ctiuld not 
uanogv to Oct l'>gvtlier, and one cor{<«> which wu 
ioteoded to etriko a decisive blow, was never etigagod 



at all. On the Austrian right the eighth corps «ne- 
ceeded in holding back the Sardinians till nightfall, 
but this could not redress their failure in other parts 
of the field. The capture of Cavriana finally put an 
end to the battle and the Austrians retired behind 
the Mincio. 

Let us now amplify this sketch more in detail. 
The allies began their march in the early morning 
of June 34. By the orders issued the night before, 
the Sardinians were to march on Pozzolengo, Bara- 
giiay d'Hilliers on Solferino, MacMahon on Carri- 
ana, Niel on Guidizzolo, Caurobert on Medole, the 
Imperial Guard on Castiglione, while the cavalry 
were to act in the plains between Solferino and 
Medole. Setting out at 3 a.m. the French en- 
countered no serious opposition till 5 a.m., when 
MacMahon saw that the situation was more serions 
than ho had espected. He therefore halted and 
waited for the arrival of the French troops at Medole, 



lion of Solferino, where a vigorous battle had been 

some time proceeding. It had thus taken six 

lOn in this part of the field for the order of march 

be changed to an order of battle. 

What had l>een the fate in the meantime of the 

of Xiel and Cunrobert? Niel bad set out for 

edole at 3 a.u. in a single column. He met the 

Austrian cavalry just in front of Mcdolo at about 

6 A.H., and drove them back to the village. Medole 

itwlf was taken at 7 a.u., and the Austrians retired 

to Giiidixzolo. Niel then succeeded in advancing 

u far a£ a farm called Casa Nuova, a abort distance 

from Guidiszolo. From this point he could see the 

difficulties in which MacMahon was placed and the 

^fotcea against which he had to contend, and he made 

^Brvptnitions for joining him. But he was obliged 

^^D wait for his artillery and for the division of Failly 

which was marching in its rear. There was therc- 

i £an a long delay before he could make a forward 

I BOTtmonL Canrohcrt, in command of the third 

corpt, had started at 2.30 a.u., also for Medole. Ha 

bad paucd the Chicse at Visano, but the march was 

a difficult one, and it was 7 a.u. before his iirat col- 

vma» nachcd Castel Goffrcdo, a sniall town defended 

bjr walla. Medole was not reached till 9.1S a.u. 

Canrobcrt bad then groat difficulty in determining 

whether be should be justified in diverging towards 

tba Uft when his instructions specially ordered bim 

to give his chief altt^ntion to his right. Eventually 

b« despatched General Itcnnolt with five battalions 

on the road to Cenesara and with the remainder of 

his force gave support to Nieh Then movements 

took place at about 10.80 a.m., so that before 11 a.m. 

"Sul could announo«> to Maclf abon thnt he wan ah^ 

to follow the second corps in its movement toward* 

tile left. 




The Sardinians, on the extreme left, under tte 
command of the King, were charged with an inde- 
pendent operation. Four divisions were to take pos- 
session of Pozzolengo and the environs of Peschiera, 
whilst the division of Oialdini and the chasseurs of 
Garibaldi were to watch tho passages of the Alpa. 
In the early morning of Jime 24 the first division set 
out hy various mountain roads, and met the 
Au&triuns first at La Madonna della Scopcrta, and 
at the farm of Casellino Nuovo. The Emperor sum- 
moned them to Solferino, but it was necessary first 
to get possession of La Madonna, and many lives 
were lost in the attempt to do so. The divisions who 
marched on Pozzolengo were engaged with the Auatri- 
ans at about 7.30 a.m.j and the struggle then initiated 
lasted for thirteen or fourteen hours, the Sardinians 
being eventually repulsed. 

We have thus seen that at 10 the battle was 
along the whole front of I he allies, from the 



At this moment Baragiiav <j'Hiltier3 was asaault- 
ug the strong position of Solferino lield by Count 
StadioD, the liUI covered with cypresses, the grave- 
yard ntid the castle dominatod by the well-known 
tuwer, the Spy of Italy, atl important points, being 
In excellent condition of defence and well supplied 
with artillcrj'. The walls of the cemetery defended 
iu flink by Iho cypress hill defied all efforts, and the 
Atistrians were able to act with encrgj' on the offen- 
•ivc The struggle on either side was terrific and it 
WM not till 3 P.M. that the French could place their 
victorious flags on the tower and on the cypress hill. 
The AiKtrians were then driven from Solferino and 
an impoilant point had been gained. 

There still remained the heights of Cavriana to 
the east, a village furnished with ancient walls, and 
Mrangtlicned hy a castle. The French arrived at this 
point at 4 p.m.. and the struggle of Solferino could 
M here renewcl. Fortunately the Due de Magenta 
mu engaged in assaulting this strong position from 
another side, from the farm of San Caasiano. In 
oonaeqitenco of this double attack Cavriana was taken 
at about 4.30 p.m., and the Austrians were in full 
retnat towards Volta. In spite nf thi- vigorous de- 
fmee made by the rear-guard itndor Zobel they would 
have been relentlessly pursued, if a very violent storm 
bad not burst apon the combatants, as often hap- 
pena in wriously contested bntttes, and stopped fur- 
tlwr operations. At about C.30 v.u. the Ai)ntrians 
beipin to retreat in all directions, and their centre waa 
entirely in the power of the French. 

In the meantime important conflicts hod been 
taking place on the two wings. N'ifil, on tlio right, 
trying to force his way from Medolo to Ouidiixolo, 
was atUckcd in force by Schwartenberg, and the 



AtiBtrians retained possessioD of this place till 10 
P.M. Victor Emmauucl on tlie left was fighting for 
bis life at San Martiuo, situated on the Strada Lu- 
gone, between Hivoltella and Pozzolengo. This was 
not taken until sunset, after tbe capture of Solferino 
bad become already known. Camion were immedi- 
ately placed on tlio San Martino heights, and at night- 
fall the Austriana resigned the whole plateau to the 
Piedmontese. At those towns tbe Sardinian diri- 
sions, which had been engaged at Madonna della 
Scoperta, joined with those who bad just conquered 
at San Martino, having had great difficulties to en- 
counter from the opposition of the enemy and the 
nature o£ the ground. The Sardinians bad thus 
achieved the conquest and were able to maintain 
the possession of the high plateau at which they had 
arrived, but they bad lost six thousand men, consider- 
ably more than their opponents. Indeed both sides 
claimed the credit of the victory. 


We need not pursue the history of this eampaign 
any further. Sufficient to aaj that for reuons partly 
political and partly military the Emperor Napoleon 
delormined not to proceed to the reduction of the 
Quadrilateral, or with the ccnqneet of Venetia. An 
annistico was signed between the French and Anstri- 
ana on Jnly 8, 18K9, by which Victor Emmanuel 
obtained posseasion of the Milanese. 




It Ii)is beeu said on several occasion* that it is not 
within the province of this work to deal with politi- 
cal history e:icept so far as it cannot be distinguished 
from military history. This rule must be specially 
observed in narratinc the War of Secession in 



These ordinajicea were followed by the seizure nf 
forts, nrecnuls and cuetom-houses, belonging to the 
Federal or C«ntral Qovcrnment, hy the formation 
of ft Confederate Goveniment, and hy the perma- 
neot election of Jefferson Davis to be President. Tho 
Confederacy then furcicd was iiflerwards joined by 
V'irgiuia, Arkansas and North Carolina. Kentucky 
refusing to secede. For the adhesion of Tennessee 
and Uiasouri to the aeceeeion, there waa a prolonged 

The first action of the Civil War waa the capture 
of Fort Surnler, situated on an island in Charles- 
ton Harbour, and belonging to the Federal Govern- 
ment. Il« surrender was demanded, and when this 
wsB refused the Confederate haiteriea opened fire 
upoD it on April 12, 1861. The bombardment con- 
ttoaed (or two days, and on Sunday morning, April 
14, the fort surrendered, the garrison being allowed 
to nurch out with the honours of war. Ko life waa 
lost on either side, but the flames of civil war wera 

At the hoginning of the war tfae C-onfedoratM 
stood upon tho defensive; this attitndo was not chosen 
froio wcAknees, aa is shown by the successes which 
th«y met witb in their earlier operations. But in 
■eparaling from tlie Union they had doalared that 
Uu>ir object was (o gain their own independence and 
Dot to effect the subjugation of other States. Had 
tbcT mtdo war in tho Northern States as tlia Fed- 
■rus made war in Virginia. Louisiana and Georgia, 
they would have fslsitiecl the principles for which 
tli«y took up arma. Therefore their defcnairfl atti' 
tudie ia to be attributed rather to political than to 
military considerations. 

Dn the day after the fall of Fort Sumter 



President lincolu called out the militia to 
the number of Bcventj-five thousand from the 
several States of the Union, and appealed 
to all loyal ctti^eiu to favour the Federal 
cause. The response to this appeal was much 
stronger and more imajiimous than could have been 
expected; recruiting offices were opened in every 
town, men of all sorts and conditions left their basi- 
nesa to step into the ranks, and in a few days the 
Government was offered several times as many troops 
BB had been called for. All kinds of buildings, even 
churches, were turned into temporary barracks ; vil- 
lage greens and city squares were occupied by drill- 
ing soldiers, but there was a great scarcity of arms. 

The first blood was shed at Baltimore, where four 
compfinies of a Pennsylvanian regiment, who were 
attempting to march across the city, met a riotous 
procession following a Secession flag. After some 
provocation had been given, orders were issued to 




had only been eogaged for lliteo mouths ; but ou May 
8 another proclamation called out forty-two thousand 
voltmteerB for three years, and assumed power to 
■wi»e ten new regimenta for the regular army, aa well 
for eighteen thousand volunteer seamen for the 
ivy. When Coagresa met ou July 4 the President 
Asked for four hundred thousand men and four hun- 
dred million dollars, and recived five hundred thou- 
sand men and five hundred million doHars. By this 
Uirhmond in Virginia had been made the capi- 
of the Confederacy. A cry was immediately 
;nuBed of " On to Richmond." Some experienced 
» were opposed to undertaking an offensiTe 
tnoTement with raw troops, and advised that they 
■bottld only bo used to protect Waahington and keep 
lfai7Und from seceding; but political considerations 
ined sn onwurd course and the firat result was 
ttle of Bnll Run, which was fought on July 21, 
A Confederate army commanded by General Beau- 
K^rd bad been aeut to occupy Manassas Junction, 
which waa the railroad centre of northern Virginia, 
bat be determined, for tactical reasons, to move for- 
ward to the fltrcam of Bull Run. There are sis pas- 
Mges orer tliia river from Union Uilla, which is on 
tli« Alexandrian railway, to Stone Bridge, which a 
the ht|^-ro>d from Alexandria to Warrentown 
rough Centreville. On July 17 the Confederate 
•nny was distributed along this space, seven or eight 
hx extent, a brigade being posted at each point 
pnwge and two held behind in n-acrve. The plan 
«f 0«DenI Scott, who oommanded thu Ftsloral army, 
wu to tnm Boaurcf^rd's right Hank, to scieb the 
rmilroadi in rear of his position, an<l defeat him. 
i wu importaot that he should not be aaaiatod by 

. M«»7l« 


^ AO 



which took place for the co-operation of Missouri, 
Kentucky, Maryland, and Tennessee. Virginia came 
to be divided into two parts, as the inhabitants of 
the mountainous western districts, having but little 
interest iu slavery aud great interest in iron, coal, 
and timber, held firm to the Union. In consequence 
of this a new State of West Virginia was formed 
and admitted into the Union in May, 1862. France 
and England had recognised the Confederates aa 
belligerents, and there was great fear of their also 
acknowledging their independence. Indeed England 
was very nearly taking the side of the South from 
the capture by the Federals of Maaon and Siidell, 
accredited Ministers from the South to London and 
Paria, while on board the Trent, an EngHah vessel. 
War was averted by the inten'ention of the American 
Government and by the statesmanlike adrice of the 
Prince Consort, whose participation in the English 
Privy Council which settled this matter was one of 





Omt of the first Hctiona of tho Federal Govero- 
it WM to complete tlie blockade of the Southern 
Vessels could at all times pass through, but 
jfr-mnning became moro and more dangerous. 
' At the tamo time in the battle of Paintvillo, in Ken- 
toekjr, Colonel James A. Garfield, afterwards Presi- 
dent, with eighteen hundred infantry and three hun- 
dred cavalry, drove Humphry Marshall out of that 
town, although he was in command of a much larger 
fores; a rtubbom battle aleo took place at Mill 
Spriagi, in which the Federals lost 246 and the Con- 
federates 471. Another important action was the 
eaptunr of Fort Henry, on the Tennessee River, in 
Jaouarr, 1862, and that of Fort Donelson on the 
CuniU-rland, both thcsn being effected by General 
Grant, one of the moat celebrated of the American 
Presidents. Buckner, who commanded Fort Done)- 
■otL, aaked for temu of capitulation, hut Grant re- 
plied: " iSo terms other th:in an unconditional and 
untnediate smrrendcr can be accepted. I propose to 
tDOW inunediately upon your works." Buckner at 
OOM flurrendcred the fort with the garrison of four- 
teen thonsand men. These snccoBses formed tho 
foundation of Grant's n -pulation. 

The city of New Orleans was by far the largeet 
«nd riebeat in the Confederacy; and ita Mrat^o 
ntat in the war waa greater than that of any other 



poir.t in the Southern States, Its possession bv tbe 
federals would cut the Confederacy in t^vo, and 
make it difficult to bring supplies from Texas and 
Arkansas to feed the armies in Tennessee and Vir- 
ginia. New Orleans was defended towards tbe sea 
by two forts, St. Pliilip arid Fort Jackson, now gar- 
risoned by fifteen hundred Coa federate soldiers. 
I'here was also a fleet of fifteen vessels, including an 
iron ram and a large floating battery, and below the 
furt a heavy chain was hung across the river. A 
large fleet was fitted out under the command of 
Captain Farragut, then abiiut sixty years of age. 
lie was a Southerner by birth, hut from conscien- 
tious reasons took the side of the North. A bom- 
bardment was opened on April 18 and continued for 
six days and six nights. Six thousand shells fell in 
and around the forta, a shell falling about every 
minute and a half, hut the forts were not rendered 
tmtenable nor were their guns silenced ; not more 



I Forts JacksoQ and St Philip surrendered. This 
victory was of the greatest im|>ortauce and it set tbe 
ouue of Farragut beside that of Grant. 

On A]>ril 7, 1SC2, was foiiwht one of the bloodiest 
tttlcs of tlie war, that of Shilob, called after a little 
church in the aouih-west of Tennessee. The 
Itfcmphia and Charleston railway crosses the Mobile 
and Ohio railway at Corinth in northern Miasissippl, 
fliich, being at that time a pjint of great strategic 
jiijx'rtAnce, was fortified and held by a large C3oa- 
icnitc force commandod by General Albert Sidney 
JohnMoii. General Grant with forty thousand men 
ODtler his command advanced to capture Corinth, ex- 
to be joined by reinforcements from Nash- 
rille of equal number. On April 6 Grant's main 
lone was at Pittsburg Landing, on the west bank 
of the broad Tennessee River, about twenty miles 
norti) of Corinth, and a subordinate force was at 
Cinmp'a landing, five miles further north ; the army 
from Nashville had just reached the shore opposite 
the Landings. On that morning Grant whb suddenly 
•tucked by Johnston, bia line beinf; about two miles 
long between Lick Creek nnd Owl (,'reek. The 
groond was undulating, and on a ridge stood Shilob 
church, which was an impnrtaut point in the battle- 
field. Grant, on hearing the firing, hurriod up to the 
arene of uetion. He hml expected to be attacked at 
Crump's Landing, and now ordered tlie troops posted 
there (o march towards Shilob, but they did not 
arrive till after dark, nor did any of the Niishville 
army erase the river til) the evening. The attack was 
extrpiiiely violent, but tlie FodernI tri>ops hi'ld their 
ground ; at least they never surrendereil the road 
and ibo hridge by which the troops from Crump's 
Lauding would advanoo. Grant described one part 



of the field in these words : " It was bo covered with 
dead that it would have been possible to walk across 
the cleuriDg in any direction, stepping on dead 
bodies, without a foot touching the ground. On one 
side National and Confederate troops were min- 
gled together in nearly equal proportions, but on the 
remainder of the field nearly all were Confederates. 
On one part which had evidently not been ploughed 
for several years, bushes had grown up, some to the 
height of eight or ten feet. Not one of them was 
left standing unpierced by bullets. The smaller 
ones were all cut down." In the battle Gleneral 
Sherman greatly distinguished himself; one bullet 
struck liim in the hand, another grazed his shoulder, 
another went through his boot, and several horsea 
were killed under him. At about 2.30 p.m. General 
Johnston was struck in the lug by a rifle-ball, and re- 
fusing to leave the field, bled to death. The command 
devolved upon General Beauregard. Beauregard 


battle General Hslleck laid sie^ to Corinth, which 
was defended b; Beauregard, and it was not evacu- 
ated till May 29. By some the battle of Shiloh ia 
considered to be the critical struggle of the Con- 
federacy, as it opened the wav for the Federals to the 
■ea. There was nothing now to prevent an army 
from marching to the rear and cutting off the sup- 
plies of the troops that held Richmond and compel 
their surrender. Some partisans of the South are 
of opinion that if Qeneral Johnston had lived the 
XQMilt of the war might have been different. 






Aftee the disastrous battle of Bull Run the Fed- 
oral adminiatratioQ summoiied General McClellan to 
Washington with the duty of fortifying the capital 
and organising the army. He took command of 
fifty thousand men without uniforms, and in three 
months was at the head of an army of more than 
one hundred thousand, fully organised, equipped and 
furnished with every necessary. On November 1 
General Scott retired and McClellan succeeded him 
as General-in-Chief of all the armies. For reasons 




I'Meralb over five thousand men and the Confed^ 
rates nearly seven thousand. After this, heavy rain 
prevenUid both armies from making any serious 
moTCueDt oa Richmond. At the beginning of June 
tb« eummand of the Confederate army in Virginia 
devolved upon Gt-noffll Itoberl E. Lee, a position 
irbicb bo bold lili the eloae uf the war. He adopted 
the plan of bringing large bodies of troops from 

ortli Carolina, Georgia, and the Shcnanduah \^al- 

M as to form a massive army and fall upon 

HcClellan. The number of tightiug men under 

liim was estimated at 60,760, but his total effective 

vnx drawing pay was d2,riOO. 

Lec'a ablest lieutenant wa^ " Stonewall " Jackson, 
M called from an incident in the battle of Bull Bun, 
whan General Bee, of South Carolina, who was killed 
later in the day, rallied bis wavering men by appeal- 
ing to tfaem to follow the e.xample of Jackson's 
brigade, " standing tbere like a stono wall." He 
mored very swiftly and astonished his silversarleB 
hy bis msrveltous rapidity sod his appearance in 
unexpected places. 

The beautiful valley of the Shenandoah, whieb lies 
,jlel«een the Bine and the Alleghany Mountains, was 
faTOorable to an army threntening Washington and 
unfavourable to one advancing on Richmond. The 
Conff derates as they marched down tlio valley came 
a( every itep ni'arer to the Feileral capital, whereas 
a Federal army murcliing up the valley was grad- 
sally carried to a further distance from Riobmond. 
now beiran to make pn^paratiuus for driving 

cClelUu from the peninsnia, and wrote to Jack- 
that unliM Mcriclinn could he drivMi out of 
kla fntr^fichments he would cime so near to lUdi- 
tlint he could b>>mbnr<i it. jVII potna wort 



taken to conceal from the Federals the fact that 
Jackson's army was to be joined to Lee's. 

There now ensued the seven days' battle of Sich- 
mond (June 26 — July 8), which ended in the re- 
treat of JlcClellan. On June 25 McClellan had ad- 
vanced his outposts to within four miles from Rich- 
mond. But before this, Lee, leaving about thirty 
thousand men to defend Richmond, crossed the 
Chickahominy with about thirty-five thousand, in- 
tending to join Jackson's twenty-five thousand, and 
with this overwhelming force to make a sud- 
den attack on the twenty thousand Federals 
who were posted on the north side of the 
river, and destroying them before help could 
reach them to seize McClollan's base. The in- 
habitants of Richmond were expecting that the city 
would be taken, and consequently the archives of 
the Confederate Government were packed. Jackson, 
for once in his life, was late, and all that the Con- 

&ICHMONr»-l»OPE AVh LEfi. 


called tlie buttle of OhickahomlnT, or the first battle 
of fold Harbour. McClellan now chHiiged his base 
from tho Chickahommy to the James Itiver, where 
it wa^ attacked by General Magruder, who had been 
left behind to defend Richmond, £rst at Allen's Farm 
Bnd then at Savage's Station. However, tho attack 
failed and be suffered severoly, the Federal generals 
being able to defend the road which leads through 
White Oak Swamp. 

Jackran now crossed the Ohickahominy and at- 
tempted to follow HcClelUn's rear-guard through 
White Oak Swamp, but was unable to do bo. Hill 
■nd Longstreet, however, had crossed the river fur- 
ther up tbo Btream and marched round the swamp, 
striking tlic retreating army near Charles City Cross 
Roads on Juno 30. There was terrific fighting all 
tho afternoon, hut the Federals held their ground. 
Oeneral ilcColl, however, was cuptur^^^l and carriod 
oS tu Richmond. Darknesa put an end to tho fight- 
ing, and AlcClclUn retreated to Klalvom HilL 
This battle is now generally called by the 
name of Fnuier's Fbto). AfcClclIan lost ten guns, 
U)t] the other losaea iniiBt have been very severe. 

The laet battlo of this series was fought at Mal- 
TRfit Hill, where McClellan made his final eland. 
It is i plateau on the side of the James River, about 
ei^ty feet high, a mile and a half long and a milb 
broad. It i'* unly approflcbalile by its north-western 
faoe. Uc(?IeiIan'B army was arrani^ in a semicircle 
with bis right wing thrown back so aa to reach Hax- 
all's Landing on the James River. Uis position was 
itraniely defended by artillory, Lee was not in a 
poaition to make the afsaull till July 1. It bc^tn 
with an artillery duel, which wna not very effeclinj 
CO tlM Oonfederate aida The inftnttj attack waa 


WARS Of the CENTUfty. 

made with too little regard to concentration, and 
broke up into a number of separate charges; and 
although lighting was kept up till 9 p.m., the line 
was never broken nor were the guns in danger. The 
battle cost Lee live thousand men, and after it he de- 
sisted from the pursuit. McClellan was able in the 
night to riitire to Harrison's Landing on the James 
River, where he was protected by gunboats, and where 
be collected bis supplies. The losses during thoso 
seven days' fighting are estimated at 15,249 on the 
Federal and over 19,000 on the Confederate side. 

The troops of Sigel, Fremont, Banks, and Mc- 
Dowell were now united in an army under General 
Pope, whose instructions were to advance soutbwarda 
on Gordonvillo and take the pressure off McClellan 
with a force of thirty-eight thousand men. It was 
soon found that these two commanders could not 
act in harmony together, iind the President sum- 
moned General Halleck, the well-known writer on 




npported bj Sigel. He first struck the right 
wing, iheii furiously attacked the left, opened fire in 
tlie rear and throw the whole of Jackson's line into 
confusion. But iho Confederates were much stronger, 
and Saiiks was not able to maintain his advantage, 
■nd both arrniee fell back, Jackson with the loea of 
Udrteen hundred men and Banks with a loss of 
eil^toen hundred. 

On August 17 Lee, seltinj^ out for Richmond, ar- 
rived on the Rapidaa. McCldlan in the meantime 
WM leaving the Peninsula and embarking his troops 
for Alesandria. I-ee and Jtckson had now together 
a forte of seventy thousand men, and Pope, who had 
only lifty thousand, retired beyond the Rappahan- 

On Auigast 25 Jackson with a body of eighteen 
d men moved up the Rappahannock, and 
along the eJisteni slope of the Blue Ridge bv 
Orleans and Salem, covered by the hills of Bull 
Udd. Having completed his circle round Pope's 
ight. he passed through Th'Tougbfnn^ Gap, on the 
nil Run Mountains, on July 2(i, and destroyed 
Briatol Station on the Orange and Alexandria rail- 
road in the rear of the Federals. Pope, thus tbreat- 
flood, advanced by the Worcester Road and tbo rail- 
way apon Jackaon to clear the line \o Alexandria, 
but at his approach Jackfion retired niong the rail- 
Way Id Manasea.1 Junction, where be took a largo 
number of prisoners and commiasariat stores. 

Pope was now reiuforciii by two of UcOlellan's 
brindea from Alexandria, and on July 27 be Mint 
IbDowcll with forty tboufand men towards Thor- 
cmfbfare Gap to occupy the road by which Loo wilt 
Longvlreet's division wan marching to join Jackson, 
■ad at thie Mine time moved with the rwindar of hn 



army to fall upon Jackson at Bristol Station. Here 
his advance-guard had an engagement with Jack- 
non'fl rear-guard, while the main body of Jackson's 
army retired to Manassas Junction. On July 28 
Pope ordered McDowell to make a retrograde move- 
ment, saying, " If you will march promptly and 
rapidly at the earliest dawn upon Manassas Junc- 
tion we shall bag the whole crowd." This gave an 
opportunity for Jackson to march to meet Lee, and 
he placed himself on the high gronnd near Grove- 
ton, near the battle-field of Bull Eun. Here a 
division of McDowell's army came into contact with 
him, and a battle ensued with severe loss on either 
side. Jackson was now in possession of the Wfoi- 
cester turnpike, the road by which Longstreet was to 
join him. Here on July 29 took place an indecisive 
action which is called the battle of Groveton, 

On the following day Lee's army, having defiled 
through Thoroughfare Gap, formed line on Jackson's 



Trope's flauk, who rceiimcd his retreat, till at last on 
Seplember 2 Halleck ordered him to withdraw to the 
fortiticatiriiis of Washington, where his annj was 
merged with that of the Potomac. The exact lossen 
in this campaign are not known. Lee claimed that 
he had captured nine thouaand prisonors and thirty 
guns, and it is prohable that Pope's killed and 
wounded did not fall short of ten thousand men. 

Aft«r the retirement of Pope's army to the de- 
ieacM of Washington, General Lee puslied north- 
ward into Maryland with his whole force. He 
reached Frederick, on a level with Baltimore, on Sep- 
tember 8, and issued a proclamation urging the people 
of Uaryland to join the Confederation ; but the ap- 
peal waa without result ; indeed all the Marylaodcra 
who intended to join the South had done so already. 
Tbe President now called upon General McClellan 
•nd aaked him to take command of the army of the 
Potomac, in which I'ope'a army had been merged. 
Aa foon its he heard of the invasion of Maryland 
MoCleUan marched hia army to the North, to cover 
WaahingtOD and Baltimore, and, if poaaihie. to fight 
■ deeisive battle. Ho arrived at Frederick on Sei>- 
lanlwr 13, Lee's army harini^ left the town two daya 
before Here also he waa fortunate enough to find 
a aketch of the campaign which Lee had carefully 
prepared. Jack^^n was to rross the Potomac, cap- 
tare tho Fotlcral furco at Martinsburg, and to aaaisl 
in the atuck npoa tbe troops at Harper's Ferry; 
Mel^awji was to march Ut Har{)cr'8 Ferry and take 
it ; Walker was to approach from tho other side and 
■aaist MeLawi; Hill's <liv>#on was to form the rear- 
gDArd. After these operations all tbe forces were 
to Doile tngctlK^r again at FIngentown. 

On tLe approach of Jackson's corps General Wbita 


Wars of the cENTURir. 

evacuated Martinsburg, and joined Miles at Harper's 
Ferry with two thouaand men. The place was 
speedily taken and about eleven thousand men were 
included in the capitulation, with seventy-three guns 
and much camp equipage. Jackson now hurried on 
to join lee and reached Sharpsburg on the morning 
of September 16. McClellan on the other hand, 
being cognisant of Lee's plans^wideavoured to thwart 
them to the best of hia ability. North of the Poto- 
mac, opposite Harper's Ferry, runs a range of hiUs, 
about one thousand feet high, and known as the South 
Mountains. They are crossed by two passes, Cramp- 
ton's Gap to the south, and Turner's Gap to the 
north. The general ordered Franklin's corps to 
pass throu'^li Cramptou'a Gap, to relieve Harper's 
Ferry, and Burnside's troops to cross Turner's Gap. 
He did not arrive at these Gaps till Septamber 14, 
when Lee had taken measures for their defence. The 
actions which ensued are called the battle of South 



temlxT 16, and the bridi^ was crossed by Hooker. 
Tbt next morniog Hooker's advance was violently 
i>pposed by Jackson, and the Btniggle between the 
Fe«iornl right and the Confederate left went on 
during the whole day without any decisive result. 
About 1 P.M. Buniside carried the bridge opposite to 
him and attacked the Confederate right, and two 
honn later he had made hiawoif master of the riJge 
oominanding Sfaarpaburg and had captured the Con- 
/ederite battery there. Lee, however, came up with 
fresh forces, drove Bumside from his position and 
n-took the battery. The battle of Antietam la gen- 
erally regarded as a decisive victory for Mc('lellan, 
but Mr. Koaeiter Johnston, whose authority has been 
principally followed in this narrative, says that the 
battle ended, not bec4i«se the day was closed, or bo- 
oanae any apparent victory had been achieved, but 
becoTtSO W)lli sides hud euffered so severely that 
neither was inclined to resume the struggle. He is 
of opinion that the Confederate army ought to have 
been annihilated or captund, and that while every 
man of l.<*e's force had bt-en actively engaged, not 
more than two-thirds of McClcllan's were in action. 
Ifaking the attack in driblets had neutralised the 
advantage which McClcUan had of being double his 
adrersary in uunilwrs. llcClellan reported his en- 
tire loss at 12,401), of whom 2,010 were kilh-d, ud 
2,700 ('onfi'-iiTata corpses were counted and buried 
upon tho battle-field. 

.\fb>r the battle of Antictam withdrew to Win- 
chester, and tt the end of a month found himself 
at tlM bmd of cixty-cight tlionsand men; uhile Me- 
lelUn took nplusquarters on tlio Potomac. Here, at 
becinning of October, he woa visited by the Preni- 
tfwEo ordered him to cross the river^giTfl battle to 



the enemy, or drive him south. He went on to eay: 
" Your army must move now while the roads are 
good. If you cross the river between the enemy and 
Washington, and cover the latter by your operations, 
you can be reinforced with thirty thousand men." 
McClcllan, however, remained inactive, alleging that 
his army was in want of shoes and clothing. 

At last on October 20, 1862, McClcllan croased tha 
Potomac, leaving a corps at Harper's Ferry and 
marching southward on the eastern side of the Blue 
Eidge, while Lee moved parallel to him on the west- 
ern side. 

On Kovember 7 the President, losing patience, 
relieved him of his command and sent up General 
Ambrose E. Burnaide in his place. At this time the 
right wing of Lee's army, under Longstreet, was at 
Culpeper, and the left wing under Jackson was in 
tha Shenandoah Valley, being distant from each other 
about two days' march. McClcllan said that he in- 





eomtnnndcd b; heights on which Burnside had placed 
147 guns. Not until December 10 was Bumeide 
ready to croaa the Kappahannock. His plan was to 
lay down five bridges, three opposite the city, and 
o wine distance below, the workmen being pro- 
ted hv artillery. He began to lay the pontoons in 
c Mrly morning of December 11, when the river 
was concealed by a thick fog, but before the work was 
bulf compK-ted the fog lifted and revealed the opera- 
tions to the enemy. I.>ee bad posted his riflemen in 
the streets and houses of Fredericksburg in such a 
way that the engineers had found it impossible to 
earry on tho wvrk owing to their heavy losaes. Mean- 
ile the two lower bridges were completed by noon, 
iumsido, unable to complete bis bridges, bombarded 
the town and set it on fire, but the attack of the 
abarpshooters on the engineers still continued. At 
last throe regiments, who volunteered for the service, 
eroMcd the river in pontoon boats, and drovo the rifle- 
men out of their hiding-places, capturing a hundred 
of them. Tho bridges were then completed and tlio 
eroatng vaa b^un, but the entire army was not on 
tlw Fredericksburg side of thu river till the evening 
of December 12. 

TIm attack upon the heights held by Lee was un- 
dertaken on the following morning. Here the whole 
of tbfl Confederate anny was concentrated, Long- 
■treet being on the left, and Jackson on the ri^ht, 
with ercry gun in position. The weak point of the lino 
waa on the right where the elevation of the heights 
WM not so great, and hero the principal attack oogfat 
to have been made ; but Bumsidp weakened bis forcea 
io this spot, and when hit advancing troops bad 
leaned (lie Confederate line and taken many pri»- 
9iMn^ thsy came face to face with the accoud Uoe ol 



the enemy and were driven back. Other columns 
fared even worse. In one place there was a broken 
road, and the Confederatea were here bo numerous 
that each man posted at the stone wall, which flanked 
the road, had two or ihree men behind him to load 
his miiskeU, and aU he had to do was to lay them in 
turn upon the wall and fire them rapidly without 
exposing himself. At this point nearly half the at- 
tacking force was shot down, and the remainder fell 
back. The other divisions did not 'fare much better. 
Bumside was Ijeside himself with wrath at thifl 
eontinued ill-success, and he ordered Hooker to ad- 
vance with the reaert'e ; but that general assured him 
that the attempt was useless. Upon the commander 
insisting, four thousand troops rushed forward with 
fixed bayonets, but soon returned with the loss of 
seventeen hundred dead or wounded. The Federal 
loss in this fearful struggle was 12,353 killed, wound- 
ed, or missing, although some of the missing aftei- 





Genchal BoR-viiiDB waB superseded aftor his de- 
feat at Krederickfiburg, and on January 25, 1863, 
General Joseph Hooker was given the command of 
tho army of the Potomac in his place. On this 
occaaion President Lincoln wrote to him in the fol- 
lowing torma : " I have placed you at tho head of the 
anny of the Potomac. Of course I have done this 
<n wliat appear to me sufficient reasons, and yet I 
it beat for you to know that there are some 
ings in regard to which I am not quite 9ntisfie<i 
"th yon. I believe you to be a bravo and skilful 
Midier, which of course I like. I alao believe you do 
not mix politics with your profession, in which you 
•re rigliL You have confidence in yourself, which 
is a valuable if not indispensable (luality. You aro 
anbttioan, which, within reasonable bounds, does 
raUwr piod than harm; but I think that during 
Ofloerat Bunisido's command of the army you have 
taken counsel of your ambition, and thwarted him as 
muck as you could, in which you did agrfal wrouR to 
tbfl ooantry and to a mo«t meritorious and honorablfi 
krDtb«ro(Boer. I have heard, inwich away aslo belicT9 
ii.of yourrcccDtlysayinf; that both the army and tlio 
Oovcrnment neHe*! a dictator. Of course it was not 
for thin, hut in "pitr of it. that T harr given yfiQ Um 
Conuuiind. Only tltosc generaU who gain nicceawt 



can set up as dictators. What I dow ask of you is 
military success, and I will risk the dictatorship, Tho 
Government will support you to the utmost of ita 
ability, whichisncithermoreTtor leas than it has done 
and will do for its commanders. I much fear that 
tho spirit which you have assisted to infuse into the 
army of criticising their commander and fvithholding 
confidence from him, -will now turn upon you. I 
shall assist you, as far as I can, to put it down. 
Neither you nor Napoleon, were he alive again, could 
got any good out of any army while such a spirit pre- 
vails in it And now, beware of rashness I Beware 
of rashness I But with energy and sleepless vigilance 
go forward and give us victories." 

Hooker began by restoring the discipline of the 
army of the Potomac, which had been greatly re- 
lazed, and opened the spring campaign with every 
promise of success. His army was between the 
Happahannock and the Potomac, having Aquia as its 



jnat above Froderickaburp;, and Sielclcs from Fal- 
mouth, wiiich is opposite Fredorickaburg, at United 
States Ford, a short distance higher up, both pro- 
eecdins; to Chancel loreville. 

On Mav 1 Hooker fonned his line and entrenchod 
it, placing Huward on the rii^ht as outward flank, 
Sloeum and Couch in ihc centre, and Meade nest the 
rhrer, whilv tbo corps of Sickle was held in reserve. 
On the same dav Lee moved towards Hooker with all 
hi* army, and attacked at various points with tho 
object of discoverinf- Hooker's position. On May 
8 Leo sent General Jackson twenty-sis thousand men 
to make a long detour, to pass into the " Wilder- 
IMB8," a great thicket which lay to the west of 
Channi^llorsville, and coming out of it to tako 
Ilaward by surprise. Jackson's men were seen and 
oouDted whilst tlioy were passing over a bill, and 
[oward was warned to take precautions, but he ne- 
to do this, and in the afternoon the enemy 
%me down upon him preceded by a rush of fright- 
ened wild animals. Howard's corps was thrown into 
oonriision and completely rented. 

Hiiring this cngBgi-ment the Confederates suffered 
a •everc loM. At tbo clow of the evening General 
•" Stonewall " Jackson went to the fnint to recon- 
noitre, and as he rode back a<;ain with his staff, some 
of his own men, mistaking tho hor»<'men for Federal 
oivali^', fired a volley at them by which Bevoml were 
killed. A Koond %'olloy inflicted three woands on 
Jiekatm, and as his hnriM> dashed into the wood, he 
wu thrown violently against the limb of a tree and 
injured more. Whilst hia men wore bearing him off 
•everely wounded on i litter, a Foleral battery 
opened fire ilown the roads and struck one of the men 
irtto WM bearing him, upon which he fell heavily to 



the ground. He finally reached the hospital whero 
his arm waa amputated, but ho diod within the week. 
On the following day, May 3, Lee attacked the 
angle and left face of the Federal line, and drove 
Hooker entirely back upon the river, his right below 
Ely's Ford, hia left below United States Ford. This 
BUCCGss was partly dne to the fact that General 
Hooker had been rendered insensible by a shot strik- 
ing tlie pillar of the Chancellorsville house, against 
which he was leaning, so that all proper commaDd 
of the Federal troops was lost. In the meantime 
Sedgwick had attacked the Fredericksburg heights, 
of which wo have heard so much, carried them and 
advanced along the road to Richmond, thus threaten- 
ing the Confederate rear. On the following day 
Lee drew off a large detachment of his army and 
turned upon Sedgwick, who after a heavy fight was 
stopped, and driven over Banks' Ford, being able, 
however, to rejoin Hooker bytho United States Ford. 



di^ular to the connie of tlia river, thna exposing 
tbvir outward AhuIc, and Uiaf. they only oscgpod de- 
stniotioii U-causL^ llioy contrived to hold, at the time 
of tht< Bttack, certain point't of passage. He says: 
^Uad the Federnla at Bull Run let go their hold of 

ono Bridge, by a continued advance, without gain- 
^ig Mitchell's Ford, or hud Hooker, movirij.^ doivn 
the stream, passed by United States Ford without 
gaining Banks' Ford, they would in either case have 
beon in great peril of being driven not across but into 
Uie river." 

Aftdr these successea public opinion in the Sontb 
began to demand that Lev should invade tlie North, 
or at least threaten Waahington. His army had r^ 
MJTod a heavy reinforoement by the arrival of I>ong- 
■treet's corpa. Losses had be^ capplied by a uni- 
versal levy of conscripts, which cnlli-d even boys of 
sixteen from school, and the army had unbi^undod 
confidence in itsolf. V'icksburg was being beviugtHl by 
Grant, and its fall would deal a deadly blow to the 
Confederacy unless it were neutralised by u victory 
in the East. Finally, there was a hope that if a great 
battle wore won by thu Confederates they would n>- 
eeive recojEnition, if not active aaaistancc, from £ap- 
land and France 

Lee collected a body of ninety thousand men at 
Colpepcr, including General Stuart's body of 
cavalry, which was ten thousand strong, while Hooker 
waa Mill posted on tlie Bfippahannock, oppoaito 
Fredaricksburg. Lee crossed Uie Potomac between 
Jnna 33 and 25, and ntDrched to Uie North. Hooker 
WM Mtoewbat lato in hearing of the movement, bat 
foDowad him after a few days. He desired to add 
to hia army the body of eleven tbonaand men under 
Francb, whu were lying naolma at Harper's Ferry, 



but Halleek iroald not consent to this, tbe eoa- 
seqQeD<» of which iras that he resigned bis com- 
mand and his place ^as taken by General Meade. 
}Iis first step was to order the evacuation of Harper's 
Ferry and remove its garrison to the city of Fred- 
erick as a reserve. 

The Confederates concentrated themaelres in 
Hagerstown, and spread over the whole country as 
Jar as the Susquehanna, while the advanced guard 
under Ewell pushed on to Carlisle and threatened 
Harrisbnrg, the main part of Lee's army remaining 
at Chambersburg, or between that place and 
Gettysburg. Lee seems to have expected that 
tbe Federal army would have stayed on the 
Eouth side of the Potomac, but when ha 
beard that the Federal army was marching he de- 
termined to get before it and ordered the concentra- 
tion of oil his forces at Gettysburg. Meade was also 
dvance towards the same ■ 



int, and lies for the most part to the south aod west 
of the town. About a mile from the town stretches 
the long Seminarj- Uidge, so called from a theological 
seminar; which stood upon it. About a mile from 
this is another ridge, named Cemetery Bidge, 
Bopatiitj.-d from the first ridge by a valley. Tbis 
second ridge bends a little towards tbe east, and at 
the point where tlie curve begins lies the town ceme- 
tery. The eastern point of this is called Gulp's Hill, 
and at the other end of the ridge, about three miles 
from Gcttysbnrg, lie two little rounded hilla called 
respectively Little Round Top and Big Round Top, 
Tbe Btrera of the battle was most felt on these two 
hills And in the valleys lying between them. 

It ia doubtful whether either commander intended 
to bring dn a buttle on July 1, but when the engagt^ 
nent first began both sides were heavily reinforced, 
and both fought with determination. There waa an 
obstinato struggle for the possession of tbe Cbam- 
btnbarg road, especially after tbe Confederates had 
plaated screrat guns to sweep it. The Federals 
wen at first successful, but tboy were soon driven 
bade by superior forces, and wero driven through 
tbo town to the Cemetery Kidgc and Gulp's IlilL 
■^^kp Meade heard of the defeat of his tro<^tps under 
H^^W>Ids Mid of that general's <]eath, he transferred 
the rommand to Hancock, who determined to take up 
his position on the Cemetery Kidge. Ewell had in 
the meantime extended hia left wing to the east of 
Gulp's Hill and occupied Gettysburg, but no further 
•ngagctnent took place that evening, and the night 
was occapiod by both parties taking up their posi- 

On July 2 both armies stood in order of battle, 
tb« Federal troops along the Ccmctciy Ridge, and 



the Confoderatcfl on the Seminary Ridge and beyond 
it to the other side of Gettysburg. Lee opened the 
Attack by ordering Longstreet, who was on his right, 
to attack both the isolated hills. There was a mui^ 
dcrous fitnjgglo for the possession of Little Kound 
Top, bayonets, clubbed mnskets, and even stones 
being \i3od, officers joining in the melee; but at 
length the Texans who were attacking it were re- 
pulsed and the position was secured. Sickles, wish- 
ing to improve his position, advanced for about half 
a mile against the Seminary Hill, but was attacked 
both in front and rear in the " Peach orchard," and 
was driven back, himself badly wounded, with the 
loss of a large number of his men. Just at dusk 
Ewell made an attack from Gettysburg on the Ceme 
tery nnd Ctilp's Hill with the so-called Louisiana 
Tigers and other troops. The Tigers had the repu- 
tation of having never failed in a charge, and in spita 



in 1 

I tho 

lino and to support bis Attack by a cavalry charge 
made by Stuart in the mar. In ordt^r to j^ive this 
general time to get round to tlie right wing of the 
Fodprala iJio attack was put off till iho aflvrnoon. A 
lar^ number of cannon iiail been placed in position 
on both sidcii during tbo morning. Leo had one 
huodrud and twenty along tlio Seminary Ilidf^ and 
31eade eighty on tlio Cemetery Ridge and along a 
<w irregular fltone wall which lies on tbo road from 
abui^ to Toney Town. The Confederatoa 
firo at 1 P.M., and the artillery duel com- 
menced. There wne a coutimious and deiifi-niiig nmr 
wbidt was heard fifty milca away. T!io shot and 
•hclU ploughed up the ground, shattered gravestonoa 
in the cemetery, sent their fragmenta flying among 
tho troof>9, oxplodod caissons, and dismounted ^ina. 
At the end of two hours Jleade'a chief of artillery 
errd Iho firing to cease, with tho nbject "f cool- 
ing the inins, and to sare ammimition for future use 
ip repelling tlio infantry charge. Jam now organi.-UH| 
hia famous attack, and with fourteen thousand of his 
bast troops, including Pickett's division, which had 
not arrived in time for tho previous day's fighting, 
o«ne out of tho wood, formed in heavy columns, and 
moved forward to the change. They were obliged to 
pass a mile of ground at full sp^KHl, but before they 
bad got half-way tbo Federal artillery waa directed 
■gutut tbem. Their ranks woro ploughed through 
ud through, but tbo gaps were closed up and tbc 
eolomn did not halt. As they drew nearer, tbo bat- 
teriea used grape and eauistor, and some infantry 
pcMted in front of tho main line rose to ita feet and 
fired volleys of niiuketry into their right flank. The 
attack waa directed towards a elnmp of tre«a on a 
dupreaaioQ in the Cemetery Eidge where a atone 



wall made an angle with ite point outwards. This 
has been alwaya known eince as " Bloody Angle," 
and it represents the only pdint in the Federal lino 
which was penetrated by the Confederates. Abont 
one hundred and fifty of General Armistead's sol- 
diers sprung over the stone wall in order to capture 
tho Federal guns. A murderous conflict ensued in 
which Armistead fell. Webb and Hancock were 
wounded and the result was the entire defeat of the 
Confederates. Of the magnificent column, only a 
broken fragment returned, nearly every officer in it, 
except Pickett, having been killed or wounded. 

Stuart's cavalry, which had been intended to co- 
operate with the movement in the centre, was unable 
to effect anything, because he met a force of Federal 
cavalry about four miles east of Gettysburg and was 
unable to make his attack at the proper time. After 
Pickett's defeat there was, as at Waterloo, which this 
battle in some respects resembles, a general advance 



dead, 13,702 woundH, and 7,467 priBonors. 
left aeren thonsand of his wounded amongst iho 
oobaried dead, aud twcuty-sevco tboiuaad tnuakuU 
won picked up on the field. 

On the very day of Leu's retreat Vicksburg. on tlio 
IfisDissippi, tbo largoat town of the Uississipjii 
State, capitulated. It is situated on a high bhiil 
overlooking the river where it makeit a sharp bend 
tending ina longnnrrow peninsula. Itisabout forty- 
five milofl distant from Jackson, the capital of the 
State. About ono hundred )uili'« beluw Vicksburg ia 
Port Uud-ton, and between these two points tlie great 
Kcd Rivcrr, which drains Texas, Arkansaa,and Louis- 
iana, flows into the Mississippi. Vicksburg was of 
great iini»rtance to the Confederates beeause they 
orew a large portion of iht-ir supplies from Texua 
and tbo Red River basin ; especially as they had lost 
New Orleans, Biitou Rouge, and Memphis. The 
fint attempt to capture Victsburg for the Federals 
«H when after taking Xew Orleans in April, 1S62, 
Admiral Farragut hud gone up the river in tbo fol- 
lowing month and demaoded ita aurrender; the do- 

nd was refused and be coald not capture the city 
ithout a Jand force. 

The attack was only renewed at tlio close of 1S69 
l>y the unitwl oiK'rations of Grant and Sherman. 
Grant eatablishod hla depot of supplies at Holly 
Springs, but on I>('ceinher 2 Van Doni made n dash 
at this place, which was held by fifteen hundred 
niaa, and captured it with it) garrison. Grant wai 
obl^ed to give up hia plan and r«Ure to Memphis. 
Sherman had reached \ icksburg, but whoo he beard 
of tba diaaster was obliged to surrender hii enter- 
priH>. Operations wcro resumed in the spring of 
1663, aod the battle of Champion Hill, the bloodieat 




of tbo campaign, was fouglit on May 15. Grant 
found PembertOTi with twenty-three thousand men on 
high ground well selected for defence, covering the 
three roads which led westward. After a struggle 
of four hours Poniberton retreated to the crossing of 
the Big Clack River, leavina: hia dead and wounded 
and thirty guns on the field. Grant lost in killed 
and wounded and miBsing 2,441, Peniberton over 
three thousand killed and wounded and as many 
taken prisoners. 

Shortly after this Sherman came up and Grant 
ordered the building of three bridges over Uie Big 
Black Kiver ; one was a floating or raft bridge, one 
was made by felling trees on both sides of the stream 
and letting them fait bo that their boughs would in- 
terlace over the channel, the trunks not being en- 
tirely cut through and ao hauging to the stumps; 
planks were laid crosswise on these trees and a good 
roadway was formed. In the third bridge cotton 


thousand fire hundred men. He now settled dovn 
to a regular siege. Thousands of sheila were thrown 
into the city, the inhahitants finding refuge in cares. 
Prorisions became scarce, and mules were osed for 
food. At last the besi^en brought their trenches 
8o close to the defences that the soldiers bandied jests 
with each other across the narrow apace. After 
forty-^even days spent in this manner, when a grand 
usault was imminent, Femberton unconditionally 
mirreudered both the ci^ and his armjr of thirty-one 
thouaand six hundred men on July 4, 1868. By 
the capture of this city the Mississippi was open to 
the Federals and the forees of the Confederates were 
ent completely in two. 





The ricissitadcs of tlie war now carry us into 
another region. Chattanooga is in Tennessee, not 
far from the frontiers of Alabama and Geoi^a, and 
General noaccrans was manceuvring to get possession 
of it, being opposed by the Confederate Qen- 
eral Bragg. Rosecrans obtained possession of 
the town, and proceeded in pursuit of Bra^. After 
a week's manceuvring the two armies come up 
with each other, and there was fought on September 
19 and 20, 1863, a great banle on the banks of the 
Cliickamauga Creek. Koscerana had about fifty-fivo 



•nd tlio Confederates could make no permanent im- 
prawion. At last, apparently through an accident, the 
amtre of the Federal line was weakened by the re- 
moval of troops to the rear, and Longatrt-et seizing hta 
opportunitj pressed six divisiona of his men througn 
the gap. liosecrans believed himself to be de- 
feated and rode back to Chattanooga, but Thomas 
on the left wing held his ground and the Con- 
federates were entirely unable to shako him. At 
the same time the battle must bo regarded as a Con- 
fedvratv victorj-. Tho Federal loss was sixteen hun- 
dred, that of the other side pirhaps slightly more. 

A tnontli later the Federal forces in the West were 
reorganised and a Military Division of the Missis- 
lippi WHS created, nt the head of which was placed 
General Grant- Grant arrived to take up his com- 
mand on October i3, and found the army in a very 
bad eoodition, Chattanooga being seriously threat- 
ened bjr Bragg'a army. In the middle of November 
Orant was joined by Sherman, their united forces 
amotuitiiig to eighty thousand men. Bragg's army 
occupied a position twelve miles long, tho flank being 
oo tho northern ends of Ix>ok-out Mountain and Mis- 
atonanr Ridge, while tho centre attetchcd across 
the Chattanooga Valley. The greater part of the 
line was well entrenched. Grant placed Sherman 
on hia left, on the north Aide of the Tennessee, 
oppMite the bend of Missionary Ridge, Thomas in 
tho ecotro across tho Chattanooga Valley, and Hooker 
cm hb right at the base of Look-oul Mountain, tlia 
was to attack Bragg's right with BhermanV 
a, to captare tho hoif^ts of Missionary Itidge^ 
lile Thomas and Hooker should occupy the attun- 
i of the centre and left so as to prevent theon fmm 
'■anding any rcinforucmonts against Sherman. Mia- 



sU/narj 'Ridge wu the key of tba pontum, and if tint 
were taken his whole army would be aompoUed to 

Hhtman met with miezpected diffieoltui mni. WM 
onljr partially mocewfnL Hooker advanced to the 
baa'; of Look-ont Monntaiiif a lofty hill mora than 
two thotuand feet bi^ from which there ia a inagni* 
ficcat view extending over seven Statea. Djaragard- 
ing, or rather going beyond hia oidera, he «1iwili^ 
the steep heights in the rain, and hia aoldiera disap- 
jfcarcd in a thick mist which hnng round the moon- 
tain. At the very stunmit he routed the enemy and 
captured many guns and priaonera. Hiia ia known 
as " The battle above the ebnda." 

The plan for the next day was that Booker ahould 
doBcc'ud the Look-ont Mountain on the eastern side 
and arrive at the left of Bregg's position on Uiasion- 
ary Hidgo ; but the destruction of a bridge delated 
liim, and Grant saw that Bragg waa weakening: his 



qnartcTS with the anny of tlie Potomac. For tha 
purpoK* of the campaign he considered that army 
u hi« centre, the arniy of the Janies River under 
Butler as bis left wing, the western armies under 
Sbonnati u bis right wing, and the army of Banks 
in Looiaiana aa a force to operate in the enemy'a 
roar. His design was that all the armies should 
move Bimultaneously : Uutlor against Petersburg, 
to cut off the communi cations of Richmond with tho 
South; Shonnan against the army of Johnston in 
Georgia, with the view of capturing Atlanta; Banks 
lo take Jilobile and to dose its harbour to blockade- 
ntniwrs; Sigel to drive back the Confederates from 
the Shenandoah Valley and to wrest that fertile 
regio« from them; while tho army of the Potomao 
■bonld follow Lee's army and fight it wherever it 

The principal scene of tho war ia now laid in the 
WildemeM, a district about twelve or fiftr'<ni milea 
•quere, south of tho Kiver Ttapidan. The ground 
wu formerly tlie site of numerous iron-works, tninea 
having becu opened to dig the ore, and the wo<MtR 
cut down to supply fuel for smelting. When tho 
nUDM wore abandoned a tangled growth of under- 
wood made its appearance, and the whole region 
was deeerted excepting a few open spots, and a ftw 
roadside taverns. In May, ]!^tH, the main body of 
Le^a army lay upon tlie n-estvm inlgo of tho Wilder- 
ntm, with a line of observation along the l^pidan, 
and beadqnartera at Orange Court lIooM. Tba 
amy of tbe Potomac wa« north of tha Bapldas, o|>- 
poaita tbn Wildcmoas; it consistad of thrM infantry 
oorpa snder Hancock, Warren and Scdewick, and ■ 
cmirf florps commanded by Sberldan, Hoade beinff 
to cammand of tho whole, fiumsldo with tweniy 




thousand men was at Annapolia. The Confedcrata 
arm; waa under the command of Lee and consisted 
of tfie infantry corps of Ewell and Hill and the 
cavalry of Stuart, Longstreet's force being at no 
great distance. Lee'a force was reckoned at about 
sixty-five thousand men, Grant's at about one hun- 
dred and sixteen tliousand. 

At midnight on May 3 the army of the Potomac 
crossed the Rapidau on five pontoon bridges and 
plunged into the Wilderness. Tlirough this forest 
two roads run north and south, which are crossed 
by two others running east and west, the Orangetum- 
pikc road and the Orange plank road. There are 
also numerous cross roads and wood paths. The 
array by itself could have passed through these woods 
in a few hours and have reached the open country 
beyond ; but there was a train of four thousand wag- 
gons for commissariat and ammunition, and reserve 
artillery of more than one hundred guns, so that the 



individuals; when night fell no decisive ad- 
nnUge had bueu gained on either side. Lee bad 
tneceeaed better on the left than on the right, and 
Lonf^reot's corps had not arrived in time to take 
part in the engagement. The night was spent in 
cutting down trens, piling up logs for breastworks, 
and dicing trenches. 

On tlio morning of Msv Q Hancock attacked tho 
tnesaf's right, and at first drove the enemy before 
lilm, bat on ]x)ng9treet coming up, tho Federals were 
obliged to retire, Longstreet being seriously wounded 
in exactly the »ame way as " Stonewall " Juckson 
had been, a year before. As he was riding with his 
atatf Mnno of bis own men mistook tlietn for Fedcrul 
troops and fired upon them; ho was wounded in tbo 
beta and neck and had to Ik- carried from tho field. 
The conflict continuod tliruiighout the day wilh no 
very tangible msult; tbc loea*^^ on each side had boon 
■entre, nambering about fifteen thousand. 

On the nftennxm of Jlay 7 Grant gnvo tlio order 
ir the army to move forward by tho left flank to- 
Spot lay! van i a, wishing to place his army bft- 
the Confederates and the capital. Spottsyl- 
Tinia Coort House is fifteen mili-s south-east of tho 
battle-field of the Wilderness and al>oiit twelve milea 
■oBtb-woat of Fredericksburg. On the morning of 
Stmimy, May ?, the Federal cavalry reached 
SpotUrytrania Court House und easily dispersed tlio 
etnall force of the enemy'a cavalry which they found 
ihtn, bat on Andonton's force coming up ihcy wito 
eoBtpellvd fo retire, and when Warren reached tho 
aamo ■[»( )i« found the Confederates ontn-nched in 
fmnL Owing to other circumatancefl the whole 
I..«o'i forcea took poeaoasion of the ground before 
raot'a army could reach it. 



On the same day Grant despatched Sheridan with 
his cavalry to ride round the Confederate army, tear- 
ing up railroads, destroying bridges and depots, and 
capturing trains. He succeeded in destroying ten 
miles of railroad and several railway trains, cutting 
all the telegraph wires, and recovering four hundred 
Federal prisoners who were being conducted to Kich- 
inoiid. This last engagement took place at Yellow 
Tavern, seven miles north of the capital, and in it 
General Stuart, the famous cavalry officer, was 
mortally wounded. He went 80 far as to break into 
the defences of Richmond and capture some pris- 
oners; he then crossed the Chickahoniiny and re- 
joined the main army on May 25. 

The Federal troops were now posted in such a 
manner that Hancock was on the extreme right, then 
came Warren, then Sedgwick, and then Bumsido on 
tbo left. The western part of the Confederate en- 



tnidniglit, when ho was cnmpelled to retire to liia in- 
terior line. The carnage wus terriblo, Tho doad 
were not only [lilcd in heaps, but their bodies were 
torn and inanpled by the shots which continuod to 
bo firL-d ; every tree or bush was cut down or riddled 
by the balla. The Federal loss amounted to thir- 
teen thomand six hundred and the Confederate loas 
wu about equal in number. 

After thia Grant again detorminod to move by hia 
left, and to reach the North Anna Kiver. He 
visited to enga^ the flnomy without thoir having 
the greet advautago of entn'nchinonU. Ho there- 
fore sent IIuTK-ock'a corps towardH Kichmond, hoping 
that Leo would attack it wttb his whole army, upon 
wbicli tiie other oorpa would como up and fall upon 
the enemy before they had time to entrench. Ilan- 
eock's corps morchi'd on the night of May 20, fol- 
lowed by Warren's corps twelve hours later, and by 
the oorpe of BumRide and Wright at a similar ia- 
terrftl of time. The Confederates wore, however, 
able to defend their capital by moving in a shorter 
lias. Having cffectod thia ihey took up ft very 
Strong position. Thtnr line t-xt^^'udod for a mile and 
• half from Littlo Kiver to the North Anna liiver 
at Oxford, then down stream for three-quarters of a 
inilo, and then in a etraifcht line to llanovor June- 
tioo. The Oonf*»lurato line, forming iteelf in a 
enrve, tontdiod the Xorth Anna wlmre it a1iu> m&ki.4 
■ curve in such a way that the two corvea met at a 
point from which they h<jlli rocc<I»l In oppo»ito dt- 
netionA. This fritical poailion waa assailed by Bum- 
■ide, who endeavourod to force « pAMige, but be waa 
prorentod from doing so hy very ttroof; ontronoh- 
mentt. Farther advanews were made by the left 
flank, and at last the two onmee were opposed to 



each otLer at Cold Harbour, about eight or ten nules 
from Eiclimond. An attack was planned for Jtma 
3, but the enemy's artillery was skilfully placed, and 
it was impossible to proceed further than the first 
line. The struggle continued in and about Cold 
Harbour during the first twelve days of June, and 
the Federal loss amounted to 10,058, the Con- 
federate loss being much Bmaller. 

Ooce more Grant determined to move by his left 
fiank and to pass his army across the James River 
and invest Richmond from the south, attempting to 
gain possession of Petcraburg, which was the centre 
of its railway communicatiou. 

Grant, whose reputation had suffered from the 
fatal attack of June 3, performed this difficult 
operation with masterly skill, having to withdraw 
his array from the front of the enemy, march it 
fifty miles, cross two rivers and bring it into a new 
position. As a preparation for the movement he 


whieh vere only a few yards from the enemy, carried 
with all its baggage across two rivers, and placed 
in a position to threaten the enemy's capital from the 
other side without any mishap. There were some 
who thought that after this feat of generalship and 
the snbatantial advantages gained by it the C<m- 
federate caose was hopeless and that peace onj^t to 
be made. 





We have said above that it was part of Grant's 
plan, when he assumed command of the United 
States army, that Sherman should move southwards 
from Chattanooga, and capture Atlanta, thus strik- 
ing at the Confederacy in a direction where it had 
never been assailed, and taking a city important as 
a railway centre and as a manufacturing place of 
military supplies. The distance between these two 
points, in a straight line, is a hundred miles, and tho 
road was defended by General Johnston at Dalton 
with an army of about 43.150 infantry, cavalry, and 



« battle, and five laUtT rcache*! Kinpatonj where 
^■fee hatted to gvt hu army well tofC^^Lher, supply it 
^Hrilli provittioiiH, and repair tlto railmad iu liia roar. 
^KdvBDciog further south, but bcudiug towards the 
^^gbt, bis forces cauio into ounflicl with those of 
^Johnston at Now IIopo Church, wlicro there was con- 
■M^tou ti^lttiit^' fur six days, the general advautage 
P^l^^ with Shuruiaii. When the munth of May camo 
to an end it was found that with the loss of ten 
J tbnuuiil men on each eide, Sherman had successive- 
ly ftormed strong positions and was gradually draw- 
ing nearer to Atlanta. 

For lUa first fortnight of June the two armios 
remaine'l opposite to each other at Pine Mountain, 
er(«»itig the railway above Marietta. Here General 
Ptdk waa killed, who had pasBed thiougli a atranga 
c«n*r. Ilu had Ijeen educated for a soldier at West 
Point, but aficrwarda studied theology, and at the 
outbreak of tko war was Protestant Bishop of 
IdODuiana. On June 2T Sherman mado a vigorous 
attaapl to capture Johnston's position in the battio 
of Keneaaw, but it ended in failure and the loes of 
twvoty-Gvc hundred men, while thu loss on the other 
■ido was only a little over eight hundred. He there* 
ion (letumiined to Kucriticu hta ronimunieations, to 
leara the railway, taking ten days' provisions in 
waggons, and movo bis whole umiy southward to 
^^ttark below Marietta. This would compel John- 
^H|on either to nitiru to Atlanta or to come out to bat- 
^lle. By this nianoMivrc Johnston was evrntuallv 
foraed behind Chattaohooebee. and wan nuiH.TM'di'J 
by Hood, wIki wa« a fur lass formidable antagonist. 
The rnmlt of this was tbo battle of Allnnla, which 
eDoabtftl chiefly of rigorona aasaulta bravely re* 
pulanl, but without any deciaiva reatUt EreutuoUy, 



after trying tbe effect of cavalry raids, which were 
not verr successful, Sherman succeeded in swinging 
his army into a position Boiith of Atlanta, where they 
tore up the railroad, rendering it useless, and then 
advanced to the city, which eventually fell on Sep- 
tember 2, 1864, having cost four months of hard 
fighting and clever strategy to win, 

Sherman remained at Atlanta for some time, and 
whilst he was there Lincoln was re-elected President 
by a large majority, being opposed by General Jfc- 
Cleilan. There are many reasons why this election 
should have been the wisest course, but perhaps the 
best of them was given bv Lincoln himself, who a 
day or two after his nomination replied to tbe ad- 
dress of a delegation in tho following words : " I 
liave not permitted myself to conclude that I am the 
best man in the country, but I am reminded in this 
connection of the story of an old Dutch farmer who 
once remarked to a companion that it was not best 



tnj time attack the railway and sever Shcrmau's ioDs with Cbattanooga. Indeed, Grant 
was of opinion that tbo march should nut be tinder- 
I taken unlil Hood's army had been destroyed, but 
' he eventually came lo agree with the opinion of Sher- 
man, and l]io care of defending Tennessee against 
^^fiood was curomitted to General Thomaa. Sherman 
^^■aadc can-ful preparations for his enterprise, and 
^■Knt to the north all the sick and disabled men and 
^'•ll bagf>;ago that coiiid be spared. When the last 
train had passed over the railroad to Chattanooga, 
tho rails were pulled up and destroyed, the bridgia 
bnmod, the electric wirt^s pulled down, and all re- 
maining troops concentrated in Atlanta. On Novem- 
ber 2 Sbornian left Atlanta, and nothing was heard of 
bim for six weeks. 

Sherman had now at his disposal 55,329 infantry, 
S,063 cavalry, 1,812 artillery and 68 guns. There 
were four teams of horses to each gun, with its 
caiason and forage, six hundred ambulauves, each 
dran-n by two horses, twenty-five hundred waggons 
with six mnlcs to each. Every soldier carried forty 
rounds of ammunition, and a plentiful supply of 
vfaeat was carried in the waf^^ns, aa well as 1,200,- 
000 rations with oats and com enough to last five 
day*. Tho army was chiefly composed of veteran 
tioopt and each of them had confidence in the abili- 
tica of " Uncle Billy," their leader. The march 
bagiut on Kovember 15, and tlio goal was nearly 
thiT« hundred miles distant. The infantry conaiiitM) 
of four corps, two to cneh wing. The right witu 
was oommandcd by General Howard, and the lait 
by General Slwrum. the cavalry being undar tha 
flommand of General KirkpatritJc. Tho two win|9 
nwrchcd by parallel rout«s, generally a few uiilet 



apart, each corps having its own proportion of coy- 
airy and trains. 

Minute orders were given for the eondnct of the 
troops during the march. " The habitual order of 
march will be, wltenover practicable, by four roads, 
OB nearly parallel as possible The separate columns 
will start' habitually at 7 a.u. and make about fifteen 
miles a day. Behind each regiment Bhould follow 
one waggon and one ambulance. Army command- 
era should practiae the habit of giving the artillery 
and wsggons the road, marching the troops on one 
side. To thifl end each brigade commander will 
organise a good and aufficiont foraging party, who 
will gather com or forage of any kind, meat of any 
kind, vegetables, corn, meal, or whatever is needed 
by the command, aiming at all times to keep in the 
waggons at least ten days' provisioEB. Soldiers must 
not enter dwellings or commit any trespass ; but dur- 
ing a halt or camp thoy may be permitted to gather 




hg, the parties engiiged will eadeavour to leave 
with each family a reasonable portion {or their main- 


Following the»o instnictioua, the army marched 

TO day to day, occupying a spacM} from forty to 

ty miles wide. Tho wealthier inhabitanta, gen- 
ly, made their eecapc, but tho uogrocs xwarmcd 

tor tho army, believing that tho day of Jubilee 
bad comi'. The foraging parties wont out for miles 
on each side, gathering large quantities of proviaiima 
and bringing them to the line of march, whore each 
•tood guard over his pile till his own brigade came 

iDg; Aankers were thrown out on cither side, pasa- 
through the woods to prevent any surprise by 
enemy. There was Mcarcely any fighting except 
within a iuvi miles of Savannah and at tho city itself, 
in ll'.e capture of Fort Me Mister. The city wu o<j- 
eopitd en Deoember HI, and Sherman wrote to tho 
Praiidetit: "I b^ to present you aa a Christmas 
gift ihe city of BaTannah, with one hundred and 
Kfty hiury gnos «n<i plenty of am;uuiiiti'>ii, aim 
about twenty-five thousand balea of cotton." Shei^ 
man's entire loss during the UArch waa only 704 

Shemtan's «aece«ful march may be regarded as 
tho bogimiing of the and, if indeed it was not tint 
end itself. Grant's liret idea had been to nvnove the 
ricturioua army l^ sea to tho James Kiver, ami 
place it where it could act In cunnectiun with 
tba am}' of the Potomac against Pcteraburg aod 
Riehwond, but it was ooiisidered better, on Boeottd 
thought, to orgnniio a march throui^h IfaiB GmoHiuul 
"lO CoDfL-di-rntw army wan Hutrerin^ Hcverely from 

ot of snpplioa: tlin region acros the MbuiisAippi had 
cut otf , the acaporta were atroogly Uocka'JcKl ; tlw 



Shensndoaii VaUer had been desolated hy Siien.- 
dao, and Georgia br Sberman. If the CaroUnas were 
treated in the same wav Lee'^ position before KJcb- 
mond would become unbearable. 

The mareh northwards towards Colninbia was be- 
pm on Febmarr 1, 1865; it waa more difficult and 
dangerous than the previous march and required 
more military skill, iiany rivers had to be crossed, 
and there was danger of being attacked both b^ Hood 
and Lee. Sherman took measures for securing the 
co-operation of tho Heet along the coast, which 
watched hia progress, established points where sup- 
plies could be obtained and oflfered a place of refiige 
if it were needed. Columbia was captured on Feb- 
ruary 17 without opposition, and Charleston was 
evacuated on the following day- 

T^aving Columbia on February 20, Sherman's 
army marched for Fayetteville, the right wing pass- 
ing through Cheraw, where a great deal of property 

SHEiadAtra march. 


were being graduallj carried out. Late in February 
^lii-riiian with ten thousand cavalry moved up tho 
ihciintidonh Valley and defeated General Early, 
capturing eighteen hundred men, all bis guns and 
trniii!, ind then joined Grant on the James Kiver. 
Grant at the head of the army of the Potomac was 
op|K>«ed to I^etr, who was defending Richmond and 
Petersburg. The decisive battle waa fought on the 
two first dsyii of April, 18lt5. Slieridan, who waa 
at Dinwiddie Court House, waa ordered by 
Irnnt to altitck Uiu Confederate right at Five Forks, 
imovement was at first unsnccessful, hut after re- 
ag reinforcements Sheridan waa able to take 
rive Forks, with a loss of one thousand men, five 
'tboiiaand prisoners being captured. 

On Sunday, April 2, Grant made an attack ui>on 
B*a centre with Iwy wrpa, and broke tiiruugh tho 
QnfiDderstc lines. Sheridan moved np on the left, 
uid eonM<inently the outer defences of Pett-raburg 
Bn> ID tho pottsoasion of tho Federal forces, who com- 
Ititely pucircled the city. Petersburg is only twenty- 
liTvr miles from Kichmond, itnd Leo now sent a tele- 
i[>bic despatch lo the capital saying tliat both 
tic* roust be evacuated, Tho nows reached Kich- 
Dod at the hour of the rooming nerrica, and tho 
Itest confusion prevailetl. AH the liquor on which 
could be laid was poured into the gutter, the 
great tobacco war«li>>iiw« wen» set on fire, and the 
iron-elad rams in tho river were blown up. The next 
noming the riiy was taken pOMeaaion of by a de- 
tadunent of black troopa belonginj; to tho Federal 

Ijm now rctrcati<d to the wnt, Orant following in 
doae pursuit, and moving to tbe aontb io a parallel 
liao. curing which many <<Tigag«iiients took place, in 
of whicb Ewell and tbe wliole of his corps waa 



captured. After a week of tliis warfare Lee reached 
Appomatox Court House, and here big further proy 
i-eas was stopped by a large Federal force. On 
April 9, 18fl5, Grant and Lee arranged the surrender 
of the army of Virginia, the terma being that the men 
were to lav down their annfl and return to their 
homes, and that they should not be molested so long 
afl they did not again take up arms against the Unit«il 
States. They were even permitted to take their 
horses with them for the reason that they would need 
them for the ploughing. The number of officers 
and men included in the surrender was 28,365. 
General Johnston, who was opposed to Sherman in 
North Carolina, surrendered in a similar manner 
at Durham Station near Ealeigh on April 26, receiv- 
ing the same terma which had been granted to Lee, 
the number included in the capitulation being 
greater than those under Lee, reaching the amount 
of 36,817, besides 52,453 who were in Georgia and 




Tux comparatire strength of the belligerents at 
the outbreak of the war of 1866 between Pnuaia 
and Auatrift has been estimated br a competent ob- 
serrer in the following manner. The Pmaaian arm; 
conaisted of eight corps d'armh of troops of the line, 
and of the corpa d'armee of the gaanl, each corps 
d'armie cooaisting of two diviBiona of infantry, one 
division of caTalry, sixteen batteries of artillery, 
and a military train. Each division of Infantry 
was composed of two brigades, each brigade of two 
regiments, and each regiment of three battaliona. 
Farther, each division bad a raiment of 
eavaliy, oonsisting of fonr aqnadrona, and a 
division of artillery of foor batteries, so that 
every infantry general commanding a division hod 
under his command twelve battalions, foor tqnadron^ 
and fonr batteries. A cavalry division conatsted of 
two brigades, each containing two r^menta, and 
every regiment fonr squadrons ; it had also attached 
to it two batteries of horw artillery. The t n erve 
of aitilleiy consiated of one division of field artillery. 



forming four batteries, and of two bftttcriea of horse 
artillery, besides aii artillery train for the supply of 
muni unit ion. Thus a corps d'armee had twenty- 
four battalions of infantry, twenty-four squadrons 
of cavalry and sixteen batteries of artillery, besides 
a battalion of rifles and one of engineers, and pon- 
toon trains, and a large military train for the pur- 
pose of hospital service and of commissariat, 

A corps d'armee might thus be reckoned as con- 
sisting of 26,000 infantry and about 3,300 cavalry, 
together with 2,300 artillery, in all 31,000. The 
corpn d'armee of the guard was larger hy about 5,000 
men. Thus, at the beginning of the war, the total 
infantry consisted of 253,506 men, the total cavalry 
30,000 men, and the total of field artillery 864 guns, 
together with 9,018 pioneers and 11,034 of military 
trains. To these must be added the depot troops 
numbering 100,512 with 228 guns and 13,000 depot 
officers, making a total of 473,000 meu with 100,""" 





of the otber German States and of Ital; until thej- 
mpectively enter on the scene of action. 

Ptiusia commenced her preparations for war on 
ICarch 27, 1866, by placing five divisions upon a war 
footing, strengthening fire brigades of artillery, and 
arming the fortresses in Silesia and the province of 
Baxony. The mobilisation of the whole army was 
decreed on May 7, and on Slay 19 troops were con- 
oentrtted in Silesia, Thuringia, and Lusatia. On 
Jane 1 the corps d'annie of the guard was »cnt to 
Bilcaia, and other troops to Halle, a reserve corps 

ng formed at Berlin. There were three main 
ian armies, besides the reserve at Berlin; the 
First army under Prince Frederick Charles, which 
wta posted at Hoyerswerda and Qorlitz in Lusatia, 
the Second army under the Crown Prince of Prus- 
ria, posted in Silesia, and the army of the Elbe, By 
Juno 1^ Pmsaia had prepared troops for the in* 
TasioD of Saxony, Hanover, and Casscl. 

On May 18 the command of the Austrian army of 
tbo north was assumed by Field-Marshal Bt-iiedek, 
tbe aeren corps d'armie and five divisions of which it 
wu composed bi'iog spn-ad between Cracow and tbe 
£Ibe, along the principal Knea of railway. Tb« 
Autrian army of the south consisted of three corp* 
d^mrmie. nnder tbe command of Archduke Albrochi, 
p«rt of it being in eastern Venctia and Tstria and 
part holding the Quadrilateral fonncd by the four 
great fortresses of F«>9cbiera and Mantoa, Verona 

~ Legnana A third Austrian corps d'armie under 
id^co Kmest was to be used as a general reserve 
which might te dir«>ctpd 8C"'"9t Italy or sent into 
Bobctnia as eircumatances rc<]uired. 

Tbe total strength of the Italian army in tbo fieM 

__.^-j of 202,720 inlantry, 26,120 Berwglieri 
2 jl 



with 480 guns and 13,000 cavalry. It was divided 
into four corps d'armee, the first under the command 
of Durando being at Lodi, the eecoud under Cuchiari 
at Cremona, the third under Delia Kocca at Pia- 
cenza and the fourth under Cialdini at Bologna. 
As Italy did not declare war against Austria till 
June 20 we may neglect the operations of the Italian 
army for the present. 

The army of Saxony had been mobilised and waa 
by the end of the first fortnight of Jime ready to take 
the field. Its main strength waa in Dresden and 
Pirna. It consifited of 10,753 infantry, 3,317 cav- 
alry, and 70 guns, as well as a company of engineera 
and two of pioneers. The army of Hanover, which 
contained eighteen thousand infantry and three thou- 
aand cavalry, was totally imprepared for war, and 
was garrisoned, for the moat part, in the neighbour- 
hood of Hanover. 




cavalry, and one hundred aud fourteen guna. It 
composed of troops from Wurtemberg, Baden, 
:«8Be-Dan3Utadt, and Nnfisau, aa well ea au Aua- 
triun divi-«ion of twelve tLuusand men. 

General Buyer invaded Hesse-Cassel at 3 A.M. on 
Jane 16, with seventeen thousand men. At Giessen 
be iflnied a proclnmatioD saying that Prussia had 
been oompollcd to declare war against the Elector, 
RDd that hin operations were not direclod a;!;ainst the 

inntry. He reached Caaeel on June 19, and found 
Elector in the Palace of Wilhelmshohe. The 

ertor wa!> made a prisoner of war and was con- 
fined in tho Prussian fortress of Stettin. 

It had been arranged that Saxony shouM be in- 
Tsdfd by two corps, tho army of tho £lbc and the 
Fint army, one advancing from the north, the other 
from tlio east. The Saxon army began Ha retreat 
on the ei*ening of June 1, proceeding towards Bo- 
bemia by way of Bodenbach in order to join the Au»- 
triuu. The two Pnusian armies conversing on 
tbo eapitfll entered it without opposition on the after- 
Doon of Jane 18, and in two days the whole country 
wu oeeapied, with tlic exception of the fortress of 
KonigBtein. We arc told by an eyewitness that the 
Pniiaian troop* wcr« well received by the popula- 
tion, and tbat had it not been for the swords and 
bayonets of patrols which glittered in the aun along 
erery road, the scene would have been one of per- 
foet peace. The soldiers helped the peasants to carry 
tba hay harvest, worked in the cottage g«rdena, spont 
iDoaey in the village shops; tb« bare-leQted cotmtrj 
ordnna got rido* on the eavalry or artillery horses 
Ihey went to be watrre<l. or wem invited to peep 

to the muule of a rifled gun, and only if i»tTie nd- 

lUturous child ventured to place a handful of ooro* 




flowera in the mouth of a cannon ■was he warned off 
the battery by the sentry. Passenger traffic on the 
railways was soon resumed,aDd telegraphic messages 
were regularly delivered. 

The occupation of the kingdom of Saxony gave the 
Prussians very great advantage. They were able to 
attack the Austrians on a narrow front if they came 
out of the mountains and an invasion of Bohemia 
became possible. This step naturally caused a decla- 
ration of war on the part of Austria, which had not 
been prepared for the celerity of the Prussian move- 
ments. Benedek had concentrated his army in such 
a way as to be able to strike a deadly blow at the 
heart of the Prussian kingdom, while he was sup- 
ported on the flank by the Bavarians and the other 
troops of the federation. But this scheme had now 
been rendered impossible. Instead of setting Saxony 
free by a rapid march and dictating peace in Berlin, 
the Austrian Field-Marshal saw three Prussian 





Off Jane 22 Prince Frederick Cbarlea broke «p 
his qturtera at Gorlitz and marched towards the 
AiMtrUn frontier by the two roads leading through 
Zittau and Soidenbcrg, the frontier bciog crossed 
on Cbc following day. At the same time Gencrul 
Henrarth von BittorfoM, in command of the army of 
ihc Elbe, marched hy the high-road from Schlucheim 
Id Rumhurg. Ilfichcnberg was occupied on June 
24, and ihe possession of this pliice enabled Prince 
Frederick Cbarlea to open communications with the 
Siictian aad Saxon liiK^ of railway, which were of 
gnat importance for the cotnmiasariat The first 
action of any im]>orlanco took phtce at Podol upon 
the lacr, which ia hero about one hundred yards wide. 
Jt did not bt^in till 8 p.m., when tbo evening waa 
doaiog in, and it continued into the night, every 
houM is the Tillage being obeliiiRt«>ly dispiiti'<l. At 
Inat both the town bridge and the railway bridga 
mro oiptured hy the Pnissinns, and the Austrian! 
drew on sullenly on the road to MiinchcngriitJL The 
last dropping shots did not ccam till i a.u., when 
then weT« do Austrian aotdiers within throe miles 
of tlw bridgM, except the woundM and the priaon- 
•n. Ko mrtillcry waa engaged on nitlier side, and tlio 
Pntttuuis owed mncb of their sdcocm to their breecb- 
Imding rifles 

By tbo retroat of tbo Anatriaus to Uilncheugriltx 


full communication waa opened between the armr 
of Priace Frederick Charles and that of the Elbe, 
and the two artnios were able on the following day 
to take possession of the whole line of the Iser. A 
combat took place at Kiincbengratz, but Prince Fred- 
erick Charles, bj a series of tactical moTements, and 
the losa of only one hundred men, gained twelve 
miles of country, captured one thousand prisoners, 
and effected his second juncture with the corps of 
Bitterfeld, the headquarters of both aimieB beiiu; 
established in the same town. A more serious battle 
took place at Gitschin on June 29, about twenty miles 
distant from Miinchengratz. The Austriana were 
strongly posted, their artillery and sharpshooten 
being carefully placed. It consisted in the steady 
driving hack of the young Austrian soldiers, by the 
heavier and more mature troops of their opponentsl 
It began at 6 p.m., and it wae not till near midni^t 
that General von Werder occupied Gitschin. An- 
other struggle took place on the same evening on ibe 
northern side of the town, between the Anstrians 
and the Prussiana who were advancing from the 
direction of Tiimau. In this part of ^e fight the 
loss of the Saxons was very heavy, and the Pmssians 
also suffered severely, for they had to carry a strong 
position held by a superior force, the Prussians nwor 
bering sixteen thousand men, the allies thirty thon- 
Aand. The Prussian headquarters were now moved 
to Gitschin, and on the afternoon of June 30 the 
atrftt^o object of the movements of the two Prussian 
armies was achieved by communicationa being opened 
in Bohemia between Prince Frederick Charles and 
the Crown Prince, who was advancing by Amao. 

The army of tiie Crown Prince had crossed the 
Austtiau frontier on the evening of June 26, bis 



first action taking placo at Trautcnau on the fol- 
lowing daj, in which the PruHAiatia lost 63 ofEc^re 
and 1,214 men, the Austrians lOli officers nud 5,530 
men. The Austrians gained the victory, whic)i was, 
howercr, of bat little uso to thom, tho balance being 
redeemed by an action at Soor, which allowed the 
two portions of tho Prussian army to unita whilst 
Goblens, tJie Austrian general, retired to Koniginhof. 
Thia town was captured on June 39 after a hot con- 
test, each yard o£ every etrect and each window of 
creiy houae being stoutly defended. In tho mean- 
tiiiM tbe left column of the army had to advance from 
Glitz to Kachod, along a narrow road, through & 
diffioole dofllo, forming a column of march twenty 
milea long, Thia defile was defended by the Aus- 
tritn* in front of Skalitz, but aftor an obstinate 
■tragglo tlicy were driven back by General Stoin- 
metz, the Cniwu I'rince being al*> present in person. 
Another battle took place at Skalitz itself on Jane 
28, and another at Scbweinschftdel on the following 
day, so that tho Crown Prince was able to concen- 
trate his army on thc^< loft bank of tlio Elbe, and on 
tba last day of tho month, as we have seen above, 
oDtnmuaioationa between the two oommanders were 

By this time King William of Pniuia had arrived 
at Reidicnbcrg and aaeomed the chief oommand of 
hia armies in per»oa. The Prassian armies were now 
united at Uorsits and Jaromierz, and the King 
moved bia qnartem first to Siohrow and then to Gita- 
chin. Beneitck aft'.T vainly attempting to prevent 
the issue of the army of tho Grown Prinoe from tho 
nonnlaina by his reaiatanoe at Soor and Skalitz de- 
terminod to tako np a strong position on tho right 
bank of \ho upper Elbe in order lo proveat the arm/ 



of Silesia from crossing that stream. On the afte^ 
noon of June 30 he issued orders for the whole army 
to retire towards Koniggratz and to concentrate in 
front of that fortress ; but it was not till the night of 
July 2 that his whole force was assembled there, 
when it took up a position between that town and 
the River Bistritz. Of the armies opposed to him 
that of Prince Frederick Charles had fought five 
severe combats without a reverse and had secured 
a favourable position in which to engage a great 
battle ; that of the Crown Prince had fought severe 
actions on June 27, 28 and 29, and had now secured 
his juncture with the other army, bringing with him 
as trophies of his victories fifteen thousand prisoners, 
twenty-four captured guns, six stands of colours and 
two standards. The position of Benedek was pro- 
tected by the wooded hills of Chlum and Lipa, and 
by the marshy valley of the Bistritz. 

On July 3, 1866, the position of Benedek was at- 



tialf from Sadowa down the Bjstritz stood the village 
of MokroToiis, and a Httlc way above it on a knoll 
tho church of Doholicka. Above this church was 
the villa^ of Dohatitz, and between it and Sadowa a 
lat^ thick wood, dithcult to pass. 

At 7 A.M. Prince Frederick Charles pushed over 
the hill with some of his cavalry and horse artillery, 
ftnd at 7,30 a.m. the first shot was fired. The Pnis- 
•tan horse artillery, close down to the river, replied 
to the Austrian guna, but neither side tired heavily, 
and for haif an hour the cannonade consisted of 
siof^le shots. At 7.4.^ a.m. thfi King of Prussia ap- 
ptarod upon the scene and the battle became more 
vigoroiu on both aides. While the cannonade had 
been Koin^ on the infantry had been moved down 
towards the river, and at 10 a.m, they were ordered 
to attack Sadowa, Pohalitz, and Mokrovous. They 
had to contest every inch of the way, as the Austrian^ 
fired fast upon tliem oa they B|iproac)jed. In and 
around the villages the fighting continued for nearly 
an hour and but little progress was made. One of 
tbe Bbarpest cngagemcnls was between the seventh 
diviaioo under Franscitky and the Austrians in the 
wood above Bonatek. By 11 a.m. tbe Pnustan in- 
faatry had taken Sadowa, nohalitz,and Doholicka, 
and efforts wore now made against the wood which 
ran along (he oidcit of the Sadowa and Lipa roads, 
bat the struggle became stationary and remained w 
for aboot two hoan. 

News now came to Benedek tliat the Orown Frinca 
vw threatening his right flank, he therefore did hia 
ntmotrt to inflict a severe binw on Prtnco Frederick 
Charles, before the Crown Prince could cf>mc up. 
At about 1 P.M. the whole battle liao of tfao PniHiani 
could gain no more ground and was obliged to fi^U 



bftrd to retain tbe position it had won. Todeed the 
bttUle appeared to be kmL. for Pnisian gnna had been 
iisHkOuated bj Aoatriaa fire.a&(l in the wooded nDimd 
the needle-fma waa of little effect. Herwarth aba 
was cbesked on tlie rieii, and things were not goicg 
much belter for the Pnuaiaaa in the centra, Tte 
ProMiaiiS were beooming Terr nneasr aad were pre- 
paring for a disaster. 

Tbe nigbt before tbe Crown Prince had pronuKd 
Prince Frederick Charles that he would be on the 
field at 2 p.u., bat was engaged with the Austrian 
right as early as 12,30 p.m. Tbe arm; of the Crown 
Prince waa occupying a position with r^ard to the 
First army, similar to that which the Prussian troops 
held towards Weliinpton on the day of Waterloo. 
By 1 P.M. he obtained possession of the villages of 
ITovcnarves and Rasitz, tbe Austrians offering but 
little resistance, because they were engaged with the 
corps of Franze^ky, who was carrying the village of 



critical every moment, but at last a reserve of fifty 

tboosand freslk troops arrived, and the matn body 

^ the second division of the giianla attacked the wood 

Lipa and tlie batteries of Chlum. During this 

le tbu Prussian guards at Sadowa were in ignoi^ 

•nee of the prc^iress of the Crown Prince, bec^uso 

his movements could bo only imperfectly seen; but 

they at last became aware of the attack of his in- 

fuitcy upon the wood of Lipa. 

The First army then sprang forward and with 
load cheers and dnim-bealinp went at full speed up 
t>io bill. The Sadown road was cleared, and tbo 
Aiulrian batteries were attacked, tlie summit of the 
hill vaa gained, and they saw the white uniforms 
ruiuiing licforo them. The Crown Prince's soldiers 
took tlie fugitives in flank and raked them as they 
fltd. The Prussian artillery opened fire fmni iho 
flununit of the ridgo upon the retreating Aiietrians, 
who, notwithstanding the odds against them, luo- 
oseding in proeerving good order. Benedek saw that 
tin httUe was loet and that nothing remained but to 
retire to Koni^^ratz with the fragments of his beaten 
armies, but the pursuit continued, and safety was 
■oogfat on both Bides of the Elbe, till at last the Ana- 
trian cavalry readied Panlubitx, and the army got 
jutroM the river during the night without severe loss. 
this battle the Pntaeiaim oiiptnrcd 174 guns, 
OfOCN) prisoners and 11 standards, their loss being 
10,000 men, wlxtreas that of tbo Austrian* was nearly 
y^ijipo. The tnoraU of the Anstrian army was d^ 
^1^^^, and they had to acknowledge that the; eoold 
not stand against tlie bettep-urned Pru.<uiKns. The 
number of the Austrians engtfted was 300,000 men 
with 600 guns, that of the Pmssians S01,OOO with 


bis troopB coidd croaa the Mincio and enter the 
Quadrilateral without reBistance. His intention was 
after having tbua separated the fortresses, to combine 
with General Cialdini, who was to cross the Lower 
Po in the direction of Ferrara. Garibaldi, with hia 
mountain troops, was to attack the passes which led 
from Lombardy into the Tyrol. 

On June 23 the headquarters of the King were 
at Goito, and early in the morning the passage of 
the Mincio commenced, very few signs of the Ans- 
trians being apparent. The Italians, confirmed in 
their opinion that the Archduke was not contem- 
plating resistance on the west side of the Adige, pro 
oceded to occupy the heights between Val^gio, 
CastelnuoTO, and Somma Campagna. La Marmora 
employed no scouts, his troops did not breakfast bo- 
fore starting, proper rations were not served out to 
them, and no preparations seemed to have been made 
for combat. In the meantime the Archduke was also 
moving towards Somma Campagna with the view 
of attacking the Italians on the flank, whom he im- 
agined to be marching towards Albaredo on the 
Adigew Tbua a collision between the two armies was 

The two armies met on the morning of June 24. 
Custozza and Somma Campagna are situated on the 
touth-eastem slopes of the chain of hills which stretch 
between Verona and Pcschiera, and the Italian army 
was marching towards Villa Franca in the plain 
without securing possession of these hills. The Au»- 
triana were well acquainted with the ground from 
their constant use of it in mantEuvres, and the Arch- 
duke Albert was a worthy son of the Archduke 
Charles who had beaten Napoleon at Aapem. The 
hills consist of deep ravines and isolated stunmita 


r JJB orisK cxncEfi. 

BX9 AruystA if 
•r Cvoicia 

i& 1 

4b ejvB of 
m n t ^i t ifji -aaui S ftjt, ■ Wa the Amtrkai 
itoraed Koou Vento and the ifc^rrl of But* Laria 

wen dffroB teA Mnw the IGiao; tat die eon- 

qiKfvn w«T« K) mndi exhsofted tint tbey oonld not 
TOBtbine the panoit. The less of killfd, wonoded, 
mi prifxten wu on tbe Anstrian Eide about fire 
ihowiuul, and ob tbe Italian side about ed^t thou- 

The Italhi amiy was now witbdrawa bebiod the 
Oglio, and Oialdini, on bearing of tbe battle of Cus- 
tOEU, gave up hia intention of crossing tbe Lower Po 
and moved towards his left, posting his troops near 
Mirandola and Modena so as to be in close communi- 



Tmetit, nnder the command of Cialdini, who had 

leoaeded to La Marmora. Cialdini effected Uiesa 

ktions on July 0, and five days afterward reached 

Paduft. For political reasons the Italians were 

anxioua to occupy as much of the Austrian territory 

aa possiblo. His army consisted of s€?vonty thousand 

inpn and he was expecting reinforoemi-nta which 

wonld doable ita numbers, whereas the Austrians 

could not place more than thirty ttiuusand men in the 

aid. Tlie troops were extended from Vicenza on the 

ft to Ifestre, not far froiu Venice, on the right, 

hia centre threatened the comniunicationB of 

Aofftrians with Friuli. At Cialdini's advanco 

tbe Atutxiana gradually evacuated the Quadrilateral 

ltd nliroil beyond the laoazo, and on, July 24r the 

liana occupied Udine. 

the nii'antiine General Modici was Advancing 

fist Batuiano, and Garibaldi was attempting tho 

seat of the Italian TyroL It was obvious that 

tbo Itidiana were not willing to content thenuch'ea 

vilhVenetia,bulaimedat uceupying all territoriee id 

wbich the Italian language was spoken. Their unloitr 

va chwkcd by tho re.'^ult of the naval battle of Lisaa 

ID which the Itiilian fleet under Persano was entirely 

I diMtroyed by the Aiuitrian Admiral TcgctbofI on July 

^^A), 1866. Five days later Victor Enimnnnel agreed 

^^Bd to armiatioe, and tho Austrians ceded Venetin to 

^^ne Emperor Napoleon, who made it over to tbo 

PHtalium, anil ibna cnmpteled tho pramise wtitcb be 

' had loft Dnn.t]euuifld la ISSS. 




THS Kn> or TUE WAK. 

We moBt DOW pttretie the fortunes of the var in 
other jtarU of German;. We have already seen tlie 
f'ireed rtlrtat of the Haaorerian army to Gottingen. 
Slucb was expected from the oo-operation of the Ba- 
varian army, bat ita efficiency was spoiled by the 
vacillation of ita commander, Prince Charles, who 
had opposed to him a moat competent general in tha 
j>erwjn of Vogel von Falckenstein, while the eighth 
corps, made up of a motley collection of contingenta 
from different States, lacked that unity and enthnsi- 




of the Hiver Unstrut Tliey had, however, detach- 
tneatfl on the other aide of the atrcam, notably in 
Langensalza, from which the hattlf; derives its name. 
Their troops were gradually driven across the river 
and the Prussians occupied Lin^nsalza before 10 
A.M. Shortly after this the signal for the battle was 
iven by the Hanoverians, and in a few minutes th« 
bole of the Prustiian and the greater part of the 
Ilanoverian forces were engaged. In the attack 
upon the Hanoverian position the Prussian line had 
become very widely extended, and the King deter- 
mioed to take advantagi; of this faulL The advance 
waa made at midday, but was impeded by tbe steep 
btaka of the river. The Prussians, however, re- 
treated and many prisoners were taken, but owing 
to tbo nature of tlte river, flowing deeply through high 
banks, the Ilanorerian ravalry were not able to fol- 
low up tbe victory. Tliitrvforo at 5 p.m. the pursuit 
came to on end and the Hanoverians n.-mainei] 
n of tlio field of tuittlc. Their loss in killed 

iround<.Hl was I,S7'2. The Prussians lost about 

leaame tiutubcr and nearly a tliousand prisoners. 
This victory was, however, soon found to l>e of no 
nte. On the following day the King of Hanover 
diseoTProd tliat he was hemmed in on all sides by an 
snny of forty thousand enemies. He doterminod 
therefore not to sacrifice fais soldiers, and accepted 
the tenna which had been previonsly proposed by 
Pnuiia. Arms, earriages, and military stores were 
banded over to tbe Prussians, the Hanoverian ao^ 
dinrg were dismissed In lln'ir homes, the offloers en* 
gaged not to serve against Prussia during thr war, 
while the King and the Crowii Prince were permit- 
ted to go where they pleased so long as they did not 
remain in the tcrritoriea of their former k ia gdom. 







After the capitulation of the Hanoverians General 
Vogel von Palckensteiii waa in a poaition to unite 
the several bodies of troops wkich had been led to 
his assistance by Generals Goeben, Manteuffel. and 
Beyer, into a einglo force, called the army of the 
Main, and to attack the Federal troops composed of 
the seventh and eighth army corps. The first, as we 
have already aeen, was composed of the Bavarians, 
who were fifty thousand strong under the command 
of Prince Charles, who had served in the Napoleonic 
ware, and in the Schlcswig-Holatein campaign of 
1848. The second, made up from contingents from 
Wiirtemberg, Darmstadt, Baden, and Nassau, and 
strengthened by Austrian troops drawn from differ 
ent garrisons, was commaoded by Prince Alexander 
of Hesse, brother of the Empress of Eussia and the 
father of the Princes of Battenberg, but in order to 
gain the advantage of greater unity the snpremfi 
control of the whole was committed to the hands of 



Trankfort, and contented itsolf with Inking posse*- 
BJon of Giessen and the Pnisaian onclavo of VVetzlar. 
A plan which Uuii bt-en originally formed for a con- 
centration in Hersfeld was not carried out, as tlio 
Bovoral combatants were reluctant to sever co^^c<^ 
tion with tho countrioe to wliich th^v belonged. 

Fa1ckenst(>in ooncmved the plan of pnaliing a wednie 
botWMn Lhoae two armiea in such a mnnncr that they 
woald bo prerentod from undortakinj? any artioii in 
combination. For this purpose ho despntched Qo<^ 
ben's dirisiona in an easterly direction againiit tho 
ItavariaiLi, who lind advanced from Cobnrg and 
Moinin^n as fnr aa Knllcnnordheim and had occu- 
pied Ketnhardtahaafien and Kontdorf in the valJey 
of the Fulda. The two armies cnnie into CDllision on 
July 4 in th** battle if Domhnch or Wii-«enthnl, m it 
is rarioRsly called, end the field waa obstinately con- 
tMtod with ^Bt bravery on either side. Altlioiijvli 
the Bararianfi were «niwrior in numbers the conflict 
d no decisive conclusion, and tho lowee sustaint-d 
tliQ combatants on either side were nearly equal, 
result was that Princo Charles gave up tlie 
lea "f uniting with tho eigblh army corps in this 
irwiion and marched sontbwards towards the Frsn- 
itsn Saalc, followed by the Pmsslnn army, which 
mncod along tho Fulda valley towards Ilanau, w 
tint after several days* marching in parallel lines both 
udes reached tlie valley of tlio Main. Falckenxtein's 
obJMt had Iteen so far attained tliat while on Jaly S 
tho Bavarians and the eightli Federal corps «-«ro 
only thirty miles distant, on July 7 serenty lay bo- 
n them. 
Aftar a diffi<Milt march throogh llic Rhun raonn- 
ins the Pnudian army came up with the Bavarians 




in the valley of the Saale, and on July 10 foiight 
the battles of Kissingen and Hammelburg. In the 
first the town was bravely defended by the Bavarians, 
who stood their ground bravely on the bridge which 
crosses the Saale, notwithstanding the burning houses 
and the heavy cannonade. The position was at last 
stormed by the advance of the Jagers, and the de- 
fenders could not withstand the vigour of the assaidt 
and the quick firing of the needle-gun. The Ba- 
varians drew off to the south-east and the Prussians 
gained the passage of the Saale at Hammelburg. Id 
the scooud the fashionable watering-place was taken 
by surprise; the visitors and the inhabitants had no 
opportunity of retiring, although those lodging in 
the Hotel Sauner, which is situated on the right bank 
of the Saale, were allowed to remove to a less danger- 
ous position; otherwise none were permitted to quit 
the place for fear of their giving intelligence to tlie 
enonir. The Prussians made their appearance in the 



©f any Bcrvice; indeed they did not arrivo till tlieir 
oomrade* had been d^'fcated, and then, naturally, 
ahared their fate. The BavftHan stall was un- 
prepared and had no proper maps of the country, 
whereas the movements of the FrossianB Imd been 
extremely rapid. 

Fali'kenstein now tumod Iiia attention to tlio 
eighth army corps, wliicb was placed in entrenched 
ixwitions on the Fulda. When the news of the Au»- 
trinn defeat reached the headquarters at Bornheim 
it appeared of the first importance to defend Frank- 
furt Prince Alexander therefore sent a Hessian 
and Au.ttrian division under Qcneral Neipperg to 
Aachaffenburg to hold back the Prussians who wcro 
advancing from Gemiinden, and at the same time 
occupied the passes at Qclnhauscn. This, however, 
raulted in the victory of Goeben at LaufFauh on July 
13 and the capture of AschafTenburf; on the follow- 
ing day, and Prince Alexander was compelled to bu^ 
render Frankfurt, which was occupied by tho Pruit- 
dana on July 16, aiid to retire with hia whole army 
■outliwanU to tbo Odonwald. Falckmistein ha<l thua 
in a space of fourteen days defeated two armies, each 
of wliicb woa aa strong aa hia own, in two ^reat and 
■ercral minor actions. IIo was now able to report 
to the King that all lands north of tho Main were in 
tbe posseasion of the PmaaJana. Falckenstein 
establiabod bis lieadqunrtcrs in the old Imperial city 
and iasued a proclamation announcing that ho had 
irily aaanmod the govenuncnt of ibe ducby 
in, of the town «i^ territory of Frankfurt, 
end (tf tb« portions of Bavaria and Hcsse-Oarmstadt 
rbich his troopa had occnpicd. 

After tb« victory of Konicgriitx the main Pm»- 
•ian army rested (vr a few days and then advancud 


Wars op the centort. 

by tlio railway to Pardubitz, leaving a corps of ob- 
servation before the fortresBea of Koniggratz and 
Josepbstndt, and pursuing the beaten Auatriana in 
their retreat to Olmiitz. In the meaDtimo the im- 
portant city of Prague, the capital of Bohemia, had 
been occupied, without a conflict, on July S. At the 
news of these events terror reigned in Vienna, and 
there was a movement to aummon the whole nation 
to anna. On July 13 Arehduie Albert took com- 
mand of the whole forces of the Empire ; he brought 
a portion of the army of the south to the capital and 
united it with the remains of the army of the north. 
In the mcnntimo the Crown Prince was holding 
Bonedek and hia troops fast in Olmiitz, whilst the 
armies of the Elbe and of Princo Frederick Charles 
advanced towards the capital by the shortest road. 
The Emperor demanded an armiatioe, but this was 
refused because he insisted on the conditions that th« 
Federal Statea should also bo included in it, and 



drawing a liHitvy load, atcumiiig slowly in the 
dirrclioD of Lindenburg, carrying Austrian troopa 
fri>ni Olmiitz to Viennii. It wis immediately re- 
■olved to break up the line. Pickaxes and spades 
were found in tim neighbouring oottagea, uid tbn 
men eot to work on foot whilst others held tlicir 
bones. Soon the rails wore wrenched out of tlieir 
places, thrown on one side, and in a few oiiuutea 
the line was useless for railway traffic Scarcely was 
tlie work complete Imforo another train came Up, but 
when the engin&driver saw the Prussian cnvalry ho 
rtroncd his engin« and backed elowly in the direo- 

^^Um from which he bad come. 

^B The same authority also remarks that railways 

^in an enemy "s country are of no use for the troops 
of An tnpudcr during bis advance, as tho army of 

I Uw defence always breaks them up and they cannot 
be repaired quickly enough to allow of troops being 
moved hy them. But for tho carriage of proviaiona 
And Rtora tfaej arc invaluable, tlio line of railway 
being the great artery which, leading from the heart, 
■applies tbe extremities of the army with means of 
life and motion. At tho same time a broken bridge, 
oven a few yards wide, would cause n dead stoppage, 
aad the time loat in shifting stoFce from one sido to 
tbe other would be very great. An engineer, he 
aayi, who would find means of rapidly constructiog 
field-bridge* which would boar the weight of a rail- 
Way train would cause an advance in tlie art of war. 
On July IS, 18(IG. King William ta.ik up his 
quarters in the little Moravian town of Mikolsburg, 
and flloftt ill the very room which Xapoleon had oecn- 
piod bcfon> tJie battle of Austerlitz. At thi« limtt 
tbo advanei-d guard of the invader* >aw tho Imperial 
city, eonspicuous by the spire of Sl Stephen** 
ureti and the tower of tbo palace of Schoobniim, 



while before them lay the Marchfeld with the 
villages of Aspem, Esslingen, and Wagram, the 

scenea of Napoleon's defeat and of his ultimate vic- 
tory. They were situated, Hozier teils na, in the 
midst of rich corn-land and fields of bright poppies, 
which from a distance looked like pieces of dazzling 
mosaic let into a golden pavement, fringed by the 
silver band of the Danube, studded with emerald 
islets. In the distance the dark blue Carpathian 
mountains bounded the view towards Hungary. No 
Pn'^ian army, not even that of the Great Frederick, 
had ever gazed upon this view before, Floridsdorf 
and Presburg were the only strong places which the 
Austriana now had in their possession on the north 
bank of the Danube. This last-named fortress, 
which is the key of the passage between Austria and 
Hungary, was on the point of being captured on July 
23, when a few moments after midday an Austrian 
came out from Bhimenau. and advanced with a fia 

THE WAB OF 1870. 



We must again remind our readers that it ia no 
part of the object of this roltune to deal with politi- 
cal history. We must, therefore, omit all discnsaion 
as to the origin of the war of 1870, and proceed di- 
rectly to the war itself, giving, however, such an 
account of the composition and mobilisation of the 
two armica as may throw light upon the develop- 
ment of military science aa compared with its con- 
dition in the other campaigns which we have de- 
scribed. The French army had been for a long 
time looked upon as a pattern for all European 
armiea; its organisation was carefully studied in 
other countries. An idea prevailed that the French 
had a genius for warfare which was the backboae of 
their strength, whereas Prussia waa frequently held 
up to ridicule from its supposed pedantry in time 
of war. No one, cither in France or outside of it, 
bad any idea that the core of this magnificent 
gron-th waa hollow, and that when opposed to a 
better organised adversary would crumble into frag- 



In 1870 the principle of liability to military 
service was acknowledged by Freuch law just aa 
fully as ill Germany, but in France any one was 
allowed to procure a substitute who could afford to 
pay for it, whereas in Germany personal service was 
insisted upon. The result of this was that the 
French army, being recruited from the poorer and 
more ignorant classes of society, lacked the elements 
of intelligence and cultiire which entered so largely 
into the German armies. Further, in France pains 
were taken to keep the soldiers from contact with 
the citizens, to isolate them in barracks and camps, 
aud to avoid billeting them upon the inhabitants, so 
that the army gradually became a military caste. 
The German army, on the other hand, remained in 
close contact with the classes of society from which 
it was recruited. France had undoubtedly learnt 
something from the warB of 1859 and 1866. She 



It being impoasiblo to increaao the peaco establJali- 

of tho army, this waa efTect4Ml by reducing the 

of military BCr\'ico from seven to five years, 

d by providiog tbnt all men wbo bad hitherto ro- 

ivod a final discharge st tho end of suveu years 

ould in future bo liable to four yetirs' reserve obli- 

lion on furlough aflor the expiration of five years. 

la, it was reckoned, would provide about two hun- 
dred and forty thousand well-trained reeervcs. 
There waa alao a second class who were liable aii ro- 
serres fi»r nine years, aiid tlicao would add an adili- 

nal body of oiie hundred thousand, less carefully 
ed, which would bring up the whole reserve to 

total of three bundrod and forty thousand men. 

The Uobile Xational Guard was created in 1S62. 

coiuittcd of all p^^TsoDs who for one reason or an* 
er bad not been enrolled in tbe active army or 
nnurvo or wbo had paid for eabetitutes. Tliey 
were liablo for five years with fifteen days' annual 
training in time of pruoe, which givea a force of 
four hundred and twenty-tlve ibuuHand men. Their 
duty waa to be auxiliary to the active army, eepecial- 
ly in garrisoning fortresses, in tho defCTicc of coasts 
andfrontiersaiidiutbemainteuaooeof internal order. 
Thia HAW organ iiuit ion waa at first {fopiilar witli tbo 
tiatioa, bat popular zeal cooled down as soon as tbo 
iwiiitj or sacrifice bceuno spparontr and tbe 
Mobiles wore of little use in tbe war. 

Tbo military organisation of Pnisaia, which datea 
frum ISfll, hail tieeu proved to bo sound in tho war 
■gainst Denmark in l^^OS and Anstrui in I860. After 
Um latter war it had been oxtandcd to tho North 
Ocmun Sutca, and waa gnuluolly introduced into 
tbe South Oerman Suiea u well. lu main prin- 
ciplo wu to aocora that in timo of peace all tboao 



who are liable to field service should also be fit for 
it; 80 that the soldiers sent to meet the enemy should 
be perfectly trained and instructed. For thb pur- 
pose a twelve years' period of service was imposed 
upon the nation, consisting of three years in the 
standing army, four years in the Reserve and five in 
the Landwehr, tlie Reserve having in the four years 
two terms of training of eight weeks each, and the 
Landwehr during their five years two periods of 
shorter duration, from eight to fourteen days. 

The contrast betiveen the organisation of the two 
armies was still more apparent in their mobilisation. 
In Germany the plan which had been formed for 
placing a maximum force under arms at a given 
time, originally excellent, had been improved from 
day to day and brought down to the last moment. 
It depended upon the most elaborate decentralisa- 
tion, each unit of the Gierman military system being 
or_Eaniscd bv itself, but vet with due subordination 




I "~ 

to be angmented in the short space of from eight to 
ten dajfs to a war ealuhlishraent of twenty-two tbou- 
aand officers, nine hundred and thirty-two thousand 
comlMiInnts, and ouo hundred and nint-tj-two thou- 

nd horses, equipped with everything which an army 

nircH on the field. This gigantic task could ncvor 

nvu toon performed unless every component part 

had fwrfomied its share of the work with the greatest 

iligcnce and rapidity, each wheel working into its 

'dlov wilh punctuality and precision, nor could thla 

be effected without decentralisation of the military 

administration, dirision and repartition of labour, 

d oonatJint conscientious provision in peace for the 

igenciee of war. 

\\Tien King William of Pmsaia arrived at Berlin 
on the evening of June 15, 1870, he at once aanc- 
tioned the orders prepared by General Moltko, and 
tbej were immediately transmitted to t)ie otBcofi 
eommanding the several army corps. By regular 
stage* eech corps was gradually hut swiftly devel- 
oped into ita full proportions and ready to start for 
the frontier as a finished product The reserves and, 
if necessary, the Inndwehr men filled out the hsttat- 
iona, Mjuadrona and batteries to the fixed strength, 
and they were provided with the arms, clothing and 

aiptneoto wbieh were stored in the local depots. 
were called in, requisitioned or bought and 

DBport was obtained. All the wants of a complete 
army corps were easily supplied, as they had been 
ascertained and provided for beforehand. Thus the 
whole operation of bringing a great army from a 
peace to a war footing, in aWoluto readiness to mwt 
an aoemy advancing on hit own soil, was carried oat 

lb nnparalloled order and qaicknesa in the ahnrt 
ioil of cigliteoQ dajrs. Tbis included the transport 




of men, gnna, horses, carriages, chiefly by railway, 
from all parte of the country to the Rhine and the 
Moselle; indeed more than three hundred thousand 
combatants with all their appurtenances were con- 
veyed to the places on the days specified, in falfil- 
ment of a Bcherae reasoned, specified and drawn out 
two years before. 

The mobilisation of the Trench array was an 
entire contrast to that of its antagonist. In France 
the minute territorial organisation of the army, 
which prevailed in Germany, did not exist, A 
peasant residing in Provence might bo summoned 
to join a regiment quartered in Brittany, or a work- 
man employed in Bordeaux called up to the Pas do 
Calais; when they arrived they might discover that 
their regiments had marched to Alsace or to T^r- 
raine. During the first fortnight after the declara- 
tion of war thousands of reserve men were travelling 





Thi'inville, and a million rations had to be sent from 

^aria. On July 25 there was neither biscuit nor 

It mt^at in tlic fortresses of Mezierus and Sedan. 

All the regiiuents were hundreds abort of llieir 

proper streagtb. 

There was also groat deficiency of ready money; 

Qooeral do Futlly at Bitscb bad no coin wlicrowith 

pay bis troops. The German soldiers were 

jeqiiately supplied with first-rate maps of France; 

Frepcb only had maps of Germany intended for 

the invoaion of that country. The German oiHcers 

bad a far more intimate knowledge of the country 

^^bnmxb which tbey were marching than had the 

^^neneii inhabitants tlicmselves. On July 31 General 

^Blidiel wnt the following teli^&m to Paris: " Have 

HnriTed at Bclfort; caninit find my brigade; cannot 

find tbo General of Division ; what ehall I do )" 

Tbc German army rostnl on solid fi^iindHtions, and 

notlling was left to chance; the French army was 

[ looaely put t^^-thcr. It consisted of uncertain elc- 

' mmto, was not easily collected, and was never in 

fonoed bodies, and yet the national cbttmct«r of 

tba French is perbapa better suited for minute and 

careful organisation than that of the Germans. 

I Lot ua now consider the disposition of the two 

anni«« at tlio end of July. Tbo main French army, 

two hundred tbonsand strong, was placed in anJ 

around Metz under Marshals liazaioit and Cnnrolwrt 

anrl under Omiorat liourbaki, who commanded the 

Imperial Ouanl. It waa called tbo Army of the Rbinv, 

at it had little to do with that river. On July 

it WIS joined by tlte Kmiwror and his aon and by 

linbal Lcbceuf, tlie too oonfideat HinistiT of War. 

fo the eut was tbo Amy of tin Sontli nnder Mao- 

lUbon, Duko of Alogcnto, iboDt odo hundred xhoxk 




sand strong. To this army were attached the Afri- 
cnn troops and the Zouaves, who vere tnainlv of 
Parisian origin. This army was thrown forward 
towards Alsace, and its advanced guard under Gen- 
eral Douay was on the Rhine. In the camp at 
Chalons was a third anny consisting of reservists 
and mobiles, who were not completely collected and 
were very imperfectly drilled. Besides these armies 
a well-manned and equipped fleet was sailing from 
Cherbourg through the Channel with the object of 
cruising in the North Sea and the Baltic, to blockade 
the harbours and to land on the coasts. 

The German forces were also divided into three 
great sections. The first under General Steinmetz, 
sixty-one thousand strong, contained the first, seventh 
and eighth army corps, under Manteuffel, Zastrow, 
and Goeben respectively, and formed the right wing. 
The second, iinder Prince Frederick Charles, with a 


man Confederates amoonted to nine hundred and 
eigfaty-foar thotuand five hundred men, and that of 
the French to seven hondred and ninety-ei^t thou- 
sand men ; bat the nnmbers actually brought into the 
field were oonaiderabljr smaller. 







The Emperor left St. Clotid to join the army on 
the morning of July 28, 1870, taking the Prince Im- 
perial with him. It has heen reported by an eye 
witness that ho was silent and out of spirits, eeem- 
ing to anticipate disaster. As he picked up variou.9 
well-loved trinkets to place them in his travelling-bag 
his eyes were full of tears. On the other hand, the 
Empress was radiant with joy and hope, and did her 
best to rouse him by reading extracts from the last 
English papers. She was passionate for the war. 

wnssENBURo, wOirrn and saarbkOcickn'. 4t8 

fullest preparation, but Napoleon found at Metz, 
that not onl^ were supplies of all kinds deficient, but 
that Hetz was short of its complement by fifty thou- 
sand men and Straebiirg by si-tty thousand, whereas 
Canrobert'a troops not having been concentrated at 
Chalons were unable to march to Metz, 

The first engagement took place on August 2 at 
Soarbriirkeo, a Bmall German commercial frontier 
defended by a Prussian detachment fifteen 
ndreil strong. To attack this place General Fros- 
rd advanced with the whole of the second army 
rpB. The amsll Pmsaian force under Lieutenant- 
>10D^I Peatel skirmished with this overwhcluiitig 
force for two hours, and kept it in check for half a 
^^jiy. It then retired, in perfect order, over the 
^^ridges at 13.30 p.m. The town of Saarbriicken 
^Bras then occupied; and the open town and railway 
^fntion of Sl Johann, on the opposite side of the 
rirer, waa furiously shelled. Lcaa than a hundred 
men ux-ro killed or wounded on either side, liut tbu 
French papers boasted, " Saarbriicken has once more 
beeome a French city, the splendid euul diotrict on 
tba 6«ar is French property; Saarbriicken is the first 
rtation, we shall soon n-ach the lajtt one. Berlin." 
The Krapcror wrote to his wife that the Prince Im- 
Iicrial hitd rccutvrd his baptism of fire, and that the 
Srat shots from the mitrailleujicfl had produced a 
wonderful effect The French made no further ud- 
vanee, hot fortified their position on the left bank 
of the S«*r, the Emperor returning to Metr. 

The next engagement wua of a very different chnr> 
actor. A division of MaoHihon's army under 
G«B««I Abel Douny hod advanced to the frontiers 
of Rhenish Bavaria, and had oecnptcd the fortifiol 
(own of Woiascnbuig, which lies in the oentre of the 



Weissenburg lines, traces of which may still be seen 
from the railway, bo celebrated as a place of combat 
between the French and Germans in the War of the 
Spanish Succession, and in the Revolutionary War 
of 1793. General Douay placed two battalions, con- 
sisting one of his infantry and the other of Turcos, 
in the town and occupied, with the remaining nine 
battalions of bis division, a camp with tents on the 
heights to the south of Weissenburg. The third 
army, imtler the command of the Crown Prince, had 
pressed forward to the Kiver Lauter, and was ad- 
vancing southwards between Weissenburg and 
Lauterburg. The troops of Douay's division were 
employed in preparing their coffee at 9 a.m. in their 
camp, when intelligence came that the enemy was ad- 
vancing in great masses and were close at hand ; upon 
which, the troops, leaving their tents standing, moved 
forward to occupy the river. The Prussian force 
consisted of Bavarians under Von der Tann, as wel! 


w«ro «>nipclled to surrender at 2 p.m., having lost 
ity-four men killed aiul wounded in defence 
1 ; seven hundred men were tuken prisoners. Thia 
the first victory gained by the German troops 
, French soil. 

Two daj-a later, on August 6, 1870, was fought the 
iportanl battle of Worth, when MacMahon, having 
onoetitrated all hia troops on the main line of com- 
itintcatioR leading by Bitsch and Saargemiind to 
[etc, determined to aeeept a battle, ahliough by 
>ing 80 he abandoned possession of Alsace. The 
sitioQ chosen was a atrong one, as the chain of steep 
partly wooded, completely dominates tbe 
ound on the left hank of the Sauer, which is a deep 
ivulft with Btoep banks, ofToritig a considcrublc ob- 
icle to the advance of an enemy and only passablo 
W tlio bridge* at Gor«dorff, Worth, and (lUnstett 
The position was strengthened by rifle-pits, trenchea, 
abattin, field-works, batteries, and wire fonccs. Mac- 
Jiabon luid no information as to the lino of the 
enemy*B approach ; however, he took up tbe following 
positions on the morning of August 6, He placed 
Ducrot on the left wing with tlie first division, TCaoult 
with tho third division in the centre, holding the 
vilUgo of Worth at the pasMgo over the Sauer, 
strongly occupied. The fourth division, under I)b 
L'Arttgoa was on the right, holding the lower wood, 
with I flank formed en potenee opposite to the vil- 
lagQ of Morsbraan. Ha had at first intended to fight 
• purely defensive battla and bad ordered the bridges 
over tbe Sauer Xn be deetroyod, but bo changed bia 
mind anri left them standing. 

The Crown Prince held the heights on the loft 
bank of the Sauer, from WSrth to Uunat«tt, having 
aiucty thousand men oppoeod to forty ihouaand. Tb« 



attack on Worth began soon after 8 a.m. By 11 a.m. 

the superiority of the Prussian artillery had become 
evident, and orders were given to storm the villaga 
In the meantime the French made an attack upon 
Gunstett, which waa, however, repulsed. Soon after 
noon Worth was carried by storm, after an obstinate 
resistance, and was subsequently held against two 
vigorous attempts to recover it. The Crown Prince 
had at first intended to defer the main battle till 
August 7, but at 1,30 p.m. he gave orders to continuo 
the fighting. The hardest part of the fight, aft^r 
crossing the stream, was in storming the heights east 
of Froschweiler, which were strongly occupied and 
partly fortified. The third French division, whose 
commandant, General Raoult, was killed, fought 
with passionate courage, and only at tho fourth on- 
slaught did the Prussians gain possession of the cov- 
eted ground. On the French side a desperate attempt 
was made to retake Elssasshauscn, but the village 


On the same day that the Crown Prince of Prussia 
puned the victory of Worth with the left wing of 
UM Genntn armies, August 6, 1870, the right wing 
«I»o gained at Saarbriicken a victory which eventu- 
ally had the most decisive consequences. The army 
eorpB of Qoneral Frossard had evacuated Saar 
briicken as well as the exercise-grouiid of the place, 
which ]ic3 upon n lu-ight, and had taken up a position 
further to the south in the wooded range of Spicheren 
and Porbach. The position, naturally strong, was 
also fortified l*y walls and entrenchments, and waa 
thon^t to be impregnahle. Frosaard had placed 
eonoealed batteries down the slope as far as the val- 
ley, which divides the exercise-ground fnjin the 
heights. For tlio space of several hours the advanced 
guard of the first Pnissian army under Zastrow and 
Kamcke attempted to scale the heights in front and 
flank; two attacks were repulsed, and the Oerman 
looM* were severe. But at 5 p.m. General von Alvens- 
leben came up with some troops from th© second 
army, so that Oocben could now order a froah attack 
upon the cnomy'a poaition. 

Tho day was extremely hot and the new troopa 
were exhausted by their long march, but they climbed 
|tlM st«op heights with Bbonta of Hurrah 1 until they 
the Plateau. The Frwnch made extra- 

linar%' exertions, combining infantry, cavalry, and 
irtillery, in their resistance, and fought with Uie 

ira^ of despair to rocover Uta position they had 
lost, and it became necwaary to bring up the Prussian 
cavalry and artillery to tho Plateau, which was ef- 
ttetai by means of steep paths through wooded hilts. 
On both wings new bodies of troops came up, dircct«d 
by the sound of the cannon. Tbe Freneb were 
driven back io tbe direction of Spicheren and Ear 



liDgeti, and being quite eshausted, began to give way 
along the whole line. Finally, at about 9 p.m., they 
withdrew in a southerly direction to Saargemund. 

In the evening of the same day General von GoIj 
attacked the Kaninchenberg, a hill which overlooks 
the town of Forbach, and took it, being then able 
to fire some rounds of shot upon the town of Forbach 
and the retreating maasea of the enemy, who sub- 
Bequently abandoned the town. Night, however, put 
an end to the engagement. Marshal Bazaine was 
posted with the third corps about six miles from 
Spicheren, with the purpose of supporting Frossard. 
He offered his co-operation, but it was decltued aa 
being unnecessary. This indifference and want of 
judgnient on the part of the French is in strong con- 
trast to the energy of their opponents. The battle 
was won, by the rapid concentration on the scene of 
action of bodies of troops belonging to a great variety 
of corps and divisions. If every leader in the Pnis- 






TTB pmshing defeats of Worth and Saarbrucken 
opoiK-ii ihe nurtli-eastcrn gale of Friince to the Our- 
man armies vithout aoy further struggle. From 
Augnvt 6 the movctnc&ts of the invading hosts were 
eiclusirel; on French soil and all danger of an in- 
Tftsion from the wijst, either in Xorth or Soutli Qer- 
many, was at an end. General consternation vaa felt 
at Pari*. The tnovenients of the viotorioiu troops 
who oocupicd the pas«ca of the Voegea, and who, after 
the capture of tho little fortress of Lulzelatoin, 
preewd oven to the Moaetle, wero so swift and ir- 
reaiattUe that it iMTaine oeceuaTy to take lueaaiirM 
for tho security of tho capital itMlf. Tho investment 
of the froutter city of Strnaburg by General Beyer 
adrlod to the terror. On Aufjust T and 8 the £in|ti'ror 
■nd tbe Hioistry isaucd proclematinns calling for a 
f^meral rallying of the people under tho national 
banner to save the national honour. At Uio same 
time the Chambers were summoned, and so strong an 
opposition waa displayed towards the Goremment 
that Oiiivior and Grsmont were forced to resign, 
■nd the Empress entrusted General MacMaboo with 
tbo formation of a new Cabinet, wboM principal 
task shonld be to ooudnct the national defence egaiiut 
tbe invasion nf the enemy. 

Tbe new Ministry displayed great celerity in per- 
fiuming tbe task which tboy bad undcrukcti. All 




immarried men between twenty-fivo and thirty-fire 
years of age, who had Litlierto been legally di*- 
pensed from military service, and widowers without 
children, were called in to the colours, excepting 
those who had been previous I j enrolled in the 
Kational Guard. Volunteers were accepted up to 
the age of forty-five. Free Corps were formed 
throughout the country, which created a guerilla 
warfare, and gave the struggle a character of inhu- 
manity and cruelty which was unnecessary and use- 
le-s.1. .\t the same time all German families were 
expelled from France. The Emperor laid down hia 
command in chief and transferred the care of the 
Rhine Array to Marshal Bazaiue. Lebceuf was re- 
moved from hia post of Minister of War, Bazalne 
recalled the beaten army of Frossard to Metz, whilst 
MacMahon retired with the remains of the Vosgea 
army to Chalons, where fresh troops were being as- 
sembled. The original " Army of the Rhine " was 



sUdt, oow mArched into Lorraine and took posse^tsion 
of Nancy and the whole of the flat coiintrv. When 
the King entered tipon French torritorj' at St. Avoid 
bo iasued a proclamation to the French people, in 
which he said that ho was fighting against the French 
«rmy and not agaiuat French citizens. They would 
eontinuo to enjoy full security for their persons 
and their property, so long as they did not under- 
take any hostile proceedings against the German 
troope, and so deprive tlie King of the power of 
giving tbcm his protection. These intentions were 
rendered nupatory by the creation of tlie Fri-e Corps 
throughout Friince. Perhaps it was inevitable, under 
the cireumstaiiees, that every passion should be 
roused to deal vengeance and dcstniction on the in- 
^ yyde re. But the war rapidly assumed an internecine 
■^^pftcter, and very few " peaceable " inhabitants, as 
^^^HmkI by the Emperor's proclamation, couM bo 
found in the country. 

The Crown Prince entered Nancy on August 12, 
and, in possession of the capital, ho could connider 
I/jrraini' m a conquered country, although Met7^ 
Thionville,and some smaller frontier fortresses lay 
in the |x>ssessioii of the enemy. German governors 
wcro appointed in Alsace and Lorraine which seemed 
to point to a design already foniiod for revindicating 
these ancient German provinces for the Prusaiin 
Crown. The world looked on with amazement at 
the inccoat of the German arms and the breaking-ap 
^of tho Napoleonic system which had dazzled the eyea 
^ptf Europo for twunty ycara. 

The portion of the Amy of the Rhine ooncen* 
trat«d in and about Uelx since August 1 1 amounted 
at least to one hundred and seren^ tboosand men. 
Tt remained inactive for several aaytt but, at tlio 




moment when Bazaiae assumed the command, the 
steady advance of the German armies along the whole 
line demanded energetic action. It bad to be de- 
cided whether this army should await au attack on 
Metz or, avoiding a battle, withdraw to Chalons or 
Paris in order to defend the capital. Unfortunately 
the French had omitted to protect their flank, so that 
the first course had become impossible, and Bazaino 
was compelled to carry his anny across the Moselle 
and lead it towards Verdun. On the night of August 
13 the army was still encamped on the right bank 
of the ifoselle in a wide semicircle round iletz, the 
corps of Canrobert being on the right, those of 
Frossard and Decaen in the centre, and Lndmirault'a 
on the left; Bonrbaki's guards were posted at Remy, 
Forton's reserve cavalry at Montigny, and Barral'a 
reserve cavalry on the island of Chambiere. The 
guards had apparently no idea that the first army 
3f th 



I (ho 

a cheek ftt Colombey. The French were not only 
superior in numbers, but were strongly posted behind 
trenches, ahatti8,aQd other Seld-works, and the Fru»- 
sians found themselves in a very critical position; 
but at P.M. reinforcements came up. General 
Zaslrow arrived about 5 p.u. and ajssumed command 
of bis corps, but did not produce much effect, till 
at 7 I'.u. General Kameke brought up four battalion? 
on the left wing, and turned the fortune of the day, 
~'he French fell back upon Remy, and wore forced 
,t of their strong positions. Darkness ended the 
lUlt about 8 F.U., and the Prussians maintainet! 
the ground they had conquered, while the French 
withdraw to Uetz. The object of keeping part o£ 
L^die French army on the right bajik and preventing 
^^B from joining the troops which had already pusaed 
^Hpd been attained, so that tlio French had lost a day, 
PHlhilat the second German army was able to continue 
ita turning movement without interruption. The 
lotsaa on both sides were considcrnble. 

On the following day, Anpust 15, the great festival 
of tho Napoleon dyniwty. the birthday of its founder, 
the day which the sanguine ImperJalista had dos- 
tined for the entry into Berlin, the whole French 
army set out from Kletz towards Verdun, marching 
by the two southern reads, one of which passes by 
BAtonrillc, Vionvillo, and_Hars-la-Toiir, the other 
by Doocourt, Jamy.and £taiiL Tho Kmporor and 
his aon accompanied tlie march, and spent the oight 
io Grarelotte, hut on tlie following morning set out 
1^ byo-roadii for the camp at Chalons. But Baxaine 
enthl only movo slowly xfith his onormoiu train, and 
by the evening of that day the advaneed fniard of the 
•enmd army, which had cro«B»d lb« flooded Moselle 
•t Poot^-Mousson and other points, reached, after 



forced marcbes, the positiona of Tronville, Uars-la- 
Tour, and Vionville. As it was part of Moltke's 
plan to detain tho French army between the Mense 
and tbe Moselle and to force them to a decisive bat- 
tle, this advanced guard, weary aa they were, were 
compelled to take the field at daybreak on the follow- 
ing morning, August 16. 

The road from Gravclotte to Verdun passes by the 
villages of Rezonville, Vionville, and Mara-la-'rour, 
through an open and uodulating country, dotted 
with small woods. Suddenly the cavalry brigade 
which was encamped west of Vionville were struck 
by shells fired from a battery close in their neigh- 
bonrhood. More batteries followed suit, and the 
dragoons broke and fled, galloping off to Rezon- 
viUe. The infantry camps were soon attacked in a 
similar manner, but Frossard's corps replied with 
great and successful vigour. The artillery which 
caused this panic belonged to the advanced ffuard of 





Alrenaleben himself from the south-weatj while Von 
Billow attacked in the centre. Vionvillc and Flt- 
Tigny were carried, and the French were comiwlled to 
rest towards RezODviUe. Stiilpnagel's division 
ad the greatest difficult^' in maintaining its position 
to the west of the wood of Vionville, continuing tho 
combat without being relieved, and suffering heavy 
looses from the enemy's long-range fire. But it was 
a combat for life or death, and every Frusaian soldier 
felt ci-nvinccd of the necessity of not yielding aa 
inch of ground. 

Just as Frossard's infantry was retreating behind 
Rexonville, Bazaine appeared upon the scene and 
rodo into the thick of the buttle. He sent a line regi- 
ment to charge and check the pursuers ; but they 
were decimated by the fire of the iufuntry. Bn/.aine 
himself was nearly taken prisoner, being separated 
for a moment fmni his atafT, and compelled to defend 
liimaclf. The crisis of the battle camo aWut 2 p.m., 
when every man and gun upon the German side waa 
engagod and the greater part of the tenth corps was 
ttill distant from the field. Luckily for the Ger- 
mans Bazaino began t« fear lest he might bo turned 
on hta left flank and detached troops to prevent it. 
^■Lt this time Alvenslehen directcl thn brilliant chargo 
^Hf Bmlow's corps, with the view of gaining time and 
^Briieving tlto infantry and tlio artillery. The chai^t 
^niffaetod its object, but with the terrible loss of H 
I oAsBrt and 308 men; indeed tlie Fn-nch bullulint 
I MNtled that the etiirasiier regiment of Ootmt Bis- 
marck bad been annihilated. Daring the next thrf<e 
boars the strngglo on tho German right and centra 
remained fltatiouark', as they wen- unable to win 
groani from the grrnadiors of the Imperial Gnnrd. 
About 4 p.H. Prince Frederick Charles arrived on 



tlie field, hariog ridden straiglit from Pont-a-Monason 
He Boon saw tlmt the stress of the battle waa on tho 
left wing, where the tenth corps had appeared jiist 
in time to meet the fresh troops which were under 
the command of Lelxeiif and LadmiraulL The artil- 
lery took the lead, then the infantry went into the 
wood and drove out the French. Ladmirault was 
driven back. Another cavalry charge took place in 
which Count Bismarck's two sons rode as privates; 
one of them waa wounded, and the other lifted a 
wounded comrade on to his horse and carried him 
from the field. The last event of the battle waa a 
great combat of cavalry. 

It was now past 7 p.m., and both sides were ex- 
hausted by the tremendous strain to which they had 
been subjected, but the contest continued until dark- 
ness fell. At the very last moment a violent cannon- 
ade, the origin of which 13 still uncertain, burst forth 
on both aides. The French slept on the ground they 

TIONVniA 4fl7 

Bauine now took up a purel; defensive position, 
with hifl front towards the west. Bat he had not 
given up the idea of retiring to Cbalooa, because he 
reported to the Emperor on August 17 that he would, 
if it were poosible, in two days, after the army had 
been supplied with Tictnali and ammnnition, march 
towards Verdun by the northern road. As a matter 
of fact, if be had begun this march in the morning or 
eren the night of August 17, the Germans would 
not hare been able to oppose the moTement, bot only 
to harass his flank, whereas his remaining inactive 
at Metz during the whole of that daj enabled bia 
enemies to concentrate a superior force againat him 
and eventually to cut him off from retreat altogether. 
The reason for this delay was, apparently, as we have 
before said, the deficiencsy of food and ammunition. 






We have nl ready mentioned that Bazaine an- 
nounced to his Government tbe battle of VionvUle, 
or, as the Germans call it, Mara-la-Tour, as a victory, 
and that his withdrawal under the walls of iletz after 
ita conclusion had merely been for the reasona we 
have described. The day of August 17, which was 
wasted by the French, was employed by the Pruasiana 
in bringing up all available troops, whether from 
the first or from the second army. We have seen 



Biderod wian to place French troops in n position 
where tliey would hove a wide expanse before them 
and Kreat difficully of approach, so that they mi^ht 
await the onslaught of the enemy in their entrench- 
mcnta, overwhelm them with their fire, and then dia- 
peraa them with a vigorous charge. The defeats of 
Weisseobarg, Worth, and Spicheren onght to have 
given the French a warning that these tactics were 
not saitcd to the genius of their army, but they at- 
tributed these disasters rather to superior numbers 
or to surprise. At Remy and at Vionville they had 
Iwca ablo, at least, to hold their oim, wliy should not 
Bixaloe make a third attempt, which might scatter, 
{f not annihilate, the enemy and open the rond to 
m France i There were many things in his 

Tour — tho courago of the French troops was nn- 
ken, and their spirit had rather bi'en excited than 
crushed by their previous niisfcrtums. Ho hud with 
him an army of one hundred and sixty thousand to 
one hundred and eighty thousan'l men, 8<-nrceIy in- 
ferior in nnmber to the Germans, and had tho ad- 
Tftntago of their being already in hand, whcren^ the 
enemj would not be able to assemble for some time. 
lie also flattered himself that he could bold before 
Habt a position which was regarded not only aa im- 
prcipiahte but as one which it would be inndaesa to 

Tbft loft bank of the Moselle ritce nddonlj to 
the bcif^hta of St. Qucntin and Plapperille, and 
front tfa« faminit of tlieae heiglita falls gradually 
tinrarda the west, tbe ground being very uncvon and 
partlj oorercd with wood. Two narrow valleya or 

DCS penetrate this inclined s'ope, ana on the east, 
ing from St. l*rivat by Amanrillers and Chilel 
8t Gcnuaiu (o the Mowllc, and the o!hcr on tin 



vest, formed by the rivnlrt of La Mance, b^nnin^ 
It VeiTieTille, and alao reaching the Moselle. The 
French armj was poeted on tbe heights lying between 
these two ravines; tbe high-road from Gravelotte 
to Metz passes throogh this position in manv wind- 
ings, which form a species of defile. The ground 
was of sncb a nature that it was possible for the de- 
fending partv to fire in tiers, one aboire the other, 
also to occupy a number of sheltered positions behind 
the heights, whereas the assailants were compelled to 
advance over ground which offered no cover what- 


Tbe corps of Canrobert was placed on the right, 
occupying the village of St. Privat la Montagne, 
which, as its name implies, stands upon a height, 
is surrounded by a wall, and consisted at that time 
largely of massive stone houses which had been 
strongly fortified. The corps o£ Leboeuf was in the 
centre, occupying tbe farmhouses of La Folic, Leip- 



tti, eighth and ninth corps, the corps of the 
inl, the twelfth cnrps, holding the third and tenth 
corps, which had euSercd eeveroly on August 16 in 
reaenre. Tho most difficult part of the struggle had 
been committed to the Guard and tho twelfth corps, 
because they were in the freshest condition; but as 
thej had been compelled to make a considerable 
rch from Mars-la-Tour it was ordered that until 
ley could Ulte part in the battle the fight on tho 
tre aud tho right should be confined to aa artillery 

The French opened the battle at midday with a 
ardcrous fire. The eighth German corps then occu- 
pied Gravelotle and deployed its artillery on the 
heights on the east and the south, and at 12.45 fifty 
glint opened their fire. They kept up the artillery 
comb*! most resolutely, not withstanding the loraea they 
mffered from the French guna and mitraillcnsee for 
many bonrs. At 4 v.u. fifteen of these guns had been 
disabled, and it became necessary to obtain frosh 
rapplicsof ammunition from the rear. The French, 
however, had been entirely anable to drive them 
back. At this time the Germans gained an advantage 
on tbe left wing. Prince Hohenlohe advanced to- 
wards Sl Privat, till hia batteries got within chasse- 
pot range and succccdtnl in silencing the enemy's 
artillery, not only at St. Privat, bnt at Amanvillen 
and Hontigny. The ninth corps maintained its posi' 
tion, although it was deluged with tho enemy's pro- 
jectiles, and the brave Hossiana never yielded a foot 
of gtxnind. St Mario aox Chencs was also taken 
abont 4 v.u., and the Sojcon artillery was able to take 
a position north i)f the village, directing its fire on 
St. I'rirat and Uoncourt 

Marshal Bazaine sorveyed the field uf battle 



from the heights of Plappeville at about 5 p.m., he 
had sound reason for believing that the battle was al- 
ready decided in his favour, and that victory waa 
certain. x\.t tiiat time the French array held unflinch- 
ingly all its main positiouB along the whole line and 
had only lost a few small advanced posts. Can- 
robert Btill remained perfectly intact in the position 
of St. Privat and Roncourt, although his corps had 
been driven back at St. Marie, and was engaged in 
a serioua artillery combat; Ladmirault also held his 
ground at Ainanvillers and at Montigny. Lebceuf 
had been compelled to evacuate the Bois do Geni- 
venux, but had warded off the enemy's attack against 
its main position on the heights of Moscou ; Frossaril 
was still holding his fortified positions at Point dii 
Jour and liozerieullcs, although St. Hubert had been 
lost. The Imperial Guard, in reserve, had not aa yet 
taken any part in the engagement. It must, how- 
ever, be remembered that on the side of the Germana 



to KiupGTtd thp attack and to awaii the arrival of the 
Saxons. Those troops, forming the twelfth corps, 
reached Roncourt at 6.30 p.u. and proposed to at- 
tack Sl Privat on the north, and at this moment the 
three brigades of the Guards received orders to con- 
tiniu] their advance. At6.45tho; forced Uieir way into 
tbe Tillage from the south and west, and at the same 
moment some of tbe Saxon troops entered from the 
north. A street fight ensued in which the houses of 
the villagi,> had to be stormed cue after the other, and 
jttst as darkness set in the united German troops 
became mastera of the village. 

Tlie attack of tbe Guards upon St. Privat made it 
poMible for the Uessiau division and the third 
bri^de of Guards to advance upon Amanvillers, but 
tbe Frcnefa forces nt this spot were so much superior 
in numbers that the attack did not succeed. ITow- 
ever, tbe defeat of the I'rcui-li at St. Privat carried 
with it the ahandomnent of Amanvillers. Ladmi- 
rault, fearing to bo taken on flank, evacuated his poai- 
tioDS and retreated through the wood of I^orr^ to 
ille, tbe retreat being so precipitous that a 
: encampmeot of huts fell into the hands of tlie 
Prussians, together with much other booty. When 
the news of the defeat of the French right wing 
T«Mbed headquarters Oeneral Bonrbaki, commander 
of the Imperial Giinni, issued orders to march 
tlirough the forest to its support, hut llicy arrivt-d too 
late to be of any advantage. 

At ilie other extremity of the field General 
Fraosecky, commanding the aeoond oorpa, received 
orders fr^im the King nt 5.30 i-.u, to carry the 
plateau of the Hoscou farm. For this puqKwe It 
wu weenary to pass tfaTOU^ the terrible defile of 
Oratclolle, which can oovcr bo furgottAn by auy ooe 



who has seen it, as it appears almost impregDabIa 
The pass, formed by the steep banks of the River 
Wancc, is only twelve yards wide. After passing the 
bridge the road to Metz is bordered for about five 
hundred yards by a wall of precipitous rocks, thirty 
or forty feet high, and on the right by a ravine in 
some places twenty feet deep. After passing St. 
Hubert the road reaches the level of the plateau. 
Along this road the infantry had to advance un- 
eupported, until they reached St. Hubert. The pro- 
gress was watched by Moitke and by the King him- 
self until Von Roon forced him away from hia 
dangerous position. 

Fransecky'a orders were that the troops were to 
climb the eastern bank of the Mance, and move along 
the road until they came in front of Point du Jour, 
they were then to storm that important position, 
which is the highest point of the road. These orders 
were carried out, the troops pressing forward in one 



eanscd Btill more confusion. Something like a panio 
occurred, and it required all the efforts of the loaders 
to restore order; a considerable number of Boldiera 
were thrown forcibly dowii the deep rarine which 
border* the other aide of the road. The sun had now 
gone down, and it wna found that in the confnsion 
ProBsian troops who had reached the heights were 
firing upon their advancing comrades. Franseckj 
therefore ordered the bugle to sound " cease firing," 
and a general cessation of fire occurred for a mo- 
ment on both sides. The storming column, which 
bad b«n temporarily Bfoppfnl, now got under weigh 
again and rcuclu-d St, Hubert, but beyond that vil- 
la^ jt waa again oxpoeed to a murderous hail. At 
lairt Point du Jour waa carried. About 10.30 p.m. 
the enemy delivered a terrible fire of mitrailleuses 
and chassepols npon the Germans, tho last great vol- 
which formed a closing scene to the whole battle. 

, the next morning it was foimd that the enemy had 

ractuted all bis ponitionB, the road being thickly 

with arms and knapsacks thrown awny in 

bt The King passed the night on a field-bed in 

small room at Rezonville, not having changed his 
dotbea for thirty hours, and having no covering 
dnrinc; the night except his military cloak. On tho 
{tiXawing iMJ, finding that no attetnpts were Itcin; 
made to renew tho confiict, ho moved bis hcadquurtcrs 
to Pont-1-MouMon. 

In this battle the French lost 600 officers and 
11,70S men, the Oermniw 904 ofTlt>i>rs and 19,058 
men. Bceidos this six tliousand Fronch were nudo 

Let Qs now consider the operations we have do- 
■oribod in tbcir general aspect. After tbo battlea of 
.VeiMDObarg, Worth, and Snarbr6ckoD, the Guman 



anny formed a line obliquely directed towards the 
Moselle, bo that the right wing waa fifty miles and the 
left wing a hundred and ten miles distant from the 
stream. The line of the Moselle now became the 
objective, and the whole army eventually came into 
a position parallel to its course, the right wing hold- 
ing back and the left wing pressing towards the river. 
The centre, under Prince Frederick Charles, now 
moved round the right wing under Steimuetz and 
crossed the river at Pont-a-Moiisson, so that when it 
took up its position at llars-la-Tour and Doncourt, 
it had described a half-circle. At Mara-la-Tour 
the former Prussian centre waa post«<l with its face 
to the Rhine and its back towards Paris, and the 
French army against which it had fought bad 
its face towards Paris, and its back to the Rhine — a 
position similar to that of the French and the allies 
in the battle of the Valmy. These movements had 
been carried out with perfect precision and without 





Bazaiiti: was now definitely sbut up in Metx. TIio 
ttle of Ai^giist IQ had cut liim off from the southern 
«d by Uare-la-Tour, the march on August 18 hud 
llie road by Oouflans, the storming of St 
Prirat had shut up the third and last avenue of 
MfelT by way of Briey and Etain. The German 
•nny was now to undurtako thv <iifBcult task of keep- 
ing the general and hin army Htrictly contincs) iu the 
foitnaa while the rcmnindor of thoir stron^h waa 
ployed in action on the field. For the purpose of 
rryiiig out the«e two objects, the King separated 
three ctkrpa from the united army, the twelfth corps 
«oiitpoaed of Sasons, the corps of the Guards, and the 
fourth corps, u well as the greater part of the 
ceTftlry. This army was pSnced under the command 
of tbe Crown I'rince of Kasnny and n>CL-ifcd tlio 
nama of tlie Army of the Alouse, Iwing destined to 
maroh upon Paris and to act on the right wing of 
Uio third army. The remaining parts of the first 
and ■eoond anoice were formed into ■ Siege Army — 
prae er rii^ their original names but placed under 
tbe oommand of Prinee Frtnlrrick Cbarlet. 

Hw Army of the Sie^, gradually strengtheDcd 
hy Iho arrival of rewrviata and oUicr soldier*, at- 
tained at beat tbe number of one handn><] and Qf^ 



tliousand combatants. It invested the city on bott 
Bidea o£ the Moselle and was stationed in trenches, 
batteries and jjarallela, often double or three-fold in 
depth, together with the use of the villages lying 
within the region of tlie lines. The foreposta were 
pushed as far forward as the fire of the forts per- 
milted; indeed tbey were generally within the range 
of the heavy ordnance, and only the reserves were 
entirely out of range. The whole length of the line 
of investment was about thirty miles. Observatories 
wereerected on all lofty points, connected by telegraph 
with each other or with the different headquarters, 
so that any weaknsse in any portion of the blockade 
could be immediately redressed. The fortress waa 
well supplied with ammunition, but less well with 
provisions, as the city contained, besides the army 
of Bazaine, its own inhabitants and those of much 
of the surrounding country. 




for one hattle. Impossiblo under these circumstaneea 
to break through the pntrcDched lines of the beaie^n. 
Jt wotili] be a good tiling if attacks from the interior 
coald compel the blockading army to retreat." A 
few days after this he was infomicd that the second 
and third corps of the besieging army had withdrawu 
ID the direction of Stenay and Dun, in order to 
strengthen the army of the Crown Prince of Saxony, 
wfaidt wta threatened by !Mac)[ahon. Therefore on 
August 31, 1870, ho made a powerful sortie, with 
the object either of driving the Pniasians back and 
rosining his freedom of action, or of replenishing 
bis commissariat and thus being able to hold out 

He chose for this attempt the right bank of tho 
osetle, where the defences of the enemy were less 
ttrong and where bis enterprise could be supported 
by some advanced forta. Tic hoped t<i be able to 
reach Sairlouis and Thionville, and from thence to 
restore hia eommnaication with the army of Chalooa. 
He dill indeed succeed, towards evening, in driving 
the Germans out of their position at Noiseville and 
llontcy, and of occupying new croimd even as far as 
Colombcy ; but lie was eventually repulsed in a night 
tack bv the first army corps and a division of tho 
idwehr, together with forty thonaand men, under 
Manteuffel. Soon afterwards tho detached 
ion of the army retomod and Bazaine could faavn 
oo further hop** of executing hi* plan. By S<^ptem- 
bcr 1 the Fnnch were at last at Metx again. It b 
dear from this that by tho rirtories of the middle nf 
the month tlio morale of the German army had \teen 
■troigtbenod and that of the Pimieli army bad been 
vaalwned. The surrender of the army in Uetx waa 
vow only a matter of lime, pruviuona w«r« beeomi n ^ 



■carce, and the day after the great sortie the besi^ed 
began to slaiighter their horsea. 

The Emperor Napoleon, lea\-ing Bazaioe's army at 
Het2 on the morning of Aognat 16, arrived the aame 
evening at tbe camp of Chalons where Marshal Mae- 
MahoD was posted with the first and twelfth corps 
of bis armv, the fifth and aeventb corps having 
not yet arrived. The camp was situated in a large 
plain, supposed to be identical with the Catalaunian 
Fields, which once witnessed tbe defeat of the Htms. 
Between the camp of Chalons and the fortress of 
lletz stretches a table-land diversified with hills, 
a part of the Ardennes ; the road from Chalons to 
Metz passes hy Valmy and St, MLnehould, famous 
for the defeat of tbe French monarchy in the flight 
to Varennes and tbe triimiph of the Republic in the 
cannonade of Kellermann. This line of hills, called 
the Argonnc, is pierced by the Meuse and the Mame, 



torwurde General Wimpffen arrived with reinforce- 
lenU from Algiers. General Trochu was originally 
io the camp, but being appointed by Napoleon to be 
Goremor of Paris, and to the command of the forces 
destined for the defence of the capital, he soon left 
to talco np his new duties. At the council of war held 
at Ohilona on August 17 it had been determined thai 
tbo Emperor should proceed to Paris and resume 
the reins of government ; also that MncMabon's array 
I abonld march on Paris and accept a battle there if 
I aec«mnry. However the Empress and the Ministry 
I wen afraid that if the Emperor returned to the Tuil- 
I leriet, both his life and his dynasty would bo in 
dangor; they wore also opposed to the retreat of Mac- 
Mahon's army. This brought about a moat unsatis- 
factory Etjite of things. The Emperor virtually ab- 
dicated just at the time when his authority n-aa most 
rAquinKl, and MacMiihon was not left to bis own 
devices in the command of liis army, but was con- 
ttantly mtiiTfi-rt'd with both by the Empress R^ent 
«nd by the Ministers. 

Th« Emperor and MncMuhon both adhered to the 

original ptaa of leading the Army of Chalons back 

to Paris, or at lea^t to Uio neighbourhood of the 

CipitJil; but in Paris it wiie insisted upon that Mao- 

Uabon should make an offensive advance in the iliroe- 

I tion of Verdtm, so as to co-operate with Bazaine and 

effect a junction wttli him. MneMnhon had gravo 

doabCa aa to the snccesa of this bold enterprise, which 

^Hpold only produeo it^ efTiit if Bazaine could succeed 

^Bt the Mme time in breaking throni^h the iron em- 

r braee of the Prussian annieti. He ado|iled a com* 

I proratso nf marching to Rhoiins and evncuate<l the 

ramp on the morning of August 21. The store of 

food, fon^ «nd clothing colUcted there was d«»- 



troTe<} and the camp burned down, measures which 
were dictated by fear and which were quite tumece*- 
s&rr. MacMahon remained at Rheims two days, 
and on August 23, in obedience to stringent ordere 
from Paris, commenced his march to Montmedy, 
having with him an annv of one hundred and forty 
thousand men. He passed bv way of Kethel, Chene 
le Populeux, and JUouzon to the Meuse, the heads of 
his colimms reaching this latter place on August 28. 
The Army of Chalons gradually lost confidence in 
their leaders. Dejection and insubordination be- 
came rife, and the rations were so defective that the 
soldiers had to resort to plunder. Great masses of 
stragglers followed the army, and wandered over the 

To meet this unexpected move on the part of the 
Frencb, an entirely new disposition of the Prus- 
sian forces was required, all previous arrangements 
having been made on the supposition of a march to 



nnd m€n and its concentratioo at the deteimined 
point baa probably never been equalled in the history 
of war. Eveu the groat difficulty of procuring siib- 
siatence in a new line of advance was met by tfao 
zoal and resource of the cominissariat. 

Orders for the march of the army on the Mcuso 
were issued by the King on the evening of August 
25. The movements of the German anriies were of 
Buch a naturo that two days later MacMahon must 
bare seen that it would be impossible for bim to con- 
tinue htfl march on Mctz. lie therefore wished to 
abandon the attempt and to retreat with the army 
of Chiilona to Meztures. But be was overruled by 
the most positive eommanda from Paris and bad no 
alMrnativo but to obey. He made proparations for 
SKMBUig the Meuae on August 20, with his left wing 
at Mouzon and bis right at Stenay, but in coo- 
■eqaenoe of an engagement at Noaart be was obliged 
to ibMndoQ tho advance on Stenay an<l to retreat to 
BnmnoRt. By the evening of Aupust 20 the not 
wu fpr«ad out in all directions, by means of which 
the French army waa forced to operate in a narrow 
field and at laat compelled to accept a battle under 
the most unfavourable circumstances. 

By this time the army of the Crown Prince bad 
rawbcd the right bank of the Aiano, after coming 
into conflict with the enemy at Buzaney and Cb£ne 
1« Populeux, while the T«inforced fourth army had, 
after the engagcmfnt at Xouart, occupied tho line 
of the Ifeose from Dun to Stenay. The King of 
Pnuata had fijiod hii headquartvn, firet at Cler- 
mont and then at Varennea, wbihit the Emperor 
■ad HacMabon wero MtabUat>»d in Mouzon. Here 
the nswa reached them that on August 30 the corpe 
of De Failly had been attacked in tlio town of Beaih 

2 I 




mont by the Bavarians under General von der Tann, 
and the Saxons, and bad been forced to retreat 
hastily to Carignan and Sedan. 

We have seen that He Failly had encamped with 
the fifth corps on the heights to the north of Beau- 
mont. He liad called together the commandants of 
the several divisions at 9 a.m., and their reports all 
agreed that the enemy were not pursuing. Tho 
march on Mouzon was therefore deferred till 11 
A.M., but no efforts were made to_ reconnoitre tho 
wooded country south of Beaumont. The French 
troops were enjoying their easo, the men employed 
in cooking, and the horses being taken to water, when 
all of a sudden shells fell into the camp and every 
one rushed to take up arms. But the Prussian in- 
fantry had in the meantime reached the camp, and 
overmastered its defenders. The artillery had no 
time to harness the horses and to put them to the 



far greater numbers than his own. It had b»»mQ 

necosaaiy to abandon the march of the army on 

Montm^dy and the attempt to relieve Bazaino at 

^otz. The dioicu rcmuined betuoen accepting a 

I battle at AIoqzoq and retreating to the west without 

I figbling in order U> prevent the army if possible from 

jlieuig gurroiindod by the enemy. The ilarahal there- 

'ion determined to eonccntrato his forces at Sedan, 

hWiu'di eould only be effected by a night march, 

|;£rei7 preparation had been made for the Emperor 

paaaing the night at Oarignan, biit at 8 p.u. he left 

■niiAXpectcdly by thcrailwnyf'>rSi.'dan, which is about 

[♦welTe miles off. The troops inarcliing through the 

inight reached tlieir encampments at Sedan on the 

[morning of August 3 1, some as late as 9 a.m. 

I Whatever dcjtigns MncMiihon may have had in ro- 

JHlBtiDg to Sedan wero rendered nttgatory by the 

^Bft advance of tlio German troo^e. When tho 

Hfonrtb anny marched up tho right bank of the Mouao 

■nd, croMing tho Chiers at Dniizy, occupied the east 

at Solan, tbe third army, composed of North Clci^ 

DUina, Bavariana and Wiirtembcrgeni, and provided 

with excellent artillery, was marching along tho left 

bank by Rnncourt and Remilly. An attempt made 

by the Bavarians to pass tho river at Bazeillca was 

at first ntpnlned, but in the night they »cr© able to 

eroM at two plaoes abore Sednn, whilst the eleventh 

Korth German «Hps enesed the river at Donchory, 

and tbo Wiirtcmbergera lower down, whilst tho army 

i»( the Crown Prince of Saxony gainftd tho heights to 

the eaat and north of the town. Thus were tho 

French enveloped in a snore from which there was no 

flscBpo. It is said tliat when Miihke received tlio 

last report which completed the inteltigf'tice that his 

plana for the Investoient of the French army bad 




dnlj carried out, be nude a note in Iiis pock^ 
tnd oitered tbe words, " Es stimmt." which 
msv be e<nnewh&t f^eblv tramlatod br tbe T^ngli«K 
expression. *' All rigbt " — an eloqDent exclamatioa 
from tbe fainoos strategist whose distinctioD w&s to 
be sileiit ID xven languages. 

BSDtUt. 447 



OiT September 1, 1870, the French mnaj at Sedmn 

was confined within a Bpace of fonr and a half miles 
from north to south, and two miles from east to west 
Sedan, a small fortress, lies on the right bank of the 
llcuse, and on the left bank is a suburb called Torcy, 
defended hy a tete-du-pont. The village of Baieilla^ 
and Balan, a suburb of Sedan, are on the right bank 
of the river, above the town; on the east are the 
villages of Givonoe, Daigny, and Monoelle, and on 
the north-west those of Illy and Floing. The space 
between Sedan and Bazeillea on the right bank is 
low, whereas on the opposite hank the high ground 
comes down to the bank of the river, between Remilly 
and Wadelincourt The wood of Garenne, which 
played an important part in the battle, lies to the 
north of the town. Sedan is seven miles distant 
from the Belgian frontier. The right wing of the 
French held Balan and Bazeillea and was opposed 
by the Bavarians; then came the first French corps 
at Givonne and Daigny, opposed by the Pmssian 
Guards and the Saxons of the twelfth corps. The 
positions of Illy and Floing to the uorth of Sedan 
were defended by the seventh French corps and two 
cavalry dirisiona, and was attacked by the eleventh 
and fifth corps, together with srane cavalry. The 




fifth French corps waa poated just outside Sedan to 
act as a general reserve. In this manner the attack 
upon the three main points of the French position 
Eazeillea, the valley of Givoune, and the position of 
Floing and Illy, superior forces of the German troops 
were everywhere available. 

The battle began before daylight at 4 a.m. by the 
Bavarians under General von der Tanu advancing 
to attack Bazeillcs, which had been half burnt down 
on the day before. It waa most obstiuately d&- 
fended in the streota, houses, and gardens both by sol- 
diers and citizens and was only captured after a 
hard struggle. Unfortunately for the French, 
Marshal MacMahon, who had ridden ioto the fore- 
most Hue of combat, was so severely wounded in the 
very beginning of the battle from the spliutera of a 
shell, that he had to surrender the command and was 



mftnd nnder oortain circumetancea, and tborcfore at 
D A.M. wruto to Ducrot eayin;; that he had been au- 
tbori«ed by the Miuintor of War to assimio the chief 
oonunaad lq vase uf any accident bappemng to Kac- 
Mahon, aud thut he disapproved uf tiiu evuouation of 
Baaeillc* and Uivomiu. But wlieii tho Suxoua had, 
after IremeDdoua efforts, obtained poaeesiiiou of tlie 
UOTtli-vastorn ridgo of Villors and Cornay, Daigny 
and Qivonoe, and bad given ihe hand to liie lia- 
varinns, who after eimilar offorta had hocorae masusra 
of ]laz«illes and wero now able to ecizo the heights uf 
La MoDcelle, and wbea these two strcanui of con- 
qooiors united to drivo the French out of Balan tho 
ianw of the day wsa no longer doubtfal. 

During the battle the Crown Princ« took his aland 
on a hill a little sontli of the village of Doncbery, 
^^nd the King of Prussia aitablished himself at a 
^■ofail B liltiv further to the east from which the 
^HiiolB field wan nsible. This stationary position of 
Hbe two comtnandera throughuut tho day won of grrat 
aasiatance both in rec«iving reports and in tending 
onlcn,aodaawohaveaeeaaBiniilarcoursewaB almost 
always adopted by tho Great Napoleon in his battles. 
The Bavarian! became inasttTS of B&zcilles at about 
10 A.K. after six hoars' fighting. Similar altapks 
waro made by the Saxons on tho other sidi*, and 
abortly after this the whole valley of tho Oivonna 
witli all the villages in it ai fur as Daiguy was held 
by tht •oldiers of tbeae two great Qennan races. The 
Freoeb artillery had httin oompellul to retreat to a 
now position St Balan, and all possibUi^ of the 
X^rtnefa being able to bri'ak through on ihetr side vaa 
at an end. At this juncture tba Km^aor rode bodt 



to Sedan, passing througli Balan, hiding tliat he was 
neglected on the field of battle and that his physical 
powers were exhausted. He had to force hia way 
through crowds of runaway troops, who were taking 
refuge in the fortress; shells were falling in the 
streets, and as the Emperor rode into the town a 
shell exploded just in front of him, killing his horse. 
In the meantime, to the north-west, the Prussian 
troops had occupied St. Menges and Fleigneux, and 
were directing a terrible artillery fire on the French 
divisions who were defending Floing and Illy. At 
midday the French were so completely surrounded 
that only two means of escape remained to them, 
either to break out between Givonne and Fleigneux 
and reach the Belgian frontier, or to cross the Meuse 
into the suburbs of Torcy and fight their way through 
the enemy to Rheims. The boldest general might 
well hesitate before adopting either of these course 



in. After wiiuing an hour for an answer 
impffen rode first to Givonne and then to Balun, 
but found that in both places his troops had re- 
treated. Alone and without a staff, and having no 
troops to command, there was nothing left for him 
bat to retire into the fortress of 8edan as others had 
done before him. It was now S p.ilj broken bodies 
of the French were filing in all directions, some to 
th« wood of Garonne, some to Sedan. The Prua- 
aians advanced against the wood and took man; pria- 
onera; some even pressed up to Sedan, where they 
were exposed to the fire of the fortrcaa, but they snc- 
eeeded in cutting off the retreat from a number of 
Fronch detachmenta. 

Half an hour tat«r General Dacrot rodo into the 
town, and everything which met hia gaze induced 
him to abandon hop& The streets and squares were 
blockod with guns, and with waggons of every de- 
scription, hordes of Boldiers who had thrown away 
tbeir arms and knapMicks rushed into the houses in 
search of food and to the churches for shelter. 
There was nothing Ix-foro him but A rliflotic mob, 
calling out " Treachery " and tlireatening to kill 
tbeir officers. Ducrot found the Emperor at the 
SoDa-Pr6fecture in a state of deep dejection and per- 
fectly bt^leas. lie had already hoisted a wliite 
flag on the citadel, but it bad been taken down by 
tbs orders of Ocnoral I'aure, chief of the staff. An> 
otbsr flag of truce was sent and Wimpffen rooeived 
tba Emperor's orders to eeaao firing and to open 
MgottatioQB, but being determined to make another 
att«mpt to break through the lines be positively re- 
fBNd to ob^. B« majoafed to get togvthcr a force 



of about two thousand nion, and, accompanied by 
two guna, got as far as Balan, but soon afterwards, 
as be was riding at the head of the column, be looked 
round and fouud that all his men had disappeared, 
so that he was forced to retire to Sedan. 

At about 5.30 p.m. the King of Prussia sent 
Colonel Eronsart von Schellendorf to Sedan with a 
flag of truce, to summon the French commandant 
to capitulate. On entering the Prefecture, to his 
great astonishment he found himself face to faco 
with the Emperor, whom ha did not know to bo in 
the fortress. The Emperor had apparently just 
WTitten a letter to the King in the following termBi 
" i^ot having been able to find death in the midst 
of my soldiers, nothing remains for me but to de- 
liver my BWord into the hands of your majesty." 
This letter was carried by the Emperor's own aide- 



the Emperor's presence, which wu ended by the Em- 
peror conuuaiiding WimptTcn to proceed to Don- 
dier; and discuss ibc details of the surrender, an 
•nuistico having been previously concluded which 
waa to last till 4 A.M. on Scptembor 2. Thu discuasiou 
with regard to the terms of the capitulation lasted 
throughout the night Wimpflen asked that hia 
Army tnt^l bo allowed to retreat with arms and 
baggn^ promifliog not to serve against the Uerman 
•noiei agftin till tlio end of the war; Moltko inaistod 
apoa the nnconditional surrender of the whole army 
U prUonont of war. When Wimpffen tlircatoned to 
renew the struggle he was reminded that hia army 
wu decimated, that he had food only fur forty-eight 
booTB, and that, if he did not consent, a Sro of three 
faundrod gima should bo o})ened upon Uio city and th« 
troopa aa soon aa the armistioo expired. 

The Qoxt morning the council of war which aa- 
•emhled at Sedou at 7 a. it. agreed that no other 
eourao waa poasiblo except to sign the capitulation on 
tlte terms proponed, and it was only by the personal 
intervention of the Emperor that in wnsidcration of 
tbo brave defence made by the French army, the 
feneraU, ofliocrs and military employes holding the 
rank of ofllcer wero excepted from tbe capitulation 
em condition of giving tiieir word of honour in 
vrltiiig not to aorve during the pn:9«Rt war, or to 
let in any way oonlrary to the intereats of Oer- 
many. The Kmporor met thu King of PntaBia at the 
OhAtoaa of BcUevitle, and it was arranged that h« 
iboold reeidc at tbe Palaoe of WiUMlmabobe, near 
OumI. ao long aa be remaiiied a priaoner of war. 
On the following day he drove to tJw Belgian town 



of Bouillon, and when he entered his quarters wai 
crying bitterly. 

The French prisoners of war, after laying down 
their arms, were taken to a tongue of land at Iges, 
which is surrounded on three sides by the ^ense, 
there to await their removal to Germany. Unfor- 
tunately they underwent great su£Ferings, as the rain 
converted the ground on which they bivouacked into 
mud. There was also a deficiency of food, as the 
French had none whatever, and the Germans were 
hardly able to produce eighty thousand more rations 
than they required for themselves. A strange 
feature of the capitulation was formed by the French 
cavalry borsea, which had been let to run loose. Ten 
thousand of them forming into one or two large 
bodies, galloped wildly over the country like a hurri- 
cane, doing much damage in their course. Many of 
them foueht together with their hoofs and teeth and 


prisoners, besides seven thousand men ind fire hun- 
dred horses which escaped into Belginm, making the 
total French losses in September forty-one tboosand 
men, considerably more ihan half tbeir entire force. 
By the capitulation of September 3 eigbty-three 
thoosand men surrendered as prisoners of var, in- 
cluding the wounded and the non-oombatants. 
Among the prisoners were 2,866 officers, inolndiog 
Uarshal MacHahon and for^ generala. 

As one portion of the French aimy was shut up in 
Metz and the other had been compelled to capitulate 
at Sedan, there was no further obstacle to the ad- 
vance of the third and fourth armies on Paris. In- 
deed the orders for the advance were signed within 
an hour after the conclusion of the capitulation and 
the troops commenced their march on September 8. 
It was thon^t by many and hoped by more that the 
war might now be considered at an end, but this was 
not to be the case. The Empire was overthrown on 
September 4; the government of the S^;ency was 
compelled to ily and the Republic was proclaimed, 
taking as its motto, "La Guerre k outrancel" — a 
war which lasted for six months, until it ended 
favourably for the German armies by the defeat of 
the republican forces and the capture of Paris. 




Thk new Bepnblican government proclaimed by 
tbe mouth of Jules Favre its programme to be, " Not 
a foot of our territory, nor a stone of our fortresses." 
When the battle of Sedan took place Gloneral Vinoy 
was on his way from Chalons to Mezigres with Mac- 
Hahon; but on hearing of the defeat he returned 
to Paris, collecting a certain number of etra^lers 
on his way. His troops formed the hemel of the 
army of defence with which Troohu expected to 
protect the forts and the capital from the advancing 
enemy. Besides this were collected all arm-bearing 
people who could be of any kind of use — ^marines, 
ctistom-house officers, fire brigades, gamekeepers, 
policemen both horse and foot, discharged soldiers — 
eo that the whole number amounted to four hundred 
thousand. In the meantime the two armies which 
had fought at Sedan were on the march to Paris 
under the command of the Crown Princes of Prussia 
and Saxony. On September 5 General Tumpling 
concentrated tlio whole of the sixth army corps in 
Itheims, and on September 15 tbe King visited the 
same city before establishing his headquarters at 

The agitation in Paris became more riotous aa 
the population saw that the city was being gradually 



iTMtoil, ibo Crow-n Prmco of Saxony occupying the 
' right bank of the Seine and tlie lower Mame on the 
line from Argcnteuil by Montmapiy and Blano 
Uenil, and through the wood of Bondy to Qoamay ; 
and iho Crown Prince of Prussia with the third 
army the left bank of the Si-ine from Gournay to 
IJonncntl, Choiay-le-Roi, Tbiais, Chevilly, Bceaux, 
Meudon, Sevres, aud Bongival. The two armies 
touched each olher at tfao peniusnla of Argenteuil. 
The foro«B occupied in this itiveetmont, which 
erentually by roinforccmenta reached the number of 
two hundred and fifty thousand, were divided in such 
■ way that the PruRitiaus occupied the north and 
west, the Bavarians the eouth, the Saxons the east, 
while the WiirtcmhorfjreTK watched the Une of for- 
troMM. AftLT the combaU of Petit-Bicfitre and 
CUtillon on September ID tlio inveatmcnt waa oom- 
plole^ six army norpa oocupyinf; a space of fifty miles, 
and standing in aome places within the firo of the 

Under the rcigiiH of Louis Philippe and Napoleon 
in. Paris had been convrrtrd into a fortress of tho 
first rank, ito rirrr line n{ defences being enmpoeed 
of oitMity-four armed bastions, its second line by ft 
eircle of advan««d fort^, well provided with garrisona 
and gutiA, one of which, M<<nt Valcricn, was rc^ardud 
fts imprejETUiblc ; and beeidea tho double row of de- 
fences, tb« hills sun>auding Parin wore fumiehcd 
with cDtreoehments and redoubts, all connects] with 
e«cb other. The Gentians placed tlieir eontidenco 
in famioo, and believed tltat if they carefully cut off 
all nippliee of food, n popnlatiou of two millions, 
majif of whom were accustomed to luxury and self* 



indolgence, coold not hold out for rery long. Gnat 
pains were therefore taken to make Uie lines of io- 
vestment impenetrable. 

Paris and Itetz were not the only cities vhidi 
were being besi^ed by the Qerman armies. On 
September 23 Toul, an ancient city of Lorraine^ 
which formed with Metz and Verdon the "three 
bishoprics" which wera the first territory trans- 
ferred from the Teutons to the French, capitulated 
after a terrible bombardment. Thepoasession of this 
city opened for the Germans direct railway commnni- 
cations with the Rhine, and a few days later, on Sep- 
tember 27, Straaburg, the great frontier city of the 
Kbine, the most important acquisition of Louis XVX, 
fell into the hands of the Germans, having held out 
since August 10, It la not our purpose to relate 
the details of these sieges, which resemble each other 
in the endurance and the suffering of the defenders 



for brpaphing. This was done by curved fire at a 
thuiuand yards' distance, when the vail to be 
breached could not be seen, but only sscertained by 
carvful measurement. Also the enemy's mines were 
unloaded and then used for the careful observation 
of the enemy's works. 

After Strasburg had fallen General von Werder 
was sent with the fourteenth army corps to reduce 
the louthern part of Alsstia from Schlettstadt to 
Belfort, and to clear out the Mobiles and the Free 
Corps from the passes of tlio Vo«ge«. On October 
6 King William transferred his headquarters from 
Ferri^re*. the lu:<urious chateau of the Rothechilds, 
to Versailles, the ancient jtalace of the Bourbon 
Idnp, and from this centre the siego of Faris was 
eoodneted. On October 13, ISTO, the Chateau of 
St. Cloud, so notable in French history, was set on 
fire by tlie jirojectiles of the French themselvea, and 
the Oormans had the greatest ditBculty in proscrvinfr 
tbfl Taloable objects and the worlu of art contained 
in the rooms. A few days later the [m[>erial Palace 
of Malmaison, with all its treasures, waa destroyed 
in ■ sortie. 

A tkew ebaracter was g:iven to the strugglo on 
Otiober 7, 1870, by L&m Oambctta, a man of genius 
•nd mnarktblo energy, who bad left Paris in a 
balloon, joining the Provisional Government at 
Toars; bo nwd every effort to rouse the eoootr; 
tf^inst the invaders, and to compel the reUrement 
of the bcsiegin); army. F>»r ihi* purpose France, 
with the exception of Paris, was divided into fonr 
fOTvnunonts, that of the north onder Boorbold with 
IrflU {or iu capita], that of tho south under Fi«reck 



in Lo Mans, that of the centre nn<5er Pohlfs xn 
Bourges, and that of the east under Canibriels in 
Besancon, and that eleven camps of instruction and 
defence ehould be formed for resistance against the 
enemy. AJso two armies named respectivelj from the 
Loire and the Sonune were to advance npon Paria 
and be assisted by sortiea made under the direction of 
Trocha, who was militaiy commandant of the cap- 
ital. This policy gave rise to the sorties of October 
13 and October 21, the first in the sontb and the 
second in the west, and the more important attack on 
Lg Boiirget to the north-east which took place on 
Octol)er 28. The French succeeded in driving the 
Germans from Le Bonrget and holding it for two 
days, but they were eventually driven back after an 
obstinate engagement. There were great difficulties 
in keeping up communications between the capital 



of cmplo^vinf; 1.1ie armj of Metz for the roatoration of 
tbe £niptro ; but the history of tJiCso is imperfectly 
known. Tbese neKotifttions led to no result, and 
Bftzaine vnm at last compelled to capitulate on 
■iniiliir tonna to the rrench army in Sedun, when 
his troops }>ad been brouf^bt to the verge of starva- 
tion, and his available troops had been reduced in 
niini1)ors by sicknesa to seventy thousand. Qpneral 
Cban^rnier arranged the terms by which Metz and 
itR fortifications, with arms, mnnitions of war, and 
provieions, were delivered to the enemy, and the 
whole army, including three marshals, JJazuiuc, 
Oanrobert, and Lebceuf, six thousand ofRcera, and 
more than one hundred and fifty thousand soldiers, 
beeune prisoners of war. The disamiomeut took 
place on October S0 and 27 in a nrnadow on the road 
bot«««>n -Tamy and Metz. In reeognition of this 
crowning mercy the Crown Prince and I'rinw? Fn^l- 
erick Charles of Pmssia were made Field-marshala, 
■nd Moltke was created a Count. 

In the last month of 1870 the northern half of 
France from the Jura to the English Channel, from 
the frontier of Relgiom to the Loire, wa» ono broad 
battlefield. Of the foreec set free by the fall of 
ICoU, part remained behind aa a gnrri»on nndor 
Oeoeral von Zaiitrriw, with tlie additional object of 
attacking Thionvillc, and part marelied to the north 
under the command of ManteuffM to occupy Plranly 
■nd Konnandy and to prevent the army of General 
Bonrbaki from approaching Paris. A tbird division 
joined tbo second army, whose eommandt-r Prince 
rrvderiek Ohsrlca had hi> headquarten in Troyei, 
id, anpported on tbe right by the troopa of Voa 



der Tana, and the Duke of Mecklenbnrg-Schwmo 
and on the left by the forces of General Werdw," 
made head oo the one side sgainat the French army 
of the Loire, and on the other against the free corps 
of Garibaldi in the east. A fourth contingent went 
to strengthen the besi^ng forces around Paris; and 
other detachments were sent against the fortresses of 
the north. 

In conseqnence of these movementB, Soissons sur- 
rendered on October 16, Verdun on November 8, 
Thionrille on November 24, Ham on December 10, 
Phalzbourg on December 12, and Montmedy on 
December 14, Mezieres fell on January 2, 1871. 
The garrisons of all these fortresses were sent as 
prisoners to Grermany, and the spoil which they con- 
tained went to swell the possessions of the con- 
querors. Tho little mountainous fortress of Bitach 




Rpaniards, and Poles. With considerable difficulty 
Dijon, tlio ancient capital of Burgundy, waa cap- 
tured on October 31, 1870, and was occupied by 
Prince William of Baden with the view of prevont- 
iag the Germans from being interfered willi in their 
proMCUtiou of the iniixtrtant fortress of Bclfort. 
Bat he was several times compelled to evacuate it 
by the prwiaure of the aniiy of the East, and the 
attack on Chatillon-sur-Seine, made by RicciottJ 
Garibaldi on the night of November 20, showed to 
what dan^rs the invading army were expo94Ml. 

Gambetta had now to succeed in involving the 
whole French nation in tlie struggle ftgain^l the Ger 
mans and in making tlie annihilation of the enemy ft 
nationil duty. This added very largely to the cruel 
nature of the war, and the outrages against German 
troDi« had lo be put down hy aevere reprisals. The 
cavalry regiments, which wore sent in the month of 
October in a Houthcrly direction to examim? thw 
couBtiy between the Seine and tLo I.oire, and to 
taakt requisitions, fell in with the rearward of th« 
army of the Loire, under General do la !bIutterouge, 
vho was marching to the relief of Paris. The 
Crown Prince, hearing that they w»ro in Toury, be- 
tween OrI£ana and fitampat, tent againnt them Gen- 
eral TOD der Tann with the first Bavarian anny 
oorpa and some North German troops. They came 
np with the rear of the mtreating French at Artenay 
on October 10, and compelled (hem to fight in the 
forest of OrUaoa, and on tho following day look pofr 
aession of th« town. Mott^rooge was deprived of bi> 
CNmunand by Qambetta, who traoAferred it to Au- 
icUm do Paladinca, who bad scrred ia Africa, tho 
rimea, and Italy. 




The new commander got together the various con- 
tingents, which had been formed and practised in tlie 
several camps of inBtruction, and set himself not only 
to recover the lino of the Loire, but to crosa tlie 
stream at varioua points, and to carry out the original 
plan of a march on Paris. Although great pains 
were taken to conceal theso movements, they came to 
the ears of Von der Tanu. In order that his flank 
might not be turned be evacuated Orleans on 
November 8, leaving his sick behind him in the 
charge of the municipality, as be hoped to return- 
General Wittich also, who had captured Chateau- 
dun with great sacrifice on October IS, was ordered 
to retreat to Cbartres. A severe battle took place at 
Coulmiera on November 10, in which the French 
were much superior in numbers, and Von der Tann 
had some difficulty in effecting bis retreat to Tourv, 


Bat hiB principal hope for the salvstion of France 
and the deliTerauce of Paris from the iron ring which 
enolosed her was in the Anaj of the Loire, and the 
energetic leadership of Aurellee de Paladinea. But 
as before enthuaiasm and zeal were no match for 
discipline and experience. The German troops 
in the neighbourhood of the Loire were united in a 
single army under the command of the Grand Duke - 
Frederick Francis of Schwerin. A week after the 
disastrous retreat of Tour; be inflicted sooh defeats 
at Drcux, at Cbutcauncuf, at Bignj, and in the forest 
of St Jean, uiKtn the bodies of the Gardes Mobiles, 
who onder General Fi6rock were attempting to join 
the armj of the Loire, that he not only prevented the 
threatened junction, but created such dismay amongst 
the lines that Keratry laid down his command and 
Fi^rock had to be superseded. 

The Grand Duke now received orders to move 
further to the east and to join the Second Army under 
PriiKw Frederick Cliarles. The result of dtis was 
the indecisive battle of Beaune la Rolande, fought 
on November 28, 1870, north-cast of the forest of 
Orleans, in which tbe French were as numerous 
as tbe Germans. Both sidea were fully aware of 
tbe great importance of the battle, and of tbe in- 
fluence it would have in the progress of the war. 
It was therefore contested with tbe utmost enei^, 
and the losses on cither side were proportionately 
great. The Germans, however, gained the victory 
and tbe French were foiled in this design of penetrst- 
ing to Paris by way of Fontaineblean. Further at- 
tempts to push through to tbe west were repelled by 
■ number Ckf engaj[caicnts fought by the Grand Buke 



of Mecklenburg-Schwerin between Artenay and 
Chatcawdun, the most important of -which waa tlie 
battle of Loigny fought on December 2, the great 
day of the fallen Empire. The French were com- 
pelled to retreat with great loss, but the loBsea on the 
German side had also been considerable, and their 
difficulties were increased by the endless exertions 
caused by the nature of the marshy soil, now 
thoroughly soaked with rain, and by the cold of 
winter which now began to make itself felu 





Tbociiu, who commsmled at Paris, was not 
tgnorsnt of the oCForts which wore being made to re- 
lieve him. He did bia best to second them hy re- 
peated aortica, to the south and the west. But the 
poeaibilily of relief from the side of the Loiro 
WM gradually coming to an end. The day after the 
battle of Loigny the French were driven back from 
Poupry, and the result of four days' fighting on 
the bonks of the Ix)ire aixl the edge of tlie tliiek 
foreat which protocta the city was that the French 
were driven from llie centre whii^h tht-v bad held 
M> long, were compelled to retire to the »nith, antl 
that the Qermans entered Orl&uia on Deoerober 4. 
The atleniptx made by Trocbu at the same time to 
break through the lines uf investment and to join 
the tnny of the Loire in the foreat of Fontainnblesn 
were also repulsed. It is impossible to oonteinplato 
wltlurat a deep feeling of pathoa tbo result of tbosa 
pasaionate efforts of the French, everywhere enisboJ 
hj the iron hand of their retentleaa foe, which r«* 
•emble tlie vtru^lcs of i victim in the arms of the 
mnrdercr who is strangling bim. 

By the capture of OrU^ans a Urge namber ff 
priAoneni and mncH l)Ooty fell into the hrada of the 
UtinuAuB, and tho romaius of the irmy of the Loire 



retired down the river to Blois. Bishop Dupan- 
loup, who had made himself conspicuous hv the 
energy of his patriotism, was made a prisoner in hia 
palace, and hia cathedral was turned into a receptacle 
for French prisoners. Gambetta was nearly tskea 
prisoner on his way from Touts to the field of battle. 
He waa dissatisfied with the manner in which Aurelle 
de Paladines bad conducted the campaign and re- 
lieved him from his command. Gambetta now con- 
ceived the plan of forming bis lines in two divisiona, 
one of which should operate towards the east, under 
the command of Bourbaki, who had surrendered the 
charge of the Army of the North to General Paid- 
herbe, while the other under Chanzy should under- 
take the duty of expelling the enemy from the lower 
and middle Loire. For the purpose of conducting 
these operations with greater freedom the seat of 



January the nnited armies of Prince Frederick 
CbulM and the Grand Dnke of Meckleuburg- 
Sdiwenn, numbering more Uiau eevenly tbousand 
mea, advanced agBinst Clianzy's arm; of the west 
In tbo lutdat of tlie paralysing cold of an unusually 
MTore winter the Oormane pursued the French over 
twelling fields, whose surface was ooTered with snow 
and slippery ico. shot down by the franca-tireura who 
lay in ambush Ix-liind every liodgo and every wall, 
winning slowly, by patient efforts, bill after hill and 
Si'ld after fielil. It would be useless to repeat tho 
lefl of the placwi lying between the Loire and the 
l>oth, tnado memorable by their engagements. The 
IfctAtve battio took place at tho gates of Le Mans on 
Fannary H and 12, and the Camp of Conlic was 
captured on January 15. Chansy was oompellud to 
retire to Lava!, where ho attempted to reorganieo 
the relics of his aniiy, and the Germana pressed for- 
ward to Alen5on. 

It was an eosontial part of the French plan that 

tho altcmpU to break through the line of inTeatmeot 

fn^m ■without ahould be seconded by energetic aortiea 

fxora within. In order to effect this object they had 

eroded on tho heights of Mont Arron, to the east of 

^^tab, in front of tho fort* of Nogent and Itoany, 

^^Hb batteries aniied with heavy pieces of tiego 

^Hrdnanee in order ti> bombard tho villagv4 occupii^U by 

^Hw Saxons and Wiirtembergera, General Duerut hod 

HEileoted tliia region as best adapted for a sneccwful 

ODtbreak, and ho declared in a proclamation that be 

would ntum from the attjuk either as oooqneror 

or a oorpM. He directed feigned umqIu on the 

German positions to tho tooth aud to Um ourth in 



order to divert the attention of the enemy, while he 
pressed beyond Vincennes with his main force in 
ironclad railway trains, armed with cannon, in order 
to reach unobserved the objective on which his de- 
signs were directed. Under the protection of a 
terrible cannonade from Hoot Avron and the forts of 
Charenton and Kogent he threw eight bridges across 
the Mame, and with largely superior numbers fell 
upon the villages of Brie, Champigny, Yilliers and 
Noisy. On November 30 the Germans defended 
their position for a whole day, but at approach of 
evening were compelled to evacuate Brie and Cham- 
pigny, which, however, were recovered on the fol- 
lowing day with the assistance of the Pomeranians 
under Franseeky. In these engagements and in other 
combats which ensued on December 2 and 3 the Ger- 
mans lost six thousand two hundred men, and the 
French enioyed the triumph of marching a number 



d»vg later, by the capture of Dieppe, the Germans 
reached the shores of the English Chatmel, the 
French army taking; refuge in Lo Havre. Ten dava 
later the repulse of a great sortie organised by Trochu 
■t Le Bonrget, already the scone of murderous con- 
flicU, gave the Germans an opportunity of celebrat- 
ing tlicir Christmas in compnrotive peace; but 
Christmas Eve witnessed the long contested and 
■anguinary battle of Hullue, At Bapaumo after 
two days' fighting, on January 2 and 8, 1871, the 
victory remained uncertain, the French retreating to 
the north and the Germans to the south. The de- 
parture of ilanteuffel for the army of the east in- 
spired FaiJhcrbe with new courage. Reinforced by 
lb arrivals of marines and gardes mobiles, he 

ermined to make an attack on the lines of invest- 
ITe Buffered, however, a serious defeat at SL 
tin on January 19, and that important fortress 
lost to the French. 

The bombardment of Paris, which had been so 
long deferred, was now begun on tho day after 
Christmas Day, and increased ten-fold the distreaa 
of the besieged citizens. The Parisians had believed 
that an effectual bombardment at so |^>at a distanca 
WW impoHtblo to carry out, but when ehells were 
aeoi to fall in tho heart of Paris, in the Lnxemboarg, 
the ehorcb of Saint Sulpice and tho Pantheon, and 
whan pwnons were killed by thom in the Rue dn 
Bob and the Faubourg St. Germain, there waa a 
era) outcry against the barbarians who had tfaa 

dacity to destroy tho metropolis of clviliaalion. 
Trochu waa now driven againat bia better judgment 




to make one last effort. On Jannary 19, tlie day 
after the King of Prussia had been proclaimed Em- 
peror in tlie palace of Versailles, the whole of ths 
available French forces, one hundred thoasand strong, 
marched in the direction of Meudon, Sevres, and St 
Cloud for the final struggle. Vinoy commanded on 
the left, Ducrot on the right, whilst Trochu directed 
the whole advance from the commanding posi- 
tion of the observatory. Tinoy'a column succeeded 
in gaining possession of the Grerman entronchnienta 
at Montretout; but Ducrot was hindered in his ad- 
vance by the barricades which had been erected in 
the streets of Paris and was unable to give support 
at the proper time. After an obstinate fight of seven 
hours' duration the French were driven back into 
their capital with a loss of seven thousand men, and 
on the following day Trochu demanded an annis- 



ex<y>ptton of Pas-do-CalAt3 and Nord. The ceaaa- 
tion of anns in tbe departments of the Coto-d'Or, 
Poube, Jura, and at llelfort was deferred for tlia 
prawnt, for reasons which will soon be &]>parent 
An-angement3 were made for the election of a 
Natiutial Assembly which waa to decide on the ques- 
tion of war and peace, and which was to meet at 
Bordeaux. The whole of the Paris forts were to be 
immediately surrendered, and tlic fortifications were 
to bo depnTcd of their means of defence. All the 
French troops in Paris were to bo considered prison- 
en, with the exception of twelve thousand which 
were left for the security of the capital. They wero 
to remain for the present within the walls of the 
tavm, their arms being surrendered. The National 
Guard ud the gendarmes were allowed to retain 
their arms for purposes of police; but all tho 
Free Corps were disbanded. Meaenrua were taken 
for the provisioning of Paris. No one might leave 
tlio capital without the joint permission of the French 
and Oermans; and tho umuicipulity of Paris was to 
pay a contribntion of two hundred million fruDCs 
within fourt«en days. All German prisoners were 
to be immediately exchanged for a corresponding 
nnmbor of French prisoners. 

Tliii lengthy but momentous story is now nearly 
at an end. Oarobetta formed a plan by which Uuui^ 
bftki, perhaps the mwt wimpetent of tho French 
nerals, ehould with that portion of the Army of 
' Loire, which after the second oonqueet of OrUans 
rettred tn BoiirgM, move eaatwardt toward* 
Kerets, and gathering to itaelf what reinforoementt 
it otmld command, throw himaeU on the Q«rmu 



coininunieations, set free Belfort and the district of 
the Upper Rhine, and carrv fire and sword into the 
monntaLus of Baden, and the valleys of the Black 
Forest Telegraph wires were to be cut, railways 
broken up and bridges destroyed, so that the retreat 
of the Germans towards the Khine might be cut oS. 
In pursuance of these plans the bridge over the 
Moselle at Fontanoy was broken down on January 
22, 1871, so that railway communications were in- 
terrupted for ten days. 

To frustrate these plans General Werder wai 
posted at Dijon with twenty-eight thousand men, 
whilst Bourbaki was hastening with one hundred 
and fifty thousand by way of Eesan^on and Mont- 
belaird, to raise the siege of Belfort, and to invado 
Alsace. Werder was compelled to abandon Dijon, 
which was immediately occupied by Garibaldi. After 

THE snsoB or PABia. 47s 

dition, htlf-«Urved and scarcely like hmnon beings, 
CRMsed the frontier and laid down their arms, the 
Swiss doing their utmost to supply their wants. This 
was the fourth French army, the other three being 
those of Sedan, Uets, and Paris, which had been 
rendered useless for further combat since the Ger- 
man inrasion in the previous August. 

Belfort, which had been bo nobly defended by its 
commandant Treekow, capitulated by the orders of 
the French QoTemment on February 16, under the 
condition that the garrison should march out with 
the honours of war. Ten days later the preliminaries 
of peace were signed at Versailles between Bismarck 
and Jules Farre. Thus ended one of the most re- 
markable wars in history, marked by twenty-three 
battles and an endleu number of lesser engagements. 
Never before had such large masses of men been seen 
in conflict At Qravelotte the numbers were 270,000 
■gainst 210,000, at Sedan 210,000 against 150,000. 
The losses of the Qermatie were calculated at 5,254 
officers and 112,000 men; those of the French in 
killed, wounded, and prisoners almost defy enumera- 
tion. The number of German prisoners captured by 
the French did not exceed 10,000; whereas at least 
400,000 unarmed Frenchmen crossed the Rhine as 





The Emperor Alexander II,, bariiig detenruned, 
for reasons which seemed soScient to himself, M 
make war on Turkej, left St, Peterabni^ for tbe 
army and arrived at Kisheneff. the capital of Kn* 



On May 32 Prince Charles of ICoiunania dow as- 
hiniaelf to be indepcDdcDt of the Porte, and 
aaroh«d at the head of an army into the field in 
order to aasbt the Euasians in fighting against the 
Sultan, bis former suzerain. At the same time othur 
Rnasian armies crossed the Turkisb frontier in Asia, 
taldiig Bojazid without striking a blow, and Btomi- 
ing Ardahan on the upper Kur. The flotilla wbich 
tfae Turks were ki^piug on the Dannbe was bain- 
pcred by batteries along the shore, and still more 
hf torpedoes, which were employi;d with great effect 
in this war; and two ironclad vessels were blown up. 

Owins to the n^ligenoe of the Turkish general, 
Abdul Kerim, the Ruasiane had little difficulty in 
cnasin^ tho Dnniibo ut GalaUt, and in occupying 
the Mrong placefl of ^tatshin, Isaktcha, Tulcha, 
Babadoitfa, and UirsoTa, whilst tbo Turks withdrew 
to tlw line between CbernaToda and KuBUTodji, while 
the main army crossed the same river at various 
points botwcim Simnitxa and SintoTa, and compelled 
the Turks to rotreut partly to Nicopolis and partly 
to Timora. Tho Emperor placed his beadquartera 
at Sistova, and from this place issued on June 27 a 
manifesto to the Bulgarian ChriHtians annoonciog 
that be bad come to set tbem free from Muasnlmaa 

Tbos in t«R weeks from tbe openim; of bostilitin 
the Rnsaions bad rvLablii^hi'd thom^clvM on the 
■oothem bank «i tbe Danube, with a lose which was 
Ontirely insignificant in proportion to tbe magni- 
fade of their mocess. In the first days of July they 
in poMHsioD of all tho ootutry from 




to Gabrova, which lies at the foot of the Shipfci 
Pass over the Balkans, and Prince CherheaW wbj 
entrusted with the government of the province of 
Biilgftria. On July 16, four days after the entry 
of the Russian anny into Timova, the important 
fortress of Nicopolia fell into Russian hands, aii 
thousand men and two pashas being made prisoners, 
and forty gnns being captured. Soon after this the 
towns of Selvi and IJevatz were occupied, while Gen- 
eral Gourko and Prince ilirski made themselves 
masters of the Shipka and the Hankoi Passes, On 
reaching the southern elope of the Balkans the Rua- 
eian cavalry pressed on by way of Eshi-Sagra, Kara- 
bunar and Jamboli as far as Harmanli, which lies be- 
tween Adrianople and Philippopolia and encamped io 
the valley of the Maritza. These rapid successa 
seemed to point to the probability that in a few weeki 



crisis, and began to understand how much her in' 
tcrests had been sacrificed by the generals she had 
emplojed. Abdul Kcrim, tho Conuuanderin-Ch iof , 
and Kedif Piuha, the ^lini^ter of War, were deprived 
of their positions and were banishod to Lomnos; 
Ifrhtanot AU Pasha, of European origin, was in- 
Tested with tlio conunaiid of the army of the Danube, 
■nd 0«mnn Pusha, the Comniandnnt of Widdin, oe- 
eupied the town of Plevna with thirty thousand men, 
and fortified it in such a manner as to make it a 
oentre of aerions resistance. Osinan Pasha's anny 
was soon increased by roinforcctnent^ to the number 
of fifty thousand; and besides this the Turks were 
niperior to tbi? Russians in armaments. Two at- 
ipt« of the Kussians to capture Plevna faileil, one 
July 20 and the other ten days later. The first 
fut was due to the fault of the Uu.-(sian general, 
lio, having no accurate knowledge of the strength 
poaition of the enemy, and without any rcacrrea 
store, led his troops to the assault alonp two line^ 
rbich had nocommunioulion with each othor, against 
an eocmy which he afterwards discovered to be mora 
tbao four times hia strength. The second attack 
under Kriidener also ended in complctA failure. The 
Rtuiian lona in the second battle of July 30 was little 
lev than eight thousand, of whom two thousand four 
hundred were left dead upon tho field; the lou in 
tbe first battle had bitcn acarccly three thousand. 

Od boaring of these dcfoala the Grand Puko 
Kieholu remoTod hit headquarter* from Tirnova to 
Biela, and from thence to Gonrji-Studca> whithoc 
be was aooo followed by tbe Emperor. 




Tho decisive defeat at Plevna on July 30 l)itnig(il 
the KuBsiaii advance to a Btandstill, The Kussiana 
at tLia time occupied a position nearly elliptical in 
shape, from Nicopolis on the Danube to a point on 
the BaiQQ river near Rustchuk, the major axis of 
the ellipae being about eighty miles, tho minor axis 
sbout sixty. The six corps occupying this space had 
lost about fifteen thousand men, killed and wounded, 
since the opening of the campaign, their total 
strength was therefore about one hundred and 
twenty thousand infantry, twelve thousand cavalry 
and six hundred and forty-eight guns. Besides this 
there was a detachment under Zimmermann, on tlie 
Dobrudja, numbering about twenty-five thousand 
men. The Turks were posted outaide of this ellipse 
and occupied three points in force, Plevna, Teni- 
Zagi-a and Rasgrad, sitaated nearly at the angles of 



Uio nilitU waa called out, amounting to one hundred 
mnd eighty thousand men; they were to replHce iho 
lowes already Buffered in hatile and to be ready to re- 
place oUit-'rd which might afterwards occur. The 
PriooQ of Koumania waa called upon to put Iiis army 
in thu field, which consisted of thirty-two tliuuauitd 
infantry, five thousand cayalry.and eiphty-four guns. 
It waa now the moment for the Turks to strike a 
vigorous hlow, but the three commanders, Mebcmet 
All, Suleiman, and Osman, were all independent of 
eocii other, and were directed by means of telegraphic 
despatches by a War Council sitting at Constanti- 
aapl& The Ijcat plan would have been for Suleiman 
I to have united himself with Mehomet AU, gatlieriog 
^^n the garrisons of Shumla and Varna on his way. 
^^tlicy would then have been able to attack the Itus- 
^^Uan left wing witli one hundred and twcmty-fivc 
^^Pwtiund men and compelled them to release their 
liold of the Shipka Paaa. Suleiman, however, deter- 
mined insUtad to attack the Shipka Pftsa directly Id 
front, and in thia bo was supportod by the War 
ouiicil in tlio capital. Ho begun thia attack on 
o^at 20, and continued it for about four monlbs, 
with the sole result that ho sAcrificed the beat parts 
of bie army. 

It Hemed at tba boginniug ai if his alUek were 

likely to aocoeed. On August 23 th«i Rii!i»ian posi- 

tiona in the pans were nearly surrounclitl by the 

Turlta. The stmegle oontinuc<I during the wliole 

day, with seven tbotisand five hundred Russians 

agatnat tweo^-eight tlmuenml Turks. In ilu: after- 

BOOB tlte position of tho Kussiaiks became most criti* 

tbeir artillery ammunition was exhaiistoJ, aad 

leir loaua were enorniona. If tbc Turks cnuld 

.va Mtablishod thtuusolvcs in tlie rear of the Ru> 



sians and cut off their one line of communicatioB, a 
disastrous retreat or possibly a surrender was in- 
evitable. But reinforcement came up just at the 

critical moment and the Turks were driven back. On 
the following days further assistance arrived and the 
Turks were compelled to retreat Btill further; 
so after five days of nearly uninterrupted fight- 
ing both sides were much in the same position aa 
they were at the beginning. For three days 
less than eight thousand Kussians and Bulga- 
rians had held the army of Suleiman in check, 
their only food being the biscuits which they had in 
their pockets when they began. The heat was in- 
tense and the nearest spring was three or four miles 
in the rear. When the firing slackened they lay 
down on tlie ground and obtained a little sleep, but, 
aa the moon was full, the night brought no cessation 
of the firing. Beinforcementa arrived just as the 
men had reached the extreme limit of human en- 


deeign in riew ; possiblv from the ineompM«tlM of tiii 
officers. On September 38, however, be attacked 
the RquUq position near Cerkovioo, but was «ntir«ly 
defeated, and was compelled to retreat along liU 
whole line, bo that at the end of bis offensive niuvu- 
ment he had lost more men than tbe enemy and had 
not diverted a single Russian soldier either fn»m 
Plovna or from Shipka. On October 9 hn was aU{Ml^ 
■eded and Suleiman Pasha put in hia plaos. 





Tne chief attention of the Htissiaas was naturally 
directed towards Plevna, in which neighbourhood, 
at the end of August, they had assembled about one 
hundred and €re thousand men. As no more Rus- 
sian troops could be expected before the end of Sep- 
tember and as the season was advancing the Grand 
Ihike determined to attack at once. He was, how- 
ever, anticipated by Osmau, who on August 31 at- 
tacked him with about twenty-five thousand men. 
This sortie had no result except the sacrifice of one 
thousand Russians and tJiree hundred Turks, so 



•ad 54 horse artillery, tn which Oamaii could oppose ft 
force of 66,000 men, together wJtli 2,500 cavalry aud 
BO guns. Plevna is a Utile towu of about 7,000 iw 
babitanta, Iviug in a hullow eiirroiitiile<l hy hills of 
BBoderste hcighL It is the meeting- place of the 
roads leading to Widdia, Sophia, Shipka, Bida, 
Zimnitza, and Nicopolis, and therefore could not bo 
M^eeted witli safety by an invading army. Osinan 
ud ooonpicd hia tiine by carefully ft^rtlfyitig the 
town, and at the beginning of September it was pro- 
toeted by eigbteea redoubta and several lines of 
trenobes, the Qrivitza rt^Joubc being the koy of tiie po- 
sition in the north, and the Kischni redoubt in the 
•outli. The itiuxian atuck was made on St-ptoniber fl, 
the rwloubts were bombarded till September 11, when 
ageaeral assault was ordered. The restiltof this tliird 
battle of Plevna, aa it may be called, was a terriUo 
and murderous repulse, tho Bussian Iomch amounting 
to eighteen thousand men. It was a great disaster 
for ue Rossian anny, but, aa the sequel will show, 
was not irreparable; the eanse of it was, probably, a 
lack of unity in the comttinnd of the army. 

It was now drtprmiiicd to make no more usMaulla 
upon the works of Plevna, but to proceed to a rc^lar 
investmenL For this purpose the famous G^-neral 
Todltfbeu, the defender of Scbaatopol, was Bum- 
moned from St. Petersburg, arriving at Plevna on 
Sapbnnber S8. The inrestment was completed by 
Um end of October, bolug effected ehlcfly by tlia 
energy and akill of Onnoral Gourko, who after the 
hnr^ fonglit battle of Gorni Dnbnik drovo back the 
Tnrbi into the entrenchments, Osmaa Pasha being 
prevented by linmluneons attada from coming to Uw 
aasiatance of bis nountrrmen. 
■During these autumn montha the war was ntging 



iu other parts of the Turkish Empire. In Armenia 
the Turks succeeded in defending the fortresses of 
Kars and Batoum, and even forced the Russians to 
evacuate Bajazid, while General Tergakaaoff was 
compelled to retreat to the Kussian frontier. This 
defeat was, however, redressed in the middle of 
November when the Army of the Caucasus, in a 
second advance, after having fought a series of 
murderous battles, before the gates of Krzeroum, 
stormed the fortress of Kara, capturing seventeen 
thousand prisoners, including two pashas and eight 
hundred officers, as well as three hundred guns and 
twenty standards. In Montenegro Mehemet Ali 
and Suleiman Pasha had attacked Prince Nikita 
from three aides, and endeavoured to put down the 
insurrection which had broken out there with a strong 
baud. But the Prince captured the fortress of 
Kikiah on September 8, and then made himself 
master of the port of Spizza and the suburbs of An- 



th« exception of dceitltoiy artillery and picket 
firing, till December 10, but on both sides the work 
of fortifications continued without intermission til) 
the last moment. On November 1 7 the Grand 
Dnke sent a flag of tnice to Oaman Pasha, eummoa* 
ing him to surrender, but he replied that his military 
honosr would not allow him to do so. However, 
his provisions had now reached their last limit, a 
third of his army lay sick and wounded, rain and 
BDOw alternating for six weeks had made his trenches 
untenable, and desertions were increasing every day. 
He therefore determined to make an effort to break 
through the Russian lines with the object of reach- 
ing either Widdin or Sophia. During the nighta of 
Dceember 9-10 ho abandoned the Kischni and 
OnritCB redoubts, left a force of ton thousand mon in 
two other redoubts, Imilt two pontoon bridges by tho 
Bide of the regular bridge over the Vid, distributed 
ahout nix dajti' rations of bread and rice to his army, 
and with about forty thousand innde a furious at- 
tack upon the poitition held by the grenadiers on the 
Widdin road. He sucooedcd in carrying the first 
line of the Ttiutsian works, but by noon his army 
WM defeated and ho was himtwlf wounded, bo that 
there wna nothing left for him hut to surrender at 

The straggle between the Russian and the Turkish 
troop* bf^D at daybreak under the eye* of the Em- 
peror; the advanoed Russian linea wnro taken by the 
Turka at about 8.30 a.m. At about 1 1 a.u. the 
Turks were driven out again, and about noon Uiey 
began to retreat towards the Vid, keeping up > 
fltnnu[ fire againat the enemy. Tho Turkish cap- 
tsred gtnifl were now tamed aninst their formar 
owners. The Russian troops Mvauoud and turned 



the Turkish retreat into a rout; they were driTcn 
down to the Vid, huddled up with the carts of the 
baggage train which had left Plevna in the morning 
to the number of a thousand. About an hour later 
the Turks coold no longer continue the struggle and 
sent a flag of truco. General Ganetzky demanded 
the unconditional surrender of the whole Turkish 
army, to which Osman Pasha agreed. The Turks 
had lost in the battle about 6,000 men ; the numbers 
now surrendered were 10 pashas, 130 field officers, 
2,000 ordinaryofficers, 40,000 foot soldiers and 1,200 
cavalry, 77 guns, and large quantities of ammunition 
also fell into the possession of the conquerors. 

Lieutenant Greene, whose authority has been 
largely followed in the preceding narrative, says that 
Osman Pasha must be credited with a brilliant de- 
fence, because he succeeded in arresting the Rus- 
sian advance, and completely paralysed their whole 
id all their movements for five 

FLEVNA. 469 

then ooald bare saved bis country from an irrepar- 
able disaster. Whatever reasons Osman may have 
given for not taking this course, the probability ia 
that he had received the most positive orders from 
the War Council at Constantinople not to abandon 
Plevna, and that he did not dare to disobey them. 





Afteb the fall of Plevna the Turkish cause was 
far from being hopeless. They possessed one hun- 
dred thousand men in the neighbourhood of their 
principal fortresses, thirty thousand at Shipka, twenty 
thousand around Sophia, and fifteen thousand at 
Constantinople, besides a number of reserves in Asia. 
Their enemy had double their numbers, but the Rua- 
Bian lines of communication were five hundred miles 
long, cut into two portions by the Danube; much 
snow had already fallen, and the only good roads 
available for the Russian advance were those from 



Ple^-na had set free one hundred and ten thousand 
men. Scrvia bad declared war against the Turks 
immediately after the fall of Plevna, and had brought 
about twenty-five thousand soldiera into the field. 
General Todleben advised that the troops slionld he 
put into winter quarters to the north of the Balkans 
and the siege of Rustchnk proceeded wilh; when that 
important place had fallen tlie armies could cross 
tbe Balkans in the spring and advance upon CoD- 
ktantiaople. The Grand Duke Kicholas, however, 
nipported by SkohclefF and Oourko, determined to 
ero«s tlie Balkans at once before the Turks had had 
time to recover themselves. His plan was that 
Gonrko should force the Araba-Konab Pass, capture 
Sophia, and march by way of Pbilippopolis to 
Adriunoplo, whilst Hadctsky was to cross the Shipka 
Pan, defeating tbe Turks who were defi-ndin;; it, and 
join Gourko. tn the meantime the Tsarevitcli was 
to remain north of the Balkans, protect the Russian 
commaniealionB, and prosecute the siege of Ruat- 
ehtik with tbe help of Todleben. 

Oonrico bqgan his task with n force of sixty-five 
tbonsand infantry, six thousand cavalry, and two 
hundred and eighty giinx, hoving oppoaed to him a 
Tnrkiab army consisting of thirty-five thousand in- 
fantry, two thonminil cavalry, and about forty guns. 
nis plan was to nso his main force to turn the left 
flank of tbe Turkish jiositlon acrosa the high-road, 
leaving amaller bodies of troops in front of <<aeh of 
the Turkish positions. The lines of column were to 
niarch thirty-two miles in thirty-six hours over a 
paas oijrhteen hundreil feet above the valtcy, Wbao 
IM made these arrangements be beliuved that tbe road 
waa praoticable fur artillery, btit it wu fonnd that 
the gtuu eould not be draped hj bones, thej wn 

i u 



therefore taken to pieces and transported by hand, 
the operation being something similar to the passage 
of the Great St. Bernard by Napoleon. By Deeem- 
her 30 all the guna had arrived in the Curiah valley, 
put together foraction and harnessed; the left column, 
however, had iu its descent met with so terrible a 
storm that it was obliged to return to Etropol, 
having lost eighty-three men killed and eight hun- 
dred and ten permanently disabled by the frost 

The attack on Sophia was begun on the last day 
of the year, and Sophia was evacuated during tho 
night of January 3, 1878, the Turks abandoning all 
their tents, an immense quantity of ammunition, and 
al>out sixteen hundred sick and wounded- Thev 
also left behind them a sufficient amonnt of pro- 
visions to feed General Gourko's force for a month. 
This -was a very brilliant enterprise, and its aucceps 
was largely due to the Turks being ignorant of tho 
existence of the road thronffh which Gourko ad- 



ning iiwi_v before the battio with a considerable miin- 
ber of troops, leavini: ibe brant of the eiigngptncnt to 
bo siutnincii by Fund Pasha. After a aeries of en- 
gigemonta in which the Bnssians were f^uoceesfiJ, 
tb« main bnttio waa fought on January 17, Fuad 
Pashn having his back to tlic mountainft. The 
bstd* vu over nt nbout 3 p.m., and the Tnrka 
abandoned everrthiiig, climln'iig up ihe monntaina 
through the snow. Gonrko had thus sncccedcd in 
bia march from S<iphia to Pbilippopolis in entirely 
dcatrojF'ing Suleiman's amy, capturing one hundred 
and fonrtecn guns and about two thousand pnV 

Tha miaerablo rcmiunta of tli6 Turkish amiy 
mado their ways to tho shores of the ^^gean near 
Enoa, whence they were conveyed in transjKirta to 
tiM nmnber of about f^rly thousnnd to QaltipoU and 
Conatantinoplo. Suleiman wan arre<ited and tried 
hf oonrt-martial about a year afterwards. 

Anotber portion of the Grand DukeV plan was 
tiw ptMiga of the Shipka Pn»8. For this purpow 
Badrtaky divided his troops into three colnmns, the 
caatre of which, undor hia own command, was to re- 
main at the summit of the paaa, whilo the other two 
wvro to CKM tbfl mountains on either flank and at- 
tack the main pass from the south, while Kadetaky 
forced it from the north. The right column waa 
placed under the coromflnd of Skobclcil, and the loft 
mder Prince Kinky; the movement was to begin 
on January 5, and it waa ealcnlated that the columns 
woald Birivo in thn valley on the evening of January 
7 and attadc on the morning of January S. The 
■now was In many places t«n feet deep; it waa found 
therefore that the pcona eonld not be drawn in sIodgtM, 
and had to bo left behind, oooptiag tbe moontain 




guna which accompanied the eolumng. Prom hla 
position OD Mount St Nicholas Radetsky could see 
the Tillages bj which the columns were to debonch. 
Mirsky reached his objective on January 7, but 
Skobeleff was detained in the moimtains by ihe 
Turks, and Mirsky was compelled to attack the pass 
alone. Skobeleff was not in a position to attack 
the pass until 10 a.m. on January 9, and was able ta 
co-operate with Mirsky. The Turkish redoubts were 
carried in a brilliant manner, and the Turks be^an to 
run away. Just as Skobeleff was preparing to fol- 
low them a Turkish officer arrived with orders to snr- 
reuder the whole force. Twelve thousand men laid 
down their arms immediately, and by midnight the 
disarmament of the rest of the Turkish force was 
complete, the whole number who surrendered being 
thirty-six thousand men, of whom six thousand were 
sick and wounded. The Russian losses, however, 
were considerable. Greene considers that Skobeleff* 



the troops bad made much progress in their mov^ 
ments. The Russian cavalry, however, entered that 
city on January 20, and Skobcleff himself two daya 
afterwards. Then the ancient capital of Turkey and 
the second city of the Empire fell without a blow. 

Wo need not pursue this narrative further, or 
show how the Russians, having won every right to 
the occupation of Constantinople and the exaction 
of such terms as they pleiised from the Turks, wera 
deprived of their advantages by the action of tlia 
British Government, who only wnited for the con- 
elusion of the Treaty of San Stefano on March 3 to 
tCRT it up and Bul»titu(c for it the k-ss wise and 
Statesmanlike Treaty of Berlin. Whatever we may 
think of tlieir political defeat the Russian amiics had 
certainly covered tht-mselvos with glory. Between 
DccembcT 10, 1877, and January 31, 187><, fifty-ona 
days, tliey had marched over four huudn-d milea, bad 
cfimihmI a lofty range of mountains deep in auow, and 
lad fnufjhl three series of bnttlea resulting in the eai>- 
tore or dcetruclion of two Turkish armies. This bad 
been accomplished witli tlie Iosh of less than twenty 
thousand men, of whom half fell in l>atlle and the 
n»t succumbed to tbo rigour of the climate. Circcno 
attributes these results to the " almost boutidlcM 
^^atienco end oiLlurauce of the Itiweian soldiers. 
^B^'Uhout knapsacks, which were left on the other side 
^H( the Balkans, they marched, fought and slept id 
^Hbow and ice, and forded rivers with ttio Ihor- 
momoter at eero. Tht^y bad very little food and a 
heavy pack to carry, yot Ibero was not a single ease 
of iofltibordinntion, the men were in excellent apirila, 
•od the stragglers won few." 




Wab may be eaid to have broken out between the 
Spanish and American Oovemments on April 21, 
1898. The news was received with great joy in 
New York ; the Stars and Stripes were hung every- 
where acroBS the atreets and from the windows. 
Everywhere was seen the motto " Kemember the 
Maine." Steps were taken to meet the crisis. The 
American army, which, on a peace footing, consists 
of twenty-five thousand men, was now raised to 
aeventy-one thousand, while the President called for 
a volunteer force of one hundred and twenty-five 
thoufiand men. The first shot of the war was fired on 
April 23 at Key West, when the Spanish merchant 
ship Buena Ventura was captured by the Nashville. 
This was followed by the capture of the Vedro and 
other vessels who were not aware that war had been 
declared. President McKinley now announced a 
blockade of the northern coast of Cuba between Cai^ 
denas and Bahiatonda as well as of the harbour of 
Oienfuegos upon the south coast This was carried 
out by a squadron of twenty-three men-of-war, under 



the commiiod of Admirul Sunipson, in tbe Kev 
Yurie, who started from the Key West IsUiidii, 
vhicb ure only oigbly tuUus distant from llavana, 
tbe capital of Ouba. 

Tbe Spaniards, conaidcring that thej had euffi- 
otenl troops in Cuba, paid cliief attention to the 
oporationa of thoir fleet und uttLiupbcd to bruak the 
blockade by the tue of their hiimlier men-of-war in 
tbo West Indian waters. On April 25 a soa engage- 
ment off Cadenaa resulted in the injury of an Ameri- 
can torpedo destroyer, throe Spanish gunbonts suo- 
eoudeil on April 2A in breaking througb the blockade 
of Havana, and ou ttie following day an AoicricaQ 
mrTuliunl ship was taken, Spain having rceorvtsl tlie 
rigbt of issuing letters of marque to merchant 
TMMla ■• privateers. Ou thu same day a Bpauiah 
squadron under Admiral Oen'era left Oadix, and 
after tuiicliiiig ut the Cape Vorde Islands pursued 
ha way to the West Indieo. No important opera- 
tiou were poMiblo boforo ita arrival, bcK-auM tho 
■Hiding of an American army to (^iba could not taka 
place fnraoinc time. The United St^tcM militia waa 
gndoally concentrating idtelf in the National Parit 
of Cbickamauga, Tennevstx^', and the ioTw deAtintMl 
for the conquest of Cuba, of which General Sbafter 
was giTOO command, was being prepared at Tampa, 
a bariwiir oo th« weat coatit of Florida. 

Th» Amoricau fleot novr began the bombanlmrat 
ol Castcl Morro at Havana on April 85, and of 
lla^anirift on tho two following tlays. An eyo- 
witMM tetU UD that the shota fell fairly in tho 
nunparta, throwini; the earthworVn fifty fwi in tho 
air and catting tiicni level with the ground. t>nlT 
Ibrae ebota frnm tbe enemy's batleriea atmek tba 
Vbw York, and uudo of tbeo came cluMr than a 



hundred yards, although the engagement lasted fifteen 
minutes. Admiral Sampson's fleet could not sail 
out to intercept the fleet of Admiral Cervera, because 
it would be difficult to discover their whereabouU 
in the broad expanse of the Atlantic, and because 
two American warships, which were expected from 
Brazil, could not be left off the coast of Cuba 
williout protection. On the other hand, if Cervera's 
fleet were left unmolested it might attack the east 
coast of Xorth America without being materially 
prevented by the flying squadron commanded bj Ad- 
miral Schley. Consequently some apprehension 
was felt ill the towns of the sea-coast, and mines were 
laid, as a precautionary measure, in the harbour of 
New York. 

Whilst in the West Indies every one waa on tlifl 
tiptoe of expectation with regard to the coming of 
Cervera's fleet, news of momentous import arrived 
from the far East. Admiral Dewey, who was com- 



of tho Spaniiili fleet, at the extremity of the Pen- 
insulit of Cavite. Hifl fleet was armed witb 122 
gUDB of modem coustruction, some of whk-li were of 
enormoua size, and in seven hours, after a terrible 
■truggle, ho succeeded in completely destroying the 
whole of the Spanish ships. 

The Spaniards defendetl themselrea with heroic 
coarsge, hut tho strength of the two combatanU was 
anequally matched. Of the Spanish cruisers, armed 
with ninety-six guns, only five were fit for battle, 
while the American ordnance, which consist/?d main- 
ly of long eight-inch guns of the newest conelniction, 
bad a longer range and never missc<l their mark. 
CoD«equent)y the Spanish vessels, which had no 
•imiUr resources, were at once set on fire, and others 
were sunk- The Spaniards lost several hundred 
men; the Ameriean» had none killed and only ■ few 
woondcd. It had never occurr«! to the Spanish 
GoTenunent that a number of antiquated resseb 
whieh might be quite sufficient fur the local need* of 
die fur distant hut extensive group of islands and for 
tLe maintenance of Spanish sovereignty would be of 
no use whatever to meet an external enemy anavd 
with forriccabto vcMels. 

Tbe news of this disaster caused great oonster- 
natiun in Madrid, and tlie .Ministry of Sigasta was 
attacked for the insufficiency of its preparations. 
On ility 2 a state of Bicga was proclaimed in tha 
capital, and eventually the Ministry was rooon- 
atmetcd. In America the victory of Admiral Dewey 
was noeired with corre«ponding enthusiasm, and on 
receiving a report from him that he bad not suffi- 
eient troops to take poaseMion of Masilla, it waa 
dstannioed that ao army should be sent to bis tap- 


The offensive operations of the Americans in tliA 
Weat Indies were continued at the beginning of May. 
Beveral attempts at landing were made in ^e Cubaa 
province of Finar del Bio and Santa Clara, at Cara- 
con, Hermandura, Icoiiora, and Oienfuegos. At- 
tacks were also made on Spanish gunboats in the 
Bay of Cardenas, on the northern coast of the prov- 
ince of Metaogos. Matanzas was subjected to an- 
other bombardment, as was also Cabana in the north, 
and Cienfuegos in the south of Cuba, as well as San 
Juau in the island of Puerto Hico; but all these 
operations remained without result. 

At length on Maj S the fleet of Admiral Cervera, 
consisting of four armour-plated ormsers, three tor- 
pedo-boats, and three torpedo-boat destroyers, was 
sighted at Fort de France, in the Island of Martin- 
ique. It appears to have been his intention to dis- 
cover as soon as possible one of the two American 
squadrons which had not as yet been able to unite, 
to engage with them, and to do them so much 
damage that they would be powerless to protect the 
transports which had left Tampa on May 11 with the 
troops destined for action in Cuba. 

Cervera was forbidden to land at Martinique, 
which belonged to the French, and proceeded to the 
harbour of Santiago de Cuba, situated on the south 
coast of the island. The town of Santiago is situ- 
ated in a large bay, eurrounded by the mountains of 
the Sierra Maestra, which has space for the evolu- 
tions of any number of large ahips-of-war. The 
entrance to the bay is narrow and difficult, and is 
defended by the castles of Morro and Estrella. Cer- 
vera thought that from this basis ho would be able to 
defend the neighbouring coast, and he was the more 
confident of success because the squadron of Admiral 



npwa, wlio had been mminformed with r^ard to 
i'« monzneoU, was croseing to the uurtJi of 
U^ti, uid wu proceeding in the directiou of Key 
VTeM, wltere there happened to be a groat scarcity of 
Xnih wmtdr for driAiog. 

Sampsoa'a fleet reached Santiago on May 19 and 
wu joined horo on the last day of the month by tho 
flyiug squadron of Scliley. The t'wo admirals then 
BodHtook to bombard the forts, whoaa defective 
ftrauunaote had to bo strougthcnod by cannona from 
Cenrera'a ahipe. The atUck was renewed on Jun« 
3, tad on this occasion the American echooncr 
lCerrima« was sunk in tho entrance of llie harbour, 
but not in such a manner as to render the exit im- 
poeaiblc, although it increased the diJBcultioa of en- 
trance. A third attempt waa made on the following 
day, Jano 4,but an assault on the forts of La Sorapa 
and Pnertejrrande was repelled, and it now socmctl 
a« if Cerrcra intended to hrciik ont and to aaaritica 
hi« flwt in pro^'enting the arrival of nn invading 
army. lie still, however, riitmiTied in the vicinity, 
and on June 6 five tliousmid American infnnlry wire 
landed at Punto Cabn-ra niid'T tho protection of a 
heavy bombardment, and on tho foUowiug day six 
bnodrcd at Canninanora, 

Tho Bay of Santiago is bo deep that even Samp- 
■on'a heary gun* could barely reach tbe town, which 
lioa at its furthest estromity, or even Cervera'a fleet- 
At the aaniA time die Admiral did not feel juatifiod 
in fcootng an eotranoe. Uo therefore sent a mcMago 
to tiw AJmcrican Qovcmment on June 17, with a 
pvoaing request for further reinforcements on a oon- 
•Idarable scale Some detodiments wliich hod landrd 
■1 GnaTitanamo on Jono B had a fow days later 
■erioBa tngiprmitrT* with the Spanish troopi. 'I'ho 



Spaniards began to congratulate themselves on their 
Huceesses, as the American fleet had not been able to 
effect anything, and the only loss which they hii 
Buffered had been the sinking of the torpedo-boat 
destroyer Terror by the American line-of -battle aliip 

At length the anny which had been so anxiously 
expected sailed from Tampa on June 8, under the 
command of General Shaftor, who had served in 
the War of Secession, and landed on June 23 at 
Baiguire, a harbour half-way between Santiago and 
Guantanamo, an operation in which only two men 
were dro\nied. After landing they were assisted 
by three thousand insurgents under the command 
of Calixto Garcia, who speedily united himself with 
Shafter, But on the following day, June 24, was 
fought the battle of Guasimos, which, after a vigo^ 
ous resistance on the part of the Spaniards, ended 
with the victorv of the Americans, The main burden 

ccBfc -iXD nrosD sioa ms 

CHAPTER rrxn. 

crm* Ayi> FCxxTo Ilea. 

Arm the bsttle of dueimo* <n Jnae H, ^ 
armj wu sdraDonl ako^ tiie finale track vtiiefa 
leads imn Sibooer to Santisfa Two nrean» oi 
ezcelleot water mm parsl^l with this trade for ibort 
dUtaBcav and aome tiAt mile* from the eoait enmed 
it in two plaeea. The Ajnerieaa aatpoeXa were tta- 
tioned at the first of theae fords, and the Cohan <rat- 
poata a mile and a half farther on at the Kamd ford 
nearer Santiago^ The stream made a ebarp torn 
at a place called £1 Poeo. and ibe track extended an- 
other mile and a half from £1 Poeo to the trencliea 
of San Jnan. For six dajs the armv was encamped 
on either side of the track for three miles back from 
the ontposta. The track was an ordinary waggon- 
road, with hanks three or f<mr feet high, which when 
it rained became a hnge drain with sides of mud 
and a bottcan of liquid mnd a foot deep. All day 
long the pack trains passed np and down this track, 
earrying the day's rations; it wts poesible in B<^mifl 
places for two waggons to pass at one time, but fro- 
qnently there was only room for a single waggon. 

On June 35 fighting began for the posseMinn of 
Serilla, sonth of Santiago, which was taken on Juno 
S6. Then toc^ place the battle of Ran Jnan, for the 
poaaeasion of the entrenchments in tliat place, which 




■were the outer defences of Santiago. The advance 
began on tlie afternoon of June 30, " twelve thou- 
sand men with their eyes fixed on a balloon, treading 
on each other's heels in three inches of mud," At 
El Poso the trail forked, the right-hand road leading 
to El Canej, and the left to Santiago. The troops 
sk'pt in the mist, seeing the street lamps of Santiago 
ehining over the San Juan hills. Before the moon rose 
again every sixtli man who had slept in the mist that 
night was cither killed or wounded. Caney is about 
four miles to the east of Santiago and was held by 
five hundred Spanish soldiers; it was thought that 
tl]0 Americans would take it without difficulty. The 
idea was that the right division should attack towardg 
tlie north, and after the capture of Caney turn sootli- 
west and join the left division for the attack on 
Santiago, But the village was strongly defended 
and Caney was not taken till late in the afternoon, 
the Americans having lost 377 killed and wounded. 

<77BA Am n.tMW BCOL 505 

wnlt this biH vitbont utiDeij. but h tu done. 
Lneldly the Spanish trpnc b e i on the top vne baih 
lo far back on the brow, thai vnleM the Spaniards 
lav actnallj on the farecatvoib or onteide them, they 
conld not depres their rifle* aran^Efa to fire down the 
hilL Thus the fire vaa hotter in ^e rear dian it wu 
in the aetiul aauaJt. At iux the Americans flmded 
the ridges and nrarmed in the Uockboiue, and the 
•rmj halted, gazing at the axy beneath them. It i> 
reckoned that the hm on both American winfrs did 
not fall short of two thousand meg. On the aide of 
the Spaniards General Linarm wa^ fererely woonded, 
467 man were killed, and half their foroe was disabled. 
An unexpected incident now snperrened. The 
moment had arrived when Cerrera's fieet eoald be 
of great service, ahhoo^h np to the present it had 
done bat little good. But to the surprise of all, at 
9,30 A.U. on Snodav, Jalv 3, it came ont of the hai^ 
boar under fnll itt-am, and in three-qnarters of an 
bonr was entirely destroyed by the American fleet, 
which was throe times superior in nomber and was 
armed with excellent artillery. The Spanish ships 
were set on fire and driven on to the coast, where 
they blew ap. Field-Marshal Blanco had sent liim 
repeated orders to oome ont, and he bad at last 
obeyed because his snpply of coal was nearly ex- 
hausted, and because, seeing that Santiago was now 
closely invested, he did not wigh to be eaaght like 
Uontojo at Cavity, but preferred to perish in the 
open sea. Unfortunately ho was misinfonncd as to 
the position or nomber of the American flnet, and 
BaU«l in the wrong direction. As the engagoment 
took place at fifteen hundred yards' dintance not a 
single Spanish shot could touch the American ahipa, 



tlchnns^ the ^ac^tip^ tite Yiae^v, eontiniied to 

im 3i:«r ihe im in Smkcs. This Spaniali fleet wu 
BijC un. veaj? rjii^ bm dw annoorplUes were thin; 
ic •^arrieii six ELeAvr. foetr-six medium, and nisetf- 
six lighE g^"j, wbere^ tfae American fleet had sixtf- 
seTeo. he&Ty, thinr-six mediam,and me hundred and 
ninetj-six ligtit ^nnx. Cerrera vas taken prisoner 
and with his companiinLS hcMionraUT treated. 

Before Santiago an anniAiee vas eondnded from 
Jolj 2 to JoIt 9, daring vhich period many dis- 
coafions were held abont surrendn-, although Ma^ 
shal BIan<« talked abont maViTig the place a second 
Saragoesa. Both parties were reall v desirons of peace, 
becao^e the position of the Americana vas anvthing 
bat secnre, while the garrison of Santiago, which 
had been reinforced with eighteen thousand men 
under General Pondo from Seilobo, was gradually 
mnn ing short of prorisious and ammunition. At 
length on Jolr 15 the town and province of Sas- 
liafio de Cuba wis enrrendered to the Cnited Stite 



Parliament saM that Spain might, have conquered in 
tliC wur if thvy had scut four thousand ineu to 
Florida, hut that now tlie responsibility of its cou- 
tinuance would real willi the Goverumont, But the 
cup of disaster was not yet fuU. A Uiird or reserve 
aquadrun, which had been formed at Cadiz under tho 
command of Admiral Camarii, aailcil on Juno 16 for 
thi- Philippine Islands, where it was doomed to cer- 
tain destruction, whereas it mi^ht have been of some 
UM in tho West Indies. On reaching Port Said it 
wu prevented by tlie Egi-plian (jovernment on June 
80 from coaling from its own transport vessels, and 
was recalled on July 9 to protect tlio Spanish coast 
towns from a possible homhiirdmont. 

In the Philippine Islands Admiral Dewey was still 

I waiting for a forco to commenco operations on land, 

but meanwhile the Spanish troopa were hanlly 

^^wcMcd by tlio insurgents. At tho cud of June tho 

^Hovomor-Gencral Au^sti proposed to the German 

^^iee-Admiral Von Diedrichs, who was at Jlanillu for 

tbe porpowj of protecting German commerce, thai tho 

Admirals of tlio tu'iitral powers lilioiiKI take Manilla 

nndor their protection. This offer was refuse'! in 

I oooaeqncnce of the American blockade. On the other 

s\ic Ainiinaldo, who commiinded the insnrgfmtfl, and 

who on June 13 had proclaimed tho independence of 

tho island;, made a <hTlarntion to the samn Admiral, 

that any claim mado to tbe islands by America was 

excluded by the convention which ba^ boon aigneal 

by him and Admiral Dewey on April 21, and agm)<l 

to hy President McKinlcy, Encla"d,and Japan, by 

which the insurgents should join the American* in 

makinf? war upon Hpain witli tho object of t-^tahllsh- 

ing in the Philippines an independent Fodcnil So* 

mhlic under AmericaD protection. 




The American land forces were still detained it 
sea. On their vrtLj they had hoisted the American flag 
in tlio Ladrone Islands, which belonged to Spain, 
and carried off the garrison, which had heard nothing 
of the outbreak of the war. On Jnly 17 they event- 
nnlly arrived at the island of Luzon, and engaged 
the Spanish troops on July 31. This enabled Ad- 
miral Dewey to demand lie surrender of Manilla 
on August 1. The summons, however, was rejected 
and he did not become master of the eity till August 
13, after it had suffered a bombardment 

The capture of die island of Puerto Bico forms a 
striking contrast to the operations in Ouba, the dif- 
ference being attributed by the Americans to die 
incompetence of the commanders in the one case, and 
their competence in the other. General !Miles had as- 
emucd the command of the American army in Ouba 
on July 23, and immediately turned his attention to 
Puerto Kieo, where the fcelinf; of the inhabitants was 



t$, and the reduction of the islaiid waa completed 
\^ Uu surrender of Ponce on July 28. 

Although onlir a small portion of Cuba bed aur- 
randered to the Amoricans, and the Spaniards still 
hkd eiglity thousand men on the island, the Span- 
iards could not continue the war any longer, wliicb 
bad cost Spain about five thousand million pesetas in 
fix moatbs, and waa likely to coat twelve or fifteen 
millioD a month in the future. Also the destruction 
of tbo Siunish Seet made it impossible to raise tho 
blockade. Therefore On July 27, by the friendly 
offices of ibf French Ambassador, Cumbon, in Wash- 
ingtaa, the Spanish Government dnOared itacif to be 
baalcn, and aHked for conditions of [mace. 

On August 12 prrliroinariea were signed by which 
Spain Hurrendcred all Die Antilles, except Cuba, tho 
town, bay, and harlraur of Manilla, and a coaling 
atation on the LaJrouea to America; it further ro- 
naunced ita Bovoreignty over Cuba, America on lier 
^^do d«clincd to lake over the debt of Cuba and 
^Vuerto Bico and gave up any claim to a war in- 
^Beiunity. A commission to settle tho details of the 
^frcaty was to bo appointed on the nnderstanding 
thai Spanish truops should bo immediately with- 
drawn from Puerto Rico and the remainiup; provinrei 
of Ooba. Tho dcfinit4> treaty was signed on Decem- 
ber 12, by which Spain renounced ber sovereignty 
and every elaim to possession with regard tu Cuba, 
and made over to the United States Puerto Rieo 
and tiin rert of her West Indian possoKtions, tho 
talaod of Gnam, the moat southerly of tho Tjidrono 
p, and the Philippine Archipclogo, on tho ooo- 
ti(»n that for t<-n yi-ars Spanish ships ahonld ho al- 
to have acce«s to them on the same condition* 
the ^ipa of the United States. America was to 





JSSnttiTn.n. _ 
AbHMbws,ITl BftttKB April, im, 

AtadlMB. Ldrd, M. 
Mntu FrvdOa. 111. 

L MW>terloo.BL 

n*ar, M. 


rtTaM», 4t, KM. no, ML 
. CS. 4in, <ai, 401, «M. 

AtatdM rl*ar, m. 

Aiw» riw. mi M K,~iMrM, ita. 
AtabMW BUM, n(k n. 
Ubvado, 1. 1, m. 

Aibwt, ctawn rmiMotBBiMir. ao; 
ArBjr nutor bta mnunuid. «T: 

,»»■ Butroh lo l>ailii,«ai 
oa teskm ot Moa, «T. 

AMraabt, Arohduka. caminaniU 
Aimr ot South In VasMl* uul 
taM^ >»; la lulT. no. 
ociUn to r, M. Bfiwlvk. «U, 

AlbWf bMU*, >1 lUlt. 1811, 180. 

tlmpim. MB 

AlM^rfcta, II. i«. II : umMiiw, l.nh 
itat, un, ;l; Hardlulau ■nil/ 
msM. IN-, rrruch ■»■> uil 
■UMW Ka^im at, M*. M> 

UMMOvr L. BMlMTor ot RuMla, 
ObUmM anu In ItarmvlB, 4T ; at 
(Mmsia. io: at teula ot Annt. 
Ut*. H. M i rasaacaaoa ot poUih 
HiJca Inlolarabla, IV: atVUu, 
Mf. KB; klDdlr (MOInn tmanla 
Mapolaaa, IC*; aoi BfTlac Id Id 
M^nlaoa, IK: baad^oartan at 
K«u< Bunch vrU, HP I ftaoe ot 
Tilalt. IS1_: at lW-k *><: xt- 

Ta n^ to Par», Wi, 

MMch, IM 

Alexander. Prince of Hcaaa ; com- 

lanit, KM ; bPaU rrench at FuIU 
guy, 'm ; PniHlao dvclaraUon of 
WOT aifaiaHt Hhwi, Id eommaaij 
ot corpi. am, Kt : Burreo'lt.n 
FTanktort and rclina i« Odan- 
vald. n«. 

Alrun^lrlt (TT£.A.). Kllivnnh iMrrhH 

i-a; Tu^ klvAiica* upon Jaokaoa 
Udaar itatLlnsla, U7. 

AlKlan, » : troaua trom, MI, Mt. 


AllcchaBT inoiintalaa. aS. 

Alleutfln, 10. 

Allli, Oen . IMfoDd* Iha Towa, Ut: 
attack* lann ot La Hare Salnta, 

Alma. Battle of Ibe. I> Bapl. IBM, m- 

Ahnarai, IB;. 

Almeida tcwtrMC, ISi, Ui; man^ 
dered, tM. 

Alpa, Auatriana In pnwBialnn «f 
wv*t«rD, 10 ; France aul b«r 
Irvntlerot. *iiO ; Amijr of N. Italr 
■od Haplaa to oros, m : Aua. 
triaa* to driTB alllia losarda, 
MA : daUlBl tu iratch the ptmrn, 


Alpa. ArmT <->f the, BI1. 

AUac:r.ratalrTln,H: rranch wny 
In. (10; abaodiiaed by MaoMahnn, 
11%; a ciiaqsarad Bouattf. Ulj 
Oca, Werdar loMada tevadloi^ 


Alranalahaa, OaB. too. Oarpa eaditf, 

tlO; atS«artrtak*a.<I1;attacki 

tha Frandi at TraoTllta and 

VIoBTUIe, <M. CB. 
AraaanUv*. (N. «l. 4M : abanduaad, 

Ambl^eUBF camp, H, 
ABurlea. War ot twetmton. twi-ffi, 

Im9|: PrwIdaDllal Klenwn ot 

UWl AMlM* 10 dlplo- 

Turkaj, aad taavMSt. Patanhiuf 
W aaiMina oo mo and, tTt; u 
ftowy-aMtfa^ <f» i a( PlaTOa.W. 


lAl; war vtth apala, tSH^ 

Anloa tort, (m 

AwSIuala. nspoM radaaiL ,.. 
Incaa, <■; kT Joandt aad floalCa 
lavMloB, in. IM; VmU ootvIv 



froDUera. ISB, l^ : troopi wltli- 

drawn, 1?S ; Fivoph amiiiH In, 

I9D ; Boult leaies, IKI, 
Andsragn'a (urco at SpottsylTMiIii, 

Anilujar, ICS, 
Aagely, 0«d. Ite^naud de St. Jeoa d\ 

Aji^isul^me, Duchesse d\ £^ 

Anniipolis. !^. 

AnHhaob, 7tI&rgTATat« of, ^veQ to 
bavarlA. Gl . 

AnilotAm. Battle ot. IT Sept. 18S3, MO, 

AntniM, Tlin, AdmlrslHunlefwratBl ; 
Surr'^nderpd toADiericabySpBlD, 
IS Aug 1H^. 509. 

AnttvBrl. <88. 

Antvrrp besieged. 106 ; EogUih re- 
tire to, SS8. 

AoBta. i. e. 

ApRimLnes, The. S. 

Apoldn, OT. 

Appomatoi Court HouM, STB, 

Aprlcu pua, SS. 

Aquin, MS. 

Arftbfk-KoDab posa, 401. 

Aragno. 171. 

Arnnjuez reToluCloD, IB Uarch, 1808, 

AmplleB bailie, 33 Jul; ISIS, IDB, 

Arpia-Bur-Aube, S17.«18.!19. 

Ardnlian slirmeil, Jii. 

Areijapa. Gt., tails to rocooqner 

drwsed In block in mMaoTT of tba 

Duke, mortally wounded In, Hi. 

AURereau, Marshol. 21, *7. «. «i, 6S, 
eo, 70. I'M. 157. ^U6.SOT,Ki9,ll«,lll 

Augsbury, «1. 48. 77. T9, 

Augusli. Oor.-Gen., .WT. 

AuEterltli, battle of. a Dec IBIB, SM(t 
05.75. in, 1I7,2SS. 

Austria, Peace neRotlBtloM irilli 
France. 9 Nov. 1«U0; rejected. 2*- 
S3; ^'apoli»a's plan of tKCcArn- 
palgD, S5; Trealy of Preasbur^, 
fiS : nar of IKO to wipe out 
treaty ot PresaburK. VS; anulo; 
for war, 171 ^ army m war cflSlI, 

IB9. ajs-as : advance to Paris 

221: officers tidueatfJ In. SZl': 

i lined a nex coalliioa o^rsiO'l 
TapoleoD, £30; strenglb of artny, 
231, 233 ; Joined allies at Sebasto- 

Kl. asS; war with Franee mH 
rdlnia. 18.% SM-Sia; war villi 
Prussia, 18M. 877-402: FTwicH 
plan to Induce A. and Italj 1e> 
abaBdoQ thpir neutrality, Of, 
Ea^lJsb dt^incUned to an alliance 
Kltli the Porte wltboat emft- 
tion or, 4TB. 
AvalloD, 3. 
Aypfluea. 2S3. 
Ai'lT. Bi-ft ot, 289. 
Aiorca. Villeneu'e at the, St. 

Babadaeh. 477. 



*, >»<1 Niipol*os.lte. 

*. Tii, 9Tr. 

. Th& in, 4», 490. Ul. <M, «». 

^_ MjBore . ■». MB. 

BShuKb. N. p. ki Culprper. 1» : 

bt Al CnlBT llQUDtAlnft 




iatoon M, ». 


ton. S; auaeksd and ouli- 

•■BM^tMt" bMUUcnu. 1 
I WalaHou, m 


Uw ckmilf, Sao. 
I4&, iB>: Baiiic of. u-n 
tni, i»-i«. 

EImMC at, nlaed to ruk at 

. rtauA hi, It: hrruMiulU 

tocamnuo'l ll*Tarlauii.>Mi Auc- 
tttoiMMu trom. M i MucnvMa 
of AoriMcb raoaln^ (1 ; Kapo- 

r"* T'*~''*'* In. n ; Kwo trom, 
Ancvnau'i coriia In. IM : 
tfDsp* InMroapt ratrMUInji 
rnaA anar ui>l an crutbtd, 
W: *qpfnm B«Bil«k usIdm 
Pnuda, Ml, Mii Bodtr rr1)M« 
Owln. W, WT: troom difnd 
■lataM. M ; nirpriHd on Ih* 
^KH: PuleknutriB umubm 
C"— rawmit of piinliMis o(. tn : 
tnwea villi PniMln. ttt; msri-h 
'til OwnuiiK urixr Bediui, «<3 ; 
Anvnifiiil. v^. 
OifiltuUtWi uf, Iffi. IM, IS). 

HtiAMv, in.ioiivr 

Manlull. In oominuid al 
. «« 1 nour flplclwrm. 4t8 ; 
MBunuiU BliloB Mmi, raoiU* 
rra^uii to Mcu. «D: nUn* 
fnalMs Co ViwdUB, «n ; gnawa 
Om Monlta, M* ; M ttwrelMM, 
4M: taUIa ot VIontllln. <B-I» ; 
■kBi np to Hsu. tfT-40 : ■luniiu 
to PiU«n Etm. *V, ; llomlialla 
OapUlluK antai hU i>»<nMnUJ<in, 

: aultiaaUaa of IMir<m-«l. 

M,1S.44T. ««.»«. 

iSlSl uU ifc 

. Eutns. Priaea ot 

l<wrt t Mil m%, itapulaca'a wtfteg 

(o. IS ; revcrBon In Itrly. 1-1 : lin- 
peillni; Areh,lulii' Juliii, M ; at 
Wft^ram, 04; haylci; cffPceminK 
llie Cossacks, VJl ; iii the AdvaDOfi 
to Siuuleask. lOQ ; opp<i««d (o thfl 
Acl>uiCflloHoiKov,iit ; at Baitis 
d( Borodino. 1l!i: capliires Ma- 
lojarotUveti, 119. 190: relreuc 
from aniDleiiHk, Tfl. ia: al- 
incked, 123. IS4 ; al Battle oC 
l.Uti'u. ISB-IST : «ent t« Italy to 
It-ty &a »riny, 140. 114 ; dofniA 
anlnx Auitriiuis lo Italy. 1tH>. 
■OH ; Vleeroj, T*. SH. eu.440. 448, 

Bcaune la Itolanile t»tUe. 9 Km. 

BaaonciuJ. Oeti., commands Coo- 
federotfl Army. ȣ!, Sli. B30, Ul. 

BaAVsr Down Crc^k. 3M. 

Bm. Oen,. at Bell's lt'ot\l. S1&, KSB ; 
death, m. 

Mlhuns roads. SI. 

B«ib»i( «•«■, wg. 

Bclfort-. 40*. 4W. 4(B, 4C3. 473. 474, ttt, 

Balgluiii held bj French troops, l» 1 
Haltaa rvtiraa beCore Puke of 
Baia-Wolmar, KM; Napolenu'i 
dIbh to cooqner EdkIuIi anil 
Prusdana In, SB • proMblT Join- 
ing France, SOS : Frenoh adTanco 
to rriintter, SMi Briglans ot 
ChasaO at Waterloo, afi4 ; rrenrh 
aft«ir Sodaa rtatoa Into. 4&ft; 
frontier lo the Loire one broad 
IwUlsnald. Ul. 

Delf* t^>nl. »4. 

iirlle Alilano^ln. 


Belliard, Qpn,, SU. 

BelllsooB Casil*. tl. 

Halreiteni. IDA. 

MBni'nlr, I'l. 

MKili-k. FIcKI Marahal, oommanda 
AuAirian forces in Italy. IM: at 
rawhlera, 8t> ; reUm afur Baiile 
ot Bolt erlno, 81A ; aaauniea euCu- 
luaml of AuHrlao army, m ; oo- 
CDpatlon ot KaxofiT. M; Baltla 
ot XOalHTBti. mim: ordend 
loaendblslriMpa MVIaAaa,4n 

notwdetll, *«. 

Donatek. nr, M. 

IloBDlBCsea, Oen., eomnaoda ooa- 
blaM ('>m«i iif Riiiala and rnia- 
sla: liniitnof KyUii. Ttk-T* : B*. 
latorce'i llie nll>>>* afaltiM Napo- 
leon In fiaioo*, IM ; al Battle at 
Lal|«ljc, IH. 

BenlutiiUw. KB. 

ot B>da]<K l«i tmUU at JO- 

busrk ' Welllniitaa^ i wiia i M. 
I8t : Badaloa prMread tMm, tSt 



BereilDfi Hear. IHI, i2S, 138. 
BetlLu. Kap'>lerpn'H plAn to march to, 
B3. M: entry of NandlBon. UTOct. 
[WO. ee : ministers Ml beblnd in. 
60 ; Kapoleon'B \df.a to eventuAliy 
iDBrrti to, 139 ; WittBOOitfin snd 
BLUclii^r^s armloa cot coverinK, 
140; UudiHot to march to. Hi, 
IM. ISl -, beaian uid iliiTen bAtk, 
]6l, 153; RoMrTo forew In.BTfl; 
lldiLoiIek not cUctAliiiK ]>Aice in, 
SHi; Kln^ Wililiin ID, W; Ws 
mhALI Boon rpAch Berlin. 413; tha 
lAtll nt Aiign<it dextiriBd For th^ 
Pnii;7h Riitry into, 42a ; Troitf of 
llirlm, 405. 
BariiHili'tlfl. Ci^wn Prin*^ ot Swailen. 
Ill niiinvir. 111-. ],l[ii], BS; at lu- 
duldtfldt. 41 ; f-ru^Hi'd thp Inn, 4V, 
te ' BummnQpd to Nnpolson at 
Brtlaa, 53 ; In I'mticn, 5T ; In Ba- 
THrla. 82 ; oooualoa RAAlbur^, U ; 
rerijsea (o lui^lst Dnvnii<il. AC ; 
moves to tha Vl&tuln, C9; BAtlle 
of EylBu. TO. 71 ; ut WUnljurg, 
77; St iEnfl^mdnrf, P4 ; occilI^lQ 
AiierkTu niini retrRatu, Bfi ; electftl 
Oruwn I'rincfl of Bwaden, deserts 
Nftljoleou. and Joins Uusiiia. 133 ; 
commanJa Army of North, 145 ; 
OU'llnol do=pfttched to Berlin lo 
deal with, 161 ; crtiases the Elbe 
atric^au, 154 ; Napoleon tomeat» 
IS6 ; ttttat'ks Marnwnl, ISS ; buc- 
ce^^sful mi^Lisement with Fr<-ncb. 
Irt9 ; su;ti>iirtH Duko ot Sa£4- 
Welmnr. aif. 

Beyer. GvD. invadpi" ncj»?d»- 

sel. 3S1 ; united with the Army <}F 
rho Malt;, B9A ; Infoats Strasbuis, 

niberaoh, SI. 

Bidossoa river. 163, 183, IBS. 

Bluin. 479, 4»1, 485. 

B(g liiack river. Ma. 

BlE Hound Top, 3S7. 

Bigny, 46S. 

BllbHO, leo. 

Btaniarck, Prince, in Oennna Aimt, 
410; cuirassier regiment a^tu- 
lated at Vionvllle. 435; two tout 
In cavalry charge. 4^; politlol 
TnutlerB after Sedan cornniitted 
to tiim. 4aa ; signed prelimioarits 
of I'eaoe at Versailles 473. 

Biatriti river, 88G. SOT. 

BiLsob, 409. 4!5,46S. 

Bitterfeld, Gen- Berwarth von. com. 
manda army of Elbe^ wS; U 
Bauie of Kaniggriti, SSl-8. 

Black BruDswickers. HiS. MR. UL 

Bbtfk Forest, Army of. 3, 40. 

Black Forest valley, 474. 

Black Sea, Bff7. 

mackbnni'B Fort, 324. 

Bloke, Gen., opposes King Joseph Sd 
Spain, lAii: napoleon ■endftriKF* 
against, liiB, 

Blane Meuii. 457. 

Blanco. Field-SIorBhttJ, 608^ 606. 

niaslon-iiB, S7. 

BleTibeiin battle-ftelil, SI. 

Bl«8Br.WaK!ior stream, 141, 141. 

BIcla. &i4, idH. 


51 !( 

fnollnr* at I^OTTmlwt HI » Ibt^ 
■km '>t I'mnrv, 9Hi U namur, 
Ml ; di«rut«l mX • aoldlar ikHrt' 
Us eolani. BS; BMtl* ot 
~1-M1: kl QuMr*Br«>, 

, _!; •rrt»»J»tW»Urloo. 

Ml. M : Hinult of Uia Fraacfa 
•tur WMarlOO, MB. 

.Btbal, «a 
.,„. The. 144. 140, la. 

I rram. M : Arahiliilia 

W M mUctum 

MHnU, mnp* 

nfdbMd% pUn M rwli.4i.4», 
OtPiiUlBC krtB* in. It : biairtni 
W NapoMOa, 4t. 4U ; AuKlrianilD 
4rtt« rnooli taiii, m: Arvhiinko 
flh«i1«i to erUBh f nacb betweea 
kla armjraDil lluu •>'• TT : AfCh- 
4ukaCliart<«iiBUH>tKniUen «; 
rt j t * Mwanla. Iff: Napoleon 
•■c«nfnmatMckrr<Hii.I«: ap- 
■ra*<iMnardad, 144 : eipeetrd 
ttljct el Pnoch. 14a: ■rmy «ii 
Mt« Saioax. 14!; in 4rl1I>^ ot 
rM«**walda I ratirr. isi : armj' at 
Ftattwi iaoppou, IM^ tamanti 
|6ft«ta.l(M; mar Uin>aU'aa<1 l>y 
ilMB8lia». lOB; ai Aohe. HM': 
•aauHWaaikiss oomwI, atu : 

Omi»—u3I. termbouM, 4n. 

_ . Jm Nainlmii. 

BMaaana. Jatma, Ktnn n( Vaat- 
•Iwlla, at Oa t<i"ni-n, IM ; to 
Ovpoaaaf ItafraUoa, ItO; march' 

IWMadir Da'oiHt. 110; aitaclu 
CMIw rt BoaitOttnciBt. MM. 

isaapfa. BMUCciMalilal 

ooodlUoa* ot pwws 

nWldaot nf Um 

K . _ _. W: CrovB ot Bpalo 

•a. m : Froaeb army »■ 

t U* prOTlBoaL IN; Jolnad 

- - 'soa at tba Klranda, 1W 1 

» !< eaamasdiu la Fn- 

, m ; UmaUaad mtmIob 

of Kfdrtd. in; a^R dMpIacM 

SSHSTmsUa «dDnMnd ra> 
iaeaJi ft plualom Mac Wl 
uaiiBiBllilliil Pnnch arniy In 
Halniiha. W; uk»* rsTsc* In 
ValMOla. IM; enlan Madrid, 
■tor. 1. ini- fomnd arair o( 
IVfUiOl I da(«Bt«d by Walllnirt'iii 
M JumvOm ; raUra* lo QHhIiul 
••driu IKi ta aoMMMd. Ml 
too viaa lo oppoaa WWlliigjoW 

ImI^ JiUMlt, IRIt.m! n•^■)l•d 
Ian— n to dl^nio*. IR 1 IthI- 

dmt ol Onart ot ttecrner at 

Bonaparte, Loiilt, to ralK Iruopa aad 

rorm a Natiwal Giurd. 99. 
BoEdy HOOd. Itl. 
Bonnet. ■uccaedi Marmont, 

Bonneull, 45T. 
bordeaox. tmopa from, 4T ; antcrad 

bjr KaeUib. IW ; OaianiniBDt r«> 

B|»*M e«. «8 : Sathmal Aboid- 

bl* to meal at, <n. 
Bono Varoalltaill. 
Borbor. IM, IK. HO. 
Bormldaj^a, 11. 14, IT. U, 1«L 
Ho rmln. Ml. 
Itomhelm, tM. 
Bonxlliio. In, m : BaHla of UM tl*- 


Itontadt. 1H. 

Boaphonu. Th9, 4T& 

BoaqDeC Kanhal. at hikaniian, fnL 

fcl : SebaMopol, an, Ml. 
Boaau vood, Mt. 

Boadet oecuptea g— ii-(f— u, 
Bour1*>l. 457. 
BouiUoa, 4M 
BouiaKH. au. 
Bouk«De, Kreni^L ahipa for, m ; plan, 

n ; can^p of army, 3S ; Napolaos 

al, N i bxUati laadwl at. 41. 
BonrbaM, Om., aowi—nd In Atnir ot 

tb* Hblaa at Mats, 401. 4a> ; at 

BMtr.wi ;&•««« itnfMi at HL 

Frtvatt 4n ; Koveninieul i>f Tfnrth 
Ol fruos OOder, 4,"AI; pri>irnl<«J 
fTMD appMaotilDR rarli. Ml i 
oparaHnclnEaat <>r Frauos, ««; 
Bw*a* t4> KaTam In altack Oar- 
nan>, 1T>: lo iteatmy (iKtmana' 
relnat lo Iha Rhine. 4T4 ; aur- 
roundod and retreau to BwlUar- 
Btmrbau, Mapotroa, to drtva iham 
from Haplai. M : froin the thn}na 
ot SealB, iMi rMum (o Paru. 
AprClltlt. »t,HI.M*', cbaacaa, 
tm-ttt; NiwoMoa'a faylajt at fli. 
Hclaaa, mi oauaa toat nmTar, 

Bouncaa. ID, 40. <n. 

Boonuiat, Oaa.. daaartloa tnm 

rrandi •nnj'. St. 
Barer. a«a., Wi. 
llraca. ITT. 
Iirapuua, Rooaa of, oaaaad to rain. 

To. IN ; anaa aunptaatad. IH. 
Bruv. Oaa.. tM,tt»JM. 
Braaaaa rort. tr, IT. 
Braill.apaaUknMaart'liT t>«<Hf«ia4 

to, ta. IMi fluwlali a«t B»> 

wBtcb-arM. 05 ; rotiMt (rom 
67 : dSBth, SU. 

BiwihU, WelllDfctoD kt, SM, S», SM, 
139, SW, MS, fir, SBO: Duchmot 
RlchmoDd'i Ball, EKI. 

Brre, B8, HO. Ml, MS. UO, Ua, MB. 

BubuB, a«D., W, »7, SOIL 

Buckgar, 8>7. 

BoeU, 0«D., an. 

BUow, Geo. T0ii,wlUiAnnrofNol11i, 
SiO : nt Mirny. ii<i : Waterloo, 
ffl7, Br.": SI Vioi.viil,., *K. 

BueTKi Ventura. Tlin, 4U6. 

Bufliilf>ra, aw, anvse. 

ButifjirlA. Prmor^Cherlifnlir, ^Tomor 
ot. i'X : BulBsrlann irlth Rueelan 
anny. 483 ; RiiHslan puard ■□, 4W. C 

Bull Bun, linrtlB (July Si. IMI), SI'S, C 
3:». S.1;. SI3. 93T, KS, wa, SH. C 

Burtord, fl-Ti. C 

Iturgo*. IWi, 169, IDS, IBS. C 

Bursarue. Sir Jobn, 171. C 

Buiyundy. 403. 

Burkaudort , A O 

Bnrltuk, 1K8, Ci 

BumildB, GflD. AmbroH El, to crou U 
Tunwr'i Oap, $10; drlren from Ci 
hU Doct by Lee, Ml ; replace! Cl 
HcClellaii m command and re- Ci 
ofRBDlM army, SIS ; cronH the Ci 
Rappahannock. S43 ; drlren bock Ci 
from Fraderlclnbuni, SU ; luper- Ci 
BBded, 8U : at Annapolis, 3>11, «Q ; O 
Battla ot Tha WiblenuH, SW, Ci 
80S. a 

Busaco heights, IStL Ci 

BuK«, RB. O 

BuBv, U8. 

Butler, Oeo.. HI. 

BiuancT. Mt- 






CMtaSr^lK. Mr Oml, UBal at 
luton— Q.Ma. 

ChBCWM. Amr of tt» ML «1, 

OuUaeawt. Om. Aan«, kllri ta 
Itaute «( ths Bondbov lU. 

0—l«l«»BaH. Anwinrl AagmL 
OmM •# Tl III. Msoonpvka 
W^ilUB lo rtelk Hh Mi da- 
MMdMl •» P«rii <mb tan I 
to w«i tor DMOSi ML 

~ FiM*. ri(^ ni, tt^ 114. IM.HT. 

. Admiral, Im*M OhUi. W i 

•m* tfihtad M rondarruM: 
taMMMto lu« MIUnialqBB. 

>f Ol l >l d> l» ttMlW o. W) ; OVBM 

Ml c< iMctBiif auto daitroTed, 
l» ; jrttcmf. Mt. 

cWiiiii ni ■MKM. Kt. no. ti% «■, 




llIU battla. Hajr IB, UOB, 

ntllta, MS, MT, W1 

CliM(>nilEr, iinnanl. nt ll><i. un : 
for cviMtaUtw oC UcIi. 


. IS-WO, Ml «>. M. 
.__. •how Um road bj Pul- 


- . ._ IV. of flnaln, eonpallnt lo 
abdteX^ 161, '^ 

f>ajjM. Arvhiiiilic Annlnkce vlUi 
■nraai. tt : with Aiuinan annjp 
laepa^af >fantii»iu»l PMchi'ra. 
•ad «alw Awttwlu.l, K ; Xiw- 
Mb to k«ap bMd aKklnit lilm. 
nilMifl«nwnl(Bl7 luVlrlinn, 
An, ■; r«-orj(wilH Am'rtu 
•nHT.IB: cauii|w<|n> In HatKtla, 
IMI : AvvB aad XwUacMi, U- 

Chaile* CUj Crea Baa4,l 




Chaat. B«lcNn««(.S4, 

CkaaMon d'AMna. R% 

ChUaaa TUenT^n,ail 



Chktal Sl OannMa. Ml 

CbAUUoa, W.«B. 


ChutaaoonjiMn K^m. 

ChHUnonl, m. M> 


ClwnuiKa, l«r. lU. 

Chfcna ta Popntaoz, 4IL 

Oharbeora, 410. 

Cbarbaakr. Vrlaoa. (I(L 

CbaraarodA. 47f . 

ChatwHiaaua, fTi. 
ChlAtaaaa. R. 
Ctilea«o. M. 
OilchacoT. ut, m 
CbiekSominjr. SN, »L Hi. tH. 
(.'hlckamaun, as. 4>T. 
rhian rinr. l^M 
(ThlttB htm. »«,«■, Mi. 

Claldfnl. Oen., captora af lUwlm, 
»l : natchleic pasM of tha AlfH. 
■IS : at BuloMnA, WD : l,a Kanunt 
vitn, W : n«ar Hlrandala and 
Modana, M: aoooaadl t« Ka- 
mora: croaaaa Lowar Pu and 
na^aa ftrdna; «ceBpl«a UdUa, 

Otefitna, «■, goe. 

gain 0>B>«titMi. Aae K, tm, UT. 
u.lad Real, in. 

awiad RoariKu. in, u>. m. w. ua, 

m. iM, ISO. 

Clu4ibl Knirlco. ttnka ot WaClneua 

at, tM. 

Clark*, moeb MlalMrvC, 

Clauaal. Wawhal. raceaada Marwaal 
and Boaaa* al nalaaaam. IM ; 

l;0 omlipy, fa, «8. MS. 
J-onsoPt, I'rln™ gon 

OonrUitd, !w. 



«*a Squadron Id Hobs Eong, kUIb 
for PbllipplDe UlAodK MB ; de- 
Mron Spanlih Flaet Id B>r of 
HadIU, «9*: blocbtdet Hulla, 
ftOT; dflmmnoBlUmmndar: bom- 
barded, toe. 

Diebluch, Osn., MO. 

Diediichs. Tlce-Admlrat ion, (OT. 

Dieppe. 471 . 

DlJon, a, 4, 4S, m. 

DiDiriddle Court Honse, S7I. 

DIppoldnralde. Iff. _ 

Doleper ri>er, I ID, 111, W. 

Dobrud)*, 480. 

Dobmdilut, tBl. 



DofaoUckB, KT. 

ValgoruU, [>rlDee, 61, Si. 

DombuhbMtlB. MT. 

Domburv, M, 

DouuwBrth, tl. 40, 41, ia 

Doocherr, MI. 44B, 4W. 


DoBtlaoti, Pert, 31T. 

Donielot, Oen.. n& 

Dorosoboih, 111 

Doiur> Qenersl AbaL with ArniT of 
BouUi,OD the Rhine, 410: killed In 
Battle of Welnenbiira, ^18, *1*. 

DmuT, FWli, wlUi the Anur of 
Parta,«sa; >t Ch&lou. 440. 

Dooar, tB. 

l>aLib4. ilefiiirtinflnE of, 47& 

DoolBUnt. 5';a. 

Douro river. 190, 191, 194, ISB. 

Douzy. 41S. 

DrMdflti. Napoleon reaches, 190 ; hla 
plan I'j r&capturB, 1S5; niHed 
armlea at. )S9. 140; Battle of 
Drsailr'n, Au|;. £0. ISL3. U^ISO; 
Nnpoleim'stroopiiMiind, 163, IM; 
Army ot Smonj'a main ntnnnrlli 

DrlBBB. 109, 

DrDhaberE. 141, 

Drouot. Q^D., at LOtzen, 1^ ; at 
Quntre-BrBB, 348; at Waterloo, 
an : relrents vlth NapolHiD. tCo. 

Dub. Htll or, 3HG, 

Dub.ivoIgl!y, 484. 

Dub»tati,Oen , tH. 

Ducrol, (len., at Baltleof WOrtb, 414, 
415 ; with Army of I'lria, 4^) ; at 
ChiUnnn. 410;BLicceedfl?k1n<:Mithr>n, 
4eH : retirwi lo the Illv : letter 
from Oen. Wlmpfti-n. 1*1, 449 ; at 
Solan, 4S1, *&■>: on hel|;hla o( 
AvroD. 4SII : hindered In t^rla, 


DBben, lU. 
DBnaburg, IDB. 
DOrreutaJn, 48, Bl. 
Dnluwne. 4. 
Dnmaa. Hachlen, ML 
Poa, 48«i 448. 

Dapanlonp, Uibop. prlaooer la Ot» 


Dupiafa troope, BtM, 

Dupont, Klnliter of War, VT. 

Dupont, QsD., obtalni poawMdoa Of 
OordoTa, retire! to Anduiar and 
capitulate, IBS. ^^ 

Durando. 880. 

Durbam Station, STB. 

Duroo, Qen., learea Farla. 8 ; relnma 
with Napoleon to Pari* after the 
Riudan CampalgD, 1)9; dined 
treatlea between FraDoa and 
Spain, 18L 

DwIdb rJTer, 109, 110, 111. 

Dyle river, ISl. 

Xartr, Oen.,S7S. 
Eba&bers, n. 
Ebenbars foreat, ML 
Eberadoil. 88, 80. 

Bbn> rlTtr, IM, 1«S, IBS, IM. IDT. 
BeltiniUil, Frinoa ofninaat), N. 
XckmOU, n. Battle, AprO m, IBOB, 



EgTPt, Bonaparte laavea, Anc. M, 
inO, 1 : Deaalx retunii from, II : 
toraee In, M ; Plcton at Qnatre- 
Braa i " Twanty-elxhth remembar 
BcTpt," M ; Qonnunaot pre- 
TvntSpanlih Tleetfrom ooallne 

B3ba, BoramisDtT aooeptad br ITapo- 
leon, 1814, 881 : Beturo of Napo- 
leon from, ISlBi SH ; Kapoleoa at. 
HT, 889. 

Elb4, Oen., bulldlnc of brldce at 
Stodlanka, US. 

Elbe rlTer, 84, SS, 188. 184, IS, 188, 140, 
I4S to 140, Iff, IBl, IM, Ut, 819, 
860. SS9. 

Elbe,Arai7 of the, 870, 881. 88S,IM, 

Blltlng. TO, 

El Caner, ttH. 

Elchlngen, Duke of (Ney), 43. 

Elcblneen, Battle of, Oct 14, IBOG^ A 

EUiworth, tsacbea the ZouaTe drill 
to a Chli^iro Companj. 888. 

E] Poao. MS. U4. 

Eloaaahauwn, 41S 

Elater, 188. IW. 

ElTas, ITS. ISO. 

Ely-i ford, 84«, 84& 

EnKodine. B& 

Eairen. 30. 

England, Fleet at Qenoa, 4 : nibaldlea 
to Austria, 88 ; Kapoleon'i In- 
tended InTadon, n-sl : MapDieun 
tonibdue, 181 ; En^lah In Spain. 
1818, 148 ; Treatr wKb Ponagtl. 
Oct. n. leor, I<B ; oOloen educated 
^ 8IT ; la tlie AmerlcaD War, 



KM; oltoT lo (ho Porto, 478; 

Trealy of Berlin, IBS. 
EnnK, S7. 
Eaos, <9a. 
EniersilorT, BI,Bi 
Ep? rn&y. 9M, 219. 
Ep[ir'*(t ChoTeau of. 21 S. 
Erf url, i3, W, 
Erfurt, Concresa of, IBfl- 
Erliin, ticD. il', with KelJlo at CbKrle- 

rui. «». £19 : at Llgay, Ml, M3 ; 

Bt (Qiimri-Bra».aili.Si7. 
Eniesr, Aruhilukp, BTH. 
Enhlrge luoiiTiLaiafi, lUX 
Envrpjum. ^iMfl. 
EslilSaBra, 4W. 
Ealo rlvor, 171. 
EslH-Sagro, 47S. 
Espnenp, SO. 
E^pliKLteo. lif^n., at Uorcollo,90Q, tor ; 

klUad AC Mogeota. BOlt. 
Eapinr)*ia, 16fl. 

Es9Uu(,-ea. Hi-tV, 91, M, U, Dfi, UB, 117. 
EssonapH, 2S4. 
Ealretw Ca-Htlo, SOO. 
EUln. 4SH. 437. 
Ee ampere. 4EJ3, 
Elogea. 203, lUI. 
Eiropal, 1U2. 
Etroubloa, 4. 
Elrurln, King of, IBS. 
Ell gen, Prill CO, of WOrtemberf!, 148, 
EugetiD, Em press of I ho ^YoDch. 

Fronoo-aerraiin Waruf ItfTO; "It 

aainmefl froTommvot oCduchjof 
NUKBu, %I9: at HuioTerdefmili 
Gorni&u oo&iils, 410. 

Falmouth, U.S.A., 842, S4T, 

Fura^ul. C'apt.. bombanJa uiA op- 
turea I^ew nrloiaoa, £S, SS; tria 
to csp(.ure Vlclubuis, a% 

Faure. G»a., 431. 

Fitre, Julea, proehiiniB Rtpoblicflo 
^Torumeut, 1470, 4^ ; r^ien"'! 
preUmliisrlea of peiu» at Vm- 
SAllless Fob. SS, 1^, 4n. 

FBjpltp villa. 874. 

Fen 1 1 el Ui. 910. 

FOMJlnaad VII. (Prince ct Aituriu) 
ot SpaLD, (QocepJs Chartta IV., 
IgC8. 154 ; summoood to BayooH 
by TiapoieoD ; populati^m inarma 
for, ][*& ; restored to bis ihri^o* 
by NnpolooD, March 33. If14. lOi 

Fenlmanil. Arvhdulifl, 41, 4G. 74. 

FerJlD.iM'l, rrincf" l^nii. ft4. 

FArO't-'hAintioaolM.'. filB, 317, i:^ 

Frrkat I'luhB, SM. 

Ferrirfl. KH. 

FcrriiVi-!!, «S9. 

Ferrol, 30-54. 

Flftncoiira, 3Bfl. 

Fiereck, Uon.. CD. «&. 

Finland, Army of, IM. 

Fiahor Fort, 874, 

Flsmoa, 210. 

Flio Kurks, STB. 

Fluuler, Major, 60S. 

Fl.iudfrs, Froo CorpB ot Frandi, 4™. 



FreDch troops In Part*. MT, 181, 
US : Fnuoo-IUllui Wkr ol 1K8, 
9M ; ■rmr M fiolf eiino, fill ; wkt 
with Prunlk, 1870, 40S ; Ibtbtlitr 
to mlUt&ry lerTlcfl aclcDowledEH, 
4i>l : Oemuui loTMloD ; •rmf 
ornnlBstlon, 430. 

nBtic(i».IJoD)t«, M. 

FrsDcliL, H»K)l«iD'a angirerto, ISl. 

Vrancli II„ Emperor of Qwmmj, 
Boupu-te'B latter to.Sj MBattls 
□I AuBterUta, CO-K: laid dowD hli 
title of Emperor of AlutrU, 1800, 

TrAOCld Jooepb, Emperor, oommaDdA 
AuBtrUa arm; : at VlUafraaca, 

an, sia 

FrancoDla, OL OS. 
FrankTort, no. SffT. SM. 
Franklin. GsD., 838, MO, SU. 
rraoteakr, Q«n., S87, MS, 110, m «S4, 

FnuQM, M, t97, MO, Mt, MT, atS. 

FnooDben, 48. 

Frutor** arm, HI. 

Fnderlck tba Oroat, «, SB, tS, 101, 

Fraderiek Augiutna, Kbw of Saioay, 
wlUl NapoleaD at Berlin, I3S. 

Fiaderlek wiiiiom UL, KIdb of Pma- 
■la, at battle round HaMnnhairnnTi, 
07 ; IllM to KBalgtbarg, OB ; Na- 
poleon often peace to : rehued, 
n ; at Battle of Baulun. 140 ; (ol- 
lowlnK Napolaon, tSO. 

Fraderiek, Croim Prince ol Praada, 
wltli Pruulao army In BUasla, 
Sn ; at Battle or KOnlcgrtt^ 164- 
Xt ; boldini Beasdekln OlraDti, 
400 ; WOrtb and Baarbmokeo, 
414-417 ; Vlonrtlle, 481 : till army 
on the Alme, 44S ; at Sedan, 44B : 
inarch to Parli, 4M, 401), 401. 461 

Fndeilok Cbarlaa, Prince of Pruiisiai 
with Fmsilan Army at Hoyera- 
werda. Sn : at Battle of KBiilg- 
■tUz, 983-388 : sdvanca toPraeus. 
•Do ; oommaiula nction of a«i^ 
man forcea, 410 : BatUs o( VIoo- 
TlUa, 482-4a : at the Koaelle, 488 ; 
■lece army under bli oonmand, 
ISr : miulo Fieid-Karahal, 401 ; 
Battle or Beanna la Boluda, 4<U ; 
ilrlFHhack UnAmif of Booitakl. 
goea to Orlflani and ^Ina po ai M 
■Ion or BloU (Dd Toun, 4H ; BatU« 
or La MuuL, *ee. 

Frederick PtuicIa of Bchwertn, Grand 
Duk^ oHnnundg Gennui mojt it 
tha Loire, 4Sfi. 

FredarlcH. U9. 

FndarickibDni, U3. SU, US-UO, S«a. 

PraamuUa, Col., Ml. 

Frelbeis, 10. US lU. 

Fieiiioat, SML 

PrauiIauMMlt. 40. 

FrledUnit, Battle of, June 14, 1807, 7^ 
74, a)3. 

Friuii, sua. 

Froaohwaller, 410. 

FroBsard, Gen., ■trenfthena fortreM 
at AlexandrJa, 29U ; In command 
at ChUoni. 406 ; attacks Saarbrtl- 
ckttl,418 ; aTacuataaBaarbrOckBD, 
41T; atBattleafVIODTllle,4IO,4aS, 
4£4, 4ES, 43U, 438. 

Fuad Paaha, 4BB. 

FuoDtes d'Onoro, I6& 

Fulda, 807, 8». 


OabroTB, 478. 

GalDM »llla. S«4. 

Galabem. 414. 

□alati, 477. 

OaUda. iTi, ITS. 197. 

QalllpoU, 9M^ 478, 498. 

Qambetta, Leon. leaTM Pari* tn K 
balloon for Toura : to rouH 
couDtrj against tba iDvadan for 

tbe relief of Parti, 430, 480 ; ano. 

ceeda in rousing the nation, 4SS, 
404 ; nearly taken prisoner ; plana, 

4BB, 47S, 474. 

Oanetiky. Qen., 488. 

Gantheaume. AdmliAl, orden for sail- 
ing, to hold the ebannel, n ; 
VlUeDeufa to BKiperate irltb, SI : 
to be freed from blockade at 
Brest ; Latter from Napoleon ; 
iMTea Breat, It ; retumitoBreet. 

Garcia, Catlxto. US. 

Oarda, Lake of. 810, EH, 813, S18. tM. 

Gardanne, Qan., French adtuoe 
Kuard under. 14. 

Garenne woods. 447, 4M). 

Oarfleld, Freddent, 8S7. 

Garibaldi, Oulseppe, Free oorpi 
nnder, HO ; aeneral la Bardlnlaa 
army. 808 ] hla chasseurs, 310 ; to 
attack paiuee from Lombardy, 
m : hla force. 898 : attemptlDf 
oonqueM of the Italian Tyrol. SOB ; 
at nan - Brelaach, 488; occnplaa 
Dllon, 474. 

Garibaldi. lEeaotlI,4SS. 

Garibaldi, Bidottl, 401, 40. 

Oembloui, es, M8, BIB. 

aemOnden, 890. 

Oeaappe. «s, em, sw, 2S1. XB. 

Oenertrello, tfT, Me. 

OeneTa, MapolaoD entara. Ha* T, 

GeoeTa, Lake of. 4. 

Oanava, Binraeno to protect ■Mi.ccaat, 

■upposad retreat to. 18 ; to be In- 
dapendent, SS ; Frrnch troops 
•Bter and oocnpj, ISSO, m, £™l, 



Oeorco m.. Bonaparte'* letUr to. 
Dec, K. 17VB, 1. 

GforitP. >Ir., quoled. 113. IIS. ISO. 

Unirfiia, IS»I, 3£I.Sia,a6H, 301, 170.874. 

(lera, 14. 

Oeren), OeD., hia corps In coDfusiaa, 
ZH : Nnp^leon's anyinn to, H\ ; 
aUvauua on Ligny, repuUea, &U ; 
at (JuBtrp-Uraa, 3W. 

QornmriiA pljmk r^>H(l. 3GS. 

derma nna l\ird. MB. 

tieniiani^IowD. ^[3H, 

Qerntanyt Murejtu^a army tn, 10 ; 
Baulh. [D hands ft French, et : to 
bfliDVAileJ- 35 ; NafK>1eoa^subject 
to destroy tliA Erupir«, &f Ipeople 
no longer reliKlou". IW ; FniDoe 
to glva up all i^lalma !□, BM ; 
SouLh (iisrmans with Seliwaiien- 
twr^, ^1 ; nJlltary aerrlco [n, 
4M ; Oernian [amdlea eipelled 
from TarlB, 420, See also, Prussia. 

GeraierahoLb, 41 B. 

Gerona. BlFgsof, 17R. 

Qeronlmo, &'>H. 

Qetlyabun!, S.W, n54, 

Oheut. Lull Is XVm.. (ties to. 229. 

Olbrallar, Flraitu, 31 ; Ketium at. 1(2 ; 
lo be eichikaged for Portugal, 

GlUy, 23t:. 
GitBchin, BSt, SK,. 

Oiutay, Fk'lil-Slurnhal, commands 
Anslrliin tofcoa In Italy, ms, SDO, 

Sebaslopol. 291 ; Fall i.f S»t»5(» 
pol, XQ3 ; destroys fortiflcatianl. 

QosHlies. S33, Sae, I3T. MO. 

Oolha, SW. 

Ooureaudi Gen.. ESISl 

Gourll Sluden. *T9. 

Gourki?. G?n.. Shipka and HuM 
Passes. 4n<: at I'leToa. 4S,fiti 
at the Shipka Pasa. «a]-4ML 

Goumay, 4S9. 

Graham. Gen., at Tlttorla, 1% 

UramoDt. 410. 

Granada entered by ttta Frrttb. IK. 

Grant, Gen., capturo of Fort Html 
and Fort Doi.elEon, 'SiT: BitlJf cf 
Shlluh. aeo. 33i) ; besje^ng Vtck* 
burg, M9. !&:•. aSH: head nt mlU- 
tary divLslc^n of Ml^it<fil[<pi.£3: 
Bnllle of the WLJdemesii. K»-JB, 
BG8 : made LIculpDaBt-GeDtnl. 
seo ; on Sheminn's march thtoujli 
Georgia. 57", 371 , STB-S^H. 

Gravelotie. 423. 424, 430, 431. m *^ 

GraTina. Admiral, In Cadli. tl ; laiM 
lo Ferrol. S3. 

Graz in Styrla. M. 

Urazau's dlvltloD almost dnlnytd, 

Great St Bernard. Bonapartel 
passage of the. 3-8 ; Desall'l n- 
mains In Ibe moDikfllery. 1& 

Oreenp, Lieut,, ««, 4^0. 4W. 

Gcenohle. 33S. 

QrenTlIM, Lord. Secretary of BttUk 
Reply to Konaparte. v. 


H. Ibmrr, Ttm. «T. 

Hertart, BUacr, flimliry tt Wm, 

~,|. .- ,-_ .w — ^ u.11,1- m 

*i-mi«ii. nn Hertmrt. *r«. 

H>d.», n i H i C awiL ■ 
BalkKL Colb. n, Mt. acalDK. Jn 

BaUeek. OOL, Ml, m, n, ML B^n-DvBtawlt, Uiocs fms-M 
HaUiM,*n. rUckuMco iwn ii ptn 

p.»cit l i nHt i H ownH i BMn Bvila r./ GrsTfbxu. «:-<~ 

rtiia (If. IM : i^ilHd, lUjii, UU, Hm. Ga . u CqtaWtt. Hf : i 
IM, 144 1 Direiit M, Ul. betc^u of FmUk. K 

lUMiln — nnrs «rMoa. iiM»— « 

auil^. Oco., » tK,II^ ^^ 1M.M: MlMAtftk 

llMiiiiiiniiiil im HIIIrr.i>*.KAtaMk«T.TT:«rt«w 
Baaaai, in, in W. Ih^q** Su>4«rA W ; Mlaffe 

BMFoek, W. B.. oa C mHi t t BUn, Aaptn. « «. 

~- *tiud«) ■* Bloodr A^*. Hmwi. Ss^al Bvmf «. 

SI 1 with Araj of Pali— f u tirtEsdc »: ; vch SmIbib. IK : 

BbM1« o( tl» wlldnM. MI-«& ds[«wtad in ik* aMb, «W ;, 

I^kat pa^ tn. nant •» IMTa ~ - - 

BaBBfbal'i vavac* mr A* A^ at BcifvlM. KT 

(lodladlnr B(iaaBaiU.L fOivm. fTT. 

Hasomr. Xlac oTm M : aee n ti Hoehkircli. U» : aaMrrf k* 

niiMtoii tsriM, Ht, 1« 

Hawinr. Cnn PitacM iK. HI BrrtaliM tltnajl. n. 

', neoaaoM << 1MB. M : H^ 

BtnwiiiUa ai. M; wrkaawiil to H'^ «. M. 

rrvMia, « : aa apiila of diKcinl HcAmHbAw C»a»Md» ^. lint 
tatw«a ABlrta and bdaad. K. IV. a featrt* <!«■(><« 
~ : tnmfaat Watailoa. Ml K« ; V: )aayj-fcjmri V7 •^Hn^a^. X 

Preiila u ie i i ai M tnopa for ta- HtkralrAi. Frtaer -At kauH -Y -:m 

laakn nf, IM(. CM: arar aa- Saa>- CI W ; «a ;-«! V. '■•^lu' 

Ml : aw d«eUn4. «: inl-miM tr itmm. W *- « 

Job* It, MO ; trmj tatvaa to atCnfwxM. Mt 

Buiartiaa^m : BUU* of Laa- K-.daf.rna. H ; kAxMaa *>«wV.<w 
wiMli«,IW,r- - 

■aaonr JaaeUoa. ME. R-Aaad. Kia^ 'X V'AMMar* im»« 

ITii tovM, KiapoWaa B uwI^jm In. »■ —w 

H eomp— ■dbyiBftiiC.B- »laa). arMaa '^ r H -a -* 

Daaaiiatli- Devanmcau M m ^ itf i «rv*4 acttaiK « w>^i a 

trun rraaea. m. (M lJa»i>M V M>v}.mia * -n 

■ardlBMa, Col., prrrmta i^mt et tto rnva EanMv »t rfatrx 

taclUi at Afbava, tS. ir, pn «> aA ^ii i vt >W 

HannaaU. <T8. __ II',41r b^ «< 

Harpw* Farn. Ml. MO^ Ml Ml. H» H-Jim-£»t. M> 

bcUA at Albava, tS. ir, ■ 

naaaU. <T8. II',41r f 

rpw* Farn. Ml. MO^ Ml Ml H» H-iaf-l 

BarTkoB^ LaaUKM Cteuar^MrtiH MV •*«•»>•• 

■aaHabaa^B. «, ■>. tiom w ■tvk'Ji of t. ^h>« n. . 

■Mfwtu. Coaat. «M( Ir m^iaa *• av4aacs '^Tai'.v* f'-^K »>< 

RanMLMT. bataM Mr< M: r •*'.««''>•>'«• r 

HaaalL Mb. (M ; *.(■*■■>(>« tf^t,m^^ v. -'> 

■ aaii^ 'jf ana/ -> '•« f-etr-^, 

IImiI WTttte ^— wnlnrr Aar- I v t***- l>vM ■ ww# t-. »w . 

hiR BatUa of J«aa : ttaa V> ta «,Kfv:>< MX.**) , vMb '>4 

•larMDbnx. M. itmf. n» m 

■alae. dfaalpUaB of VaBtiaoa'i I fcir f t^MH. MavtiM^V^*^ '4 
tai>d,tL - >wiaw« y*t U »7*H. M 

2 J 

i«i"' 'f^- ■ ^- *8. at 

, V"^'. ^', W. 3, 
tAm'" Hllm.], ."^'■8 



mtk, am., n. 

laMdbiMn. WT. 

KatW^ IIS. IK. 

b»fe*, o«D , tn, na, *a. 



KaramakH Alp«, TB. 


Kl-V-. 1«> IM. I*T> >*>■ ■**■ 

MibM lUnan, K 10, IT. 
- , Aitmlr£lt- 

.0«B., th*b«fi>ot Vklmj', 

M Mmms, li. IT ; at 8lrubii 

M: U BaUW or Lrlptiit, I! 

of. MB : >^ QOM: 

Btm, Ma ; Onnto da Valinr. V*. 



mm^^omt^* Oartbaldl to vracu- 


J. Kuic ot Tnuala at. 100 : 
WiW r»MK« U.. 78 i Fnach 

9|^Sn m Mth MO. N>. 400. 

(Ola. bflMilnir !■> Ih* Fnneh, 
; M oe wi plaa by Um Pni*- 

Kur riTOT, 477. 

Xuluwi. Priniw. eommaacllne artnir, 
M ; rvtroat lo MoravlA. 4U ; ■vnJi 
man to HallnbruDH : pn>po«al>lo 
Kapoloon tor nniilsllee : raachH 
OlmQU 1 tallurp <>( Napolcoa'* 
Idaufor annlhilntlne hia annjr : 
at Olmllta : lndi>i.-i>l la ailM'k 
Kapplaoci at GrUnn, ») : Oimeral- 
In-ChlBf nnilet Empsror Aloi- 
aader, 09 ; In AUTir^riie rommand 
of Rnalaaanny, KiS srlecU ths 
Borodlno.114 ; pLaa fur tli« dnttk*. 
116 : defMlvd Sept. G, IIG ^ nl 
Tanitlno. BttarWfd by NAiHili>oa. 
119 : atuti-ka Frvncli Army at 
ViU[ua.lZI : ralliwiUruid knay 
of Vmux, 1)0-1 tn. 


_ iiw, 114, lit. 


glMllir riLimlral. tUl*d, Rt 

bav.OaB^ *niiT of Black Poraat na- 
air. ) ; datotad at StokMfc. 4 ', 
dafaaud and drlTni to tha 


L'Artleua, D*. 418. 

Id BMof Ore. tOO. 

La BeUe Alllann, IK, Ml, M^ 

Laber riTw, 70, Oi, 

La Chapalls. an. 

La Ch*ne Populrui. 44)L 

La Cussis, dua C(re|rolr« da. lU. ITiL 

L'AdtnlraulI, at BeCx. 4au. Ua ; ai 

Vloniilln, 400 ; Oraialotus 40U, 

LaJroDB Islaada, US, BOO. 
I* F*™. 4TO. 

La Kfric-viuaJouarnjJCIh 
t Ji Fol(e Famhoua*. 4B0. 
La Hays Sainln. Fann. Ka, Kt.tU, 

im. wi,m,SM. 

Lalbach. M. 

La Hanclw, tOO. ITT, 101.410. 

La Marnura, 0«i., M, HO, »1. Ml. 

Lambro Hrar, MM. 

La MonMlIo, 440. 

Ijt HcptI«rou^. 0«Q., BOO, 40L 

1 jiMiUbut, TT, n. ». 

I juidwabr, do. 

I jincanattaa balUa. OOi, MB. 

l^nccma, M, til. 

Lanrna. m. KB, KIT, W, MO, 4« 

Lanirvv, 440. 

LauDH. On. Jaan. la tha pnaaga at 
U» Onat nt. IMrMrd, t~T; 
croH«l (ha IV>, aod halUe, II, 1% 
mraat. ifi : ai Mamri:'), IT { 
Hoslrmill I'ami'. » ^ I'ltn cam- 

EKiirn, V^-tS ; marr.b In Aiia1<r< 
ta.4T. 40^ Holds o( AiKldllii, 
BO, or ; la Btttarta, *LM Jaoa, 

et' riWouI. n i nar^M «■ 
!■»■>■■■. rr : iuti>toa mvf^ 

■I j adTuMi h»i M«rtli|ia. m, 
tt : dafMla HdmHA at Tu<1fla 
l« ; )»■<•«>* iSidala, m 1 dwtt 
KaTniiA Ai 

no, no. Ill, til. no. Hi 



La Rocca, da, no. 

I« Bi>nuui% karqntode. In Dennutrk; 
•Dien BpKin, ITC, in, IBD. 

La BothUn. SOS, KB, 


IdSonda. SOI. 

Laliiar d'AoTerBiia, killed at Heu- 
boiT. n ; XoDumimt araotiid, 11. 

lAtternuuui, at BatUaofHuanso, 
K IT. ^ 

I^DlTaalio, RM. 

LaarlatOD, Gen. A. J., hUIdb irlth 
TUlaneure, n ; at tortnm of 
Bnunan, <T ; dlivaa PrOHtanl 
barood the Katibwdi, I<7 ; at 
BatUfl OC Lelpilc. IST, IN, UO. 

[Atuaona, 4. 

Lantar rlvar, 4tC 

I^utarburg. 414 

biral, MS. 

LaTarno, K». 

LaTlllete. «. 

Lgbnnf, Muilial, war mlnlrta; Mat*- 
iiiant M ta FnoBh umr, 406 ; with 
Armj ot Rhlna at Hata, 4W ; re- 
moTcd from oott of mlnlitar of 
war. 480 ; at VarnlTtlle, 414 ; at 
BaClla of TloDTUIe, 4W ; Battlaof 
araTBlotto, 410, at ; priaoaer of 
war, 4ai. 

Ls IJi)"rgat, MO. *TI. _ . 

Lcbrim, connul, l; cbiaf ot ItalT, at 
CTiKElano, ana ; with ArmT of tba 
Khlne at Metz. 490. 

t.a ClitlLon. farm, HI. 1X5. 

Leclirl>er,S4.3<l, 40.41.411. 

Leduurbn, Gen., B, £0. IS. 

Lee, Geo. R. E.. commaDda Confa. 
derate Amiy In Vlrf^lnJa. 339 ; 
Bsllla of Klchmond, 333-34S ; op. 
insed by Hoolcer, S4C.S4S ; to In- 
THdo tba NoKb, MB : collecU 
army at Culpepflr and croHoea 
tbe Fouminc. MS ; to Hawrs- 
towD ; coaccntralea at Gottya- 
burf;. ASO ; at St^mlnary RjiIed, 
tea. tiS : defeat at BIochIt Anel^, 
^i ; retreat ; then loss. SM. 3S5 : 
Battle of the Wlliteraeas. 301 to 
3tfJ; otUckiiJgylieriniu. aV(; centre 
■ttucliFil by GnnC S7S ; dnfut«d at 
PoteiiiburR, Hid ntmU, STS; lur- 
rendorH, STO. 

IiSfebvre. lUanbal. Id Mainz. SB ; at 
liurKna, IIW. lOD. 

Iiatebire-Desnouellea. Geu,, taken 
prisoner at tlio Elsa. ISl ; at Wa- 
tarloo. aw. 

La FoDtaae hamiit, SIOl 

L4«atIotu, IB, 13. 

Lagbori], II. 

LaKOago, KS. 

Laenano, im, SK. 

Ls^rota, 110,111. 


Lalpiig, Napolaoa to aebw, IH; 

raaebad, Itajr K, IBIS, 1« ; alBM 
doalni to capture. 147 ; cobood- 
tnt^, IN. I» : Battle of Lrt»- 
|djr, Oct. 14-11, Ibis, wa-in, la, 

Lalpdr farmhouae, 480. 

Leirla. ISfi. 

Le Hana, 400, 40(L 

Lomnoa, 4Tt. 

I>a Mur, m. 

L'Enocq^an., TO, It, 

Larala, fTB. 

LlohtanatalD, Frtoce, H, BT, 8T, M; 

M, SIl. 
Uck creek, m. 
LlebartwolkwIM, 1E7. 

LI^urlA forlresd, 16, 

Linn, as, sai, sas, i5B, 470. 

Llnarea, GeD.. £rfi, 

LlDColn. AbrshBoi. Prenldent of U. 

B., elected. Stt) : calls out mllttla, 

BSS ; letter to Gen. Rooinr. SIS ; 

re-pleoted preaidact, S70 ; mufdeT' 

ed, 370. 
Llndannu. 1N9. IK. 
LlDdetibiir^, 401. 
Linz, 4V, M. 

Llpa hlllf , 9»6. 188. SSS. 
Lisbon, 32, 162, 104, ITC-ITB, IBS-iee.lST. 
Llssa, 393. 
Lithuania, 105, 
Lltlle Riter.Wo. 
Little Round Tup, 351, MB. 
Liverpopl, Lord. ISO. 
LIvy sludle^I by Napoleon. B. 
Lobnii, IslnntI of, 8s. 83, W, 81. M. 1ST, 

USB, SR £55, Kfil.Sm. 
Lobkowlii'fl dragoons, 15. 
Lodl. .1011, 880. 
Loeroflo, IBfl. 
Lolffnj, Bottle, 408. 497. 
Loire, J(»-105, 467-400, 47B. 
Loira-el-Chor, 473. 
Loiret, 472. 
LoIaoD, 118. 
Lorn. 4Sa 

Lombardy, B. 18. 35, 4«, !04, aDB. SOI, m 
Loaato, 311, 
Lotii^Irect'B division. S37, SKL Ua, 

S4B. ai^3s«, SEB. sea. ses. 

Look-out MouQlalEW, 359, saO. 

I.:aDtcha, 484. 

LoojL, Counls of, WI. 

Lorraine, Blilcher advances throa|1^ 
20£ ; Napoleon advancca upon. 
El,'., i!17, SID : mnclier on franllers, 
isa : Fnintao armytnaralMabito, 
411 ; PniBlBiu Id. 4GeL 

Lorry wood,4M, 

Loul* XVm^ m 1 fllei to LtUa and 
ahaat, no i waliiniMi atixlant 
f or raatoimlloa o^ W. 



Loola Phlllppa, tS!. 

LouuiiuM, &», UI, Ml. 

LoutilBiiB Tlgsn, S5*. 

Loulibuia, PoUc Prototsntbiihopot, 

LoulBTUIe, SGS. 

Low Countrie*, Arror of, BU. 

LublDo or Valutl DO. battle of, III, 

Lucu>, Lord, K7G, STi. 

LudwlK. Aniiidube, T7. 8^ 

LDUelsMIn, 4 IS. 

LOtien, ISS ; Batlle of, U&v «, 1818, 

139. l»t, W, ISB, lU, Itt. 
Lngo. ITl. 
LnnArllle, Necotlatlona nt, M ; Fmob 

of, Feb. <K IBOl, !8. 
LoMtla, IM, fin. 
LiUltuU, north, ElnKdom of , IBS ; to 

be EtT«o to Kins of Ktrurla^ 

Luxemburg, SS. 

LroM, SIB. no, ai, aa. im, ««. 

BoAlliter, fort, SJ*. 

McCleltwi, Oen.. torlifle* Wuhlanoc 
and ornnlBliiE the annr : Uen- 
enl In-chiof ofall •rmlM : attaoks 
Torktown : Battle of WUllama- 
bura : Fair Oaki, BU : RlchmoDd. 
H»4i3 : oiipoeH Unsalii tor pnal- 
deucy^ STO, 

MeTn]]. ileD.,3ai. 3a6. 

MaciloDnia, ripn., E. J. J, A., Armjr 
of re^ervQ under, S3, 34, £7 ; paa- 
Bags of tho SplOgen, 87 ; follows 
Archduke Jobu over the laonzo, 
&1 ; at Wagram, 93. W ; to crois 
the NI?rncn. J(t6 ; advaDclDR on 
Milan, lin : at llllui. Iia ; return 
from Russia, 130: at Battle of 
LUCun. 13T : nuulien, 140 ; DrM- 
den, 147 ; arlvaace aji:a[D«t army 
of Slleqia, IbT : driifu back. 159 ; 
Battle of LsiiiiiK, 1S7, IM ; on the 
Rhine, IW, %3 ; at OuiicDes. 9i» ; 
eX the Aube. 9je ; beaten at Ver- 
ni-infays and retreat^ EIS. il6, 3li, 

HoDovelt, a«n.. n4, DO, VT, (88. 

Hack. OsD- with Auitrian ■rmr oa 
the Lech to march Into Swicmr- 
land, W : Battla of Ulm ; Armr 
deatroyed. 40-13. 4S, M. 

Hackende'i farm, S70, SH 

MoKlnleT.Preeldeat,aanouBcea block- 
ada ot North ooaat ol Cuba, 4M ; 
order* for GoTamment of Santia- 
go. SOt, SOT. 

Hotiiiwi. at Bartier'a Ferry, 330. 

HoLean'a fort, as. 

llapUaboB, Ota., u tall ot Babaatopol, 
M i vUhKapal»oii,Mt i oppowi 

by AustriaDa, SOl-T : Mneenta 

Sainetl, recelvea title of ttuke of 
lageutH,, 3UU ; foils to stoi) AU*- 
trliiDsat the Adda. SW; Baltteof 
S,jlIerlDO, 3TO.317 ; with Army of 
the South at HeCz, 400 ; Battlo ot 
Wulflsuuburp', 4J1t-4J5; fonns ■ 
new Cabinet at Paris. 419, im: 
\he march to Sedan, 4)I8-44S ; at 
Bnlnn. -14^, 443 ; prlBoaer. 4SI. 

KcPherKin, MO. 

MadoQua della, Scopart* height, SIO^ 
,11V, 3in, aiS. 

JlatlrlJ, Munit enters, March S3, IHW, 
101 : putfl down Insurrection, ISO ; 
Jcaeph King of Spain t-nterv, 
July lio : compelled to withdraw, 
]ti0 ; Nnjhrlcon mnrchen to, and 
town cnpltuiated. WJ. ITO ; King 
Joseph rfdtored, 173 ; Wellington 
threatens, 179 ; Oen. Arelzoes 
triea to re-conquer, 181 ; Welling- 
ton enters. Auguat Ifl, 138 : Wel- 
lEn^on Leave:^, and King Joeeph 
returns, but rvtreAta. IM, iw ; 
Dfwey'a tioBlruction of Spaaldi 
Fleet received at. 18S18, 4M, 

MaeBtrlcht, JJB«,WB. 

Alagdebure, 134. 144. 

MagcDIn. Duke of. See HacXahon. 

^lagento. Battle. June 4. IKB, 903, 9A, 

M.igglore, Lago, 91B. 

MoBruiler, Oen., BK, 

Mnilly. SI a, 

Main rlTer. U, S99, 

Main, Army of the, S98. MT. 

Maine. Kemeniber the. 436. 

Mniui, ax. 39. in, 193, im, luo, mo. 

Moisun. lien., OOe. 

11 alt land's guards. ESS, tB3. 

Ualakoft. Sti. em, 273, ES7. ESS, MO, ett, 


Malmateon, Bt, 4SI). 

MaloyaroslaTetL 113, ISO. 

Halts, at. 

Malrem bill, 333. 

Mamel,™,'>i7, S88, MO. 

Mana«,4A<, Jitnctlon. 333, 8S7, 338 ; gap 

railway. IK 
Mance rlier. «M. 
BUiima,iaB,ita. wr-sot. 
Mannhatm, K, 
Maoataln. tlO. 
MwitwiSal, 0«iL, 380. 410, 430, M, (Tl, 

Ibntua, IS. IS, n, 30, 909, Sll, lU, lU, 

Manianllla, BOO. 
Uarban. 330. 
Harcello, Scr, 308. 
Harchanolr. 438. 
Xarohf eld, 84, BB, 30, m, 30. 
Hanhlenua-an-PoDt, no. 
MaMOfo,!! ; Kapoleon iMaplalBi of, 

IS i Battla, Juu 14, UN, Ift-lO | 



Marengo nnd Waterloo, 19; an- 

uivffrsBiy ot, £S9. 

'■ Harle-Lnutses." The, 101. 

MBrionburc Tg. 

Marlptln, »i9. 

MMiopol, SSO, 

MsrlCza Valley. 478, 480. 

Msrkkleobsrp, 137, 

Marlbori>iii:li. U^s. 180. 

UkTmiput, Mnr^hal. at the passage ot 
the Qreat Ht. liernard, t ; at 
MareQ^D, 17 ; tti set out for 
MqIde. 3ti ; moved to the liin, 47 ; 
Icnvcs tbolllyrian proviocea, &f ; 
Bt Wneram, W, 07 ; LOUen, 1S5, 
180 I Bnutwa, HO, Ml ; wlthNey. 
154 ; Biiiilo ot I.oipEiK, 156-100 : 
■uperBcdeB Uass6na, 18S ; takea 
commsiiil ot the Army of Por- 
tUKa)- 1^: Baltle ot Balamaacn, 
187-103 ; on the Rhino. 107 ; driven 
heCore the TrusalarkS ; ntCh&lona. 
BOa ; to Stmnrc, Ml ; at Cham- 

Eauhert : ro 11 rlnp before HlQchpr. 
ut turn, 301; holds PlUoher lu 
checli, a» ; torcad to retire, »00 ; 
nttncke Hmiy nt Sllenia: routed, 
ei3 ; (o keen QTUchcr b?hltid the 
ALene. Sin ; in contact wlUiarmleB 
marchlD^to Palis, ^1; defeated 
At UomFilnvLlle. capitulatos, £33 i 
letter to Napoleoa, 2tM. 
Uarno river. sSe, SOS, 3)9, SIT, 440, 
467, 470. 

MecbuiicsTlIle, 334. 

Heck lea burg^iSchvreiin, Duke of, 0( 
4M. 4m. 4W, 460. 

Nodellin, 177, ITS, 

Uedlct. Uen.. sra. 

HedluB del Rio S^co, IfiS. 

Modols, 81I-S15, ai7. 

Weerveld. G6n,,I68. 

Meerveldl, 48. 

Uehemet Ah PBahfL,comiitand4Annr 
of the Danube. 479 ; at Bas^rxl, 
4fli) ; directed from CoDSTan- 
ClDoplo. 431 : drove BukIuu 
back, 43E : Hupeiscded. 481 ; U 
UoDteoef ro, 48S. 

MBlnttipen, IWT. 

Mela?. Gen., prevented from cn^6*^iii: 
the Ax>enninee, 3 ; blockodrt 
lUjiBt^'tia In Genoa. 4 ; Geaoa 
caplEulHtcs. 9 ; at Mareob^, 11, 
13. 14. le-lS ; wuuDded. 10 ', per- 
mltteil to reUra to Uaiitua.U; 
recalled. SS. 

Melegnnno, 309, 

niolllnet. SOG. 

Mcmel, 73. 

^lemmin^en. 40, 40. 

MemphlH. 3X9, 355. 

MenchllicfT, I'dnce, IK8, 370, 278. 

MeDlIrnDDlant, XS3, 

MertdB, 177. 

Merlin, Van. S18. 

M?TTimai:, auuk, SOIa 

Mfiry, ai7. 

Hesira, SQ3. 



UlDik. lOS. IDS. 
MiruDila, t«8, IW. 

Uln BkT, lie. 

Htaloiurr Ridge. BGO. 

Mitlnlppl. rao, S», SBS, >ST, aoa, B7S. 

KiHouH, an, ■». 

Kltao, IDS, lia. 

HltcbeU-t troopL SM. 

KltcbeU'i lord, M, MB. 

MobllB, MI ; 

HWksni, tit, sia. 


HBlk monaaMTT, SL 

HDnklrch. SO. fl. 

HoblleT, 110. 

HokroToul, >87. 

UolJior, Gton., at. 

HoUsndort. Field - BfanliaL » ; 
woundfld. m. 

UolodeUchDo. 128. 

Hollks. Oen., arden to Pnudui 
■rmy. 407 ; bend ot BUS, 410 ; 
plan to dstain Fieach ■rm'r. *S* ; 
kt Battle at OmelotlB, 4M. tM : 
plan tor eoTalopinK tbe French 
■uccnedi, its ; lA Bedaa, VO, 4G8 J 
created ■ Count, «1, 471 

Von cells. 447. 

Moncer, Gen.. *. 11, SI. ISO, m. 

UondeRO riTsr. 160. ISt. 

Monoler't dlTislon, IS. 

Monroe, S33. 

Mont ATron. 4«9. 4T0. 

Mont Oene're. HH. 

Mont'^laUJeu. £50, E», nC OS. 

Hont Valerian. 497. 

Mont« CealB, 10, BM. 

Honts Fenlle, SIO. 

Hoote Horo. 4. 

Houts Rotondo. KV. 

Hoot* Vnito, SBSL 

UoDtbslalrd, 4T4. 

Honlabello, Bi^lJe of, UajX, UN, 11, 

MoBtBDegro. *M. 

Montereau, IDS. 

MonlBj-, 4S0. 

HonllRn]-. 4X1.4^1. 411. 

Montmagnj-. 4r.7. 

UDntmedr. 44<i. <U«.«45,tB0,4a 

Mpatmnrtn'. ?rj 

Uontmlrstl. Sii3, SOI. 

Monl^Jo, 605. 

Mont re tout, 471. 

Montriiull, So. 

Monia, BOS, 

Uooro. Sir John, Mrliii Napoletm In 

Spaia, lt*-i-ii : klUad, in. 
Horaila. 47, it, Tri. 
Uomau, Oen , 8 : bsati Erar at 

Btoknch. 4, 10, 1 1, tO-ia ; Battle of 

HohcnliTiden, i»-V, kt Ureses, 

147 : killed. 113. 
ilarfontnlDO, 197. 

Honant, ML 
Honii. Oen., 17). 
Horro caatle. SOO. 

Morsbmnn. 415- 

Morlier, Usn,. IM. Ifi7, ISB, 17^, «■, US, 


Mofloou farriihou&e, 4J0. 42J, 13S. 

Moscow, Napoleon's niarcli to, IM, 
ll»-llfl : entorn, Sept. 14, IMl, 
117-1^ ; reireut, i2B. fJI. lU, im. 

Uosello, Tl». 408, 413. 4S3, 411, CM, 
4i». 43U, 43fl, 43S. 430. 474. 

Mciskra, 114. 1^19. 

Molternugc 307, 463 

Mount St. Nlcbolos, 4M, 

HoDton, IS9. 

HOUIOD. 442-MS. 

HoihaUk. I«a 

uaffltng. Gen., HI. 

Htlbtdorf. S6. 

HDnchaDeritc 38S, Ml 

Mulda. IM. 

Munioh.Sl, 41, 47,77, 

Mural, (J,!n., cavalry committdd to, 
4 ; at ciinipaiEU of L'lin, 40, 41 ; 
miuTli lu AuHturllLi , 4H-nO ; at 
Auatorllti. dli. &!> ; lu Baiorlai BS; 
In Baiony, 04 ; Jena. 05, CO ; on 
the VisiuJa. 09; at Eyiau. TV; 
march to >4raoli*nsk. 110. Ill ; at 
the li'.njillno. 115,110; Mokow, 
117. Iim ; Ikirpilna. 130 : relurued 
to bis hlnifdntn of Naplee, Jan., 
lets. 1«> : Ballle of Unulcvu. 140 : 
Drssrlen. 148 ; kepplna Aiinlriana 
In ch^ck. and rutr^alito I'dpEltf, 
lU : Bflttlo of LeipilK, 157. 158 ; 
enters Madrid. 1S4 ; Imurrecilon 
put down. 1%; SoiiU't ■mUtloa 
to b« bia equal. 17<L 

KuBiessy, AdaUnit, BL 

Haohod. MS. 

KaroBr, K. 

Kamur, 04, Ml, MS, OS, M. Htt ML 

Hancy, M, m, 4>1. 

Nanglm lOS, HIIl 

Maidea, Bourbooi to b* dHna tren, 
K [ EnEllsh and Ruialati troop* 
to land In. M ; Murat ratuma to, 
US ; ordend to laaTO, 140, ItO. 

Naplea, Army of, M. 

Kapoleon Botiftpart«, le«TM Effyp^ 
Aug. M. ITSB : laoda In Franca, 
Oct. a: FInt Connil, Mot. »i 
Lettar to Oaorgs m., D«. X, 1 ; 
Lett«r to Emperor Fraocla It., B J 
Laaras Paiia for GenaTa. May B, 
1H» : to Innde lUly by the Qrmt 
St. Bernard, S : tbe pasaaga ot 
tbo Oreat St. Bernard, »-T : en- 
tarol Uilan, JiUM 1 1 r^MUb- 

SPk Oct. BT/lS^^rti "l^'l 
..SS""!! ot r'll:, ""■ '09; Co 

^ ieiMa7 : ^l"'^^,, ai.^ ,;,t J 




Shipkm PUK. «!. 4CB, 4M. 
tneopcXiM, 4n. «», 4SD. MS. 
MM. tUnluU. dMpalcbsd to Uw 

CiiRWK, HT. MTlOa ; Battl* o< 

Bolf Frloo. n4-aT. 
mwnmi (Vpfml). KS-ltrr, IML 
Hl^tlDBalr. FIoraDce, OL 

HIklta, PrtDce, Ml 

ink(M>urK. Ml, ««. 

Ki*« Htm-, IK. 

Hivflla rl**r, IM. 

KiTFllH. (M, «ll-«a. 

Ko«Fnl fort. MB, <m. 

KoanBi-mr-Helnr. KB, *DG> S13, tU. 


KoilT. «n. 

Koiu. eBp(..iT&,*n 

KoUnilDrf, ISO. 
Kqnl. «n. 
KorlioRVO. tt. 
KomuiMlT. 461, <70. 
Korth ABU* rlTor, UK. 
KorUi So. tin. 
Koran, tn, KB. 
Nfnl. II. 

Hboto, RidM, K*, n& 


OtwrleichUos, 80. 

Onus, im. 
iMcDWBia, MB. 
Odar, KlTor, tS, m. 

ocUo. >io, m. 
ofiajD. na, £:;r. toi; MS. 

Obki ratlwajr. ■"!. 
OlcBon riTcr, 474. 
Oiw. ns, tat. MO. 

oinats, «, GO, u, BS. >r, «», mt 

OiKhBB, BO. El. 

OtaiiTiaf, an. 

OnuT Paaha, tU. 

opiwta. lA 116, irr, in. im. 

OimaCiw Prtao* o(, M4, MS. 

Onw^ Court Houan, ttt. 8B1, 
OnisKa aod Atoundria BjUlvaj, SIT, 

CRHUr.atlUrMfla, It, 11. 


Onnas, IIR, 

OrlBoeo river, n. 

OrlMO*. K7. 4e3-t<&, 407, «n, 4^. 

Ornr. 4n. 

Onl». HI, m-iaSL 

Ont«r», t. 

OrtOKal. Capfc K 

OrtlMa. BUila oC, Feb. >T. Iffl4, 1(M. 

- - ,«rf,«l.«M.4n.«r,M, 

OMacUo beleliU, ro. 

OiteDd, 17, m. 

Olt, OnB., II ; at UamiRD, 1S-1B, IT, 


Oudinot. OSD.. Kt AiuUrUU, E7 ; 
Wunin, U. M, M ; adTSDca to 
Smolwuk, lOa, 11> ; llie BemiiiK, 
IM, IB; Batilun, 140-141; ad- 
TBOcs to B«rlll), 144, IBI, lU; 
Battl* or LsiKlK, Ift7; oo tha 
8«lD«,»4,iae ;SoGianiaiidLMa, 



Owl Cmk, an. 

Oxford, U.B.A., an 


Pack, at Quatn-Brai.MB ; Watarloo, 

Padua, xei. 

palDiTllIe, Battle of, WT. 

Pnlol'a caTaW. MT, MB. 

PaladJDiM, AurcIlM de, 481, !«, 40. 

PaiMtro. aoo-aoa. 

PalmantoD. fx^rd. ML 

Pamplona, IBS-IW. 

PastlD, e», to. 

PardublU. aw, 400. 

Parla, ST. M. aS, 4^41, K ; Napoliwi'a 
return from RiuiaLan cVEipalim, 
Dec. IS, ISlt, in, IBB : Napolroa 
Id, 1814, MO : PrUHlann marchfuE 

to Parti, iBt4, ms-soB, an, tis. ei£ 

117. no ; capture or, ££!-£» ; 
Dourbooi reiurn, MO : mwHifri-a 
to NapnlcoD,ES8 ; Napoleon') ru- 
turn, ras : enten March SO. Ihl^s 
09; alllealo marcb on. Wl-ESn, 
40e ; coniternalloD In ; lOTern- 
■neat mlEnii, KacMahos tornii 
new cabiaet ; Datlnnnl defence. 
4. 1«, 410. 4n, 488, at. 4<(M4a ; ad- 
Tanca to Parta : empire oter 
tbrowD. 4U ; New RepubUrsD 
OoTemm^Tit proclaimed, 4B0 ; 
Oemiana adTance. ISTO, 4M-B8 ; 
SlecB, 407-475. 

Part*, Am; of, 4S0, 440. 

Parma. 38. 

Paradorf. conTantloo of, ■ ; ■rml& 

PaiKlfrCalala. 471. 

Fiann. Attiniial llonli^ j, 4M> 


PnltersoD, Oea., 884. 


Paulott. at Intvmian. na, tit. 

Pa'la. I1.1MM. 

Pellinler. Qen., no, mi. 

rambfrtod. fien-, 800. 887. 

Penlomila, 887. BT; var la tlw, 18]- 

hoMjInnlaB r«siaMBt, 8HL 



FOponne, 2S1,4TO. 

pprsuiii), SSi. 

ro&^htem, 3S, 3M, 313, 319, STO, WD, 

Pnslol, Lt.-Ccil.Elfl, 
PulBf thn Orc'nI. 110, 
Poleraburi;, Sfil, Mia, 8TJ, S^L 
I'BUrBwnltlii, :17-HB, ISS. 
Pulll, (Ion., Sin. 
fBlll-Uie6lTO. 457. 
PhalihourK. ilS. 
Phillppovillc. !^ll,2»4. 
PlilhpplDC Islaii<l«. 4W. Iff!, Wi. 
PhiKppopiilis, 473, 491-103. 
Plillipaburc Tonress, Ki. 
Phllirpon. IMS. 

Picicenia, 10, 11. SK, 300, Ma, SBO. 
PfcarJ, 3(6. 
Plonnlx.lOl. 470, 
PlekeU's division, ^'■S. 
Plctnn, SliT.. lO). liH;. ajs, ess ; doalh, 

PlpilimiTit. 1. ]H. S3. 131, 8M, BtB. 

Pleiimoutes'.i ftrniy, Ms, WC, S18. 

PI1n,ll. 14. 

Pinar iIdI ItJn. (00. 

Pine MoimtHlna, SdO. 

Pipe C™il( HilN. S50. 

Pircli"H coriks. i:jO. 

Piroa, 140-UO, IW, IM, S80. 

Pill, Rt. Hull. Wm.. 2.44. 

Pillsbiiri: l.iinllns, 3SB. 

piBDceniiit. ^3, an, ax. 

Plappflvill?. 4OT, 430, 431!, 438. 
Plasffncia. iW). 
PInuen ra'-lnp. US. 

Porter. Qen.. S34. 

PortsmouUi, 83. 

Portugal, Prince R^f^eiit of. 103. 194- 

I'orCUKal, 110, Inl ; commeiclal luiu 

of EDglniKl. Gl. 63 : to be [lUIi- 

tloaed, ita. 104. 106. ICT. 
PorliiEHl, Arinir of, lai. 183, IBS. 160, 

Ponpn. 80. 

I'osthenfn, 73. 

Potomnc, 3i!. S3ft-S4fl, SB, 818, S*r, 360, 
Ut, am, 382.973, 87B. 

Poupry, 407. 

Ponoleni^o, 311, 313. 314. 316, 31& 

Pr»BiiB, 1-Sfl, 145. 41j0,40a. 

Pratiou, 64-67. 

Prenn, ItC. 

PresburK, 400, 402. 

PrpMhui-ir. 6'J. CO ; TtmE; o(, 89. TS. 

Probstlieida, l.'pU. 

PfQveuc-i>, EtI. S33. 40^, 

ProiioB, aa. SI3. 215. Wl. 

Pruailft, anuniplM to desert the pod- 
tlon of nciitraUly. 80 : TrcAtjr ot 
ScbonbrQau : Treaty ot Pari*. 
February, I BOG : Arni^ mobllisKl. 
01 ; to Boon coaso to aii'^t.SB : >tlU 
neutral. ^^ ; \var vi<\\ Austria, 
leoo. B77-wa ; with Franc*. 
1870. iOS-j;^, s™ alM, GermaDy, 

Prussian army, an, ai3. 131-S33. SW, 
238. SaS, g4(K3. 2JS, i!17-!i4i>, iSl, SU, 
£III,£G1, 3Hl,Sie.3Ua, 404, 4US. 

Pruth. 479. 

Puobla blights. tSC. 

Puertograpdo. 501. 



BailaUiu. TT-fO. 
■Miea. sii, aiS. 
I Klior, au. 

Badlb I-ulU, 4TV. 

Jun*. 0^,' >t VtfUtriB. IW : diar- 
tomi, m, K7 ; QuMr«-Bnw. SU ; 
WatarloOi fffi; AUaHUnsunp M 

tawMtiraML, lU. 


Riiirnisr. tS. 

IU-Ti">l4>i firaned Ihn lUprNtluwDoak, 

SM : Ucttnbuw b&Ua. tW ; 

dwUi. Bl. 

WmIbm. tt, WV nlS »«. «». Ml, 411. 
Ulna. MO. SK B, M. M, W-m. H U, 

a. iw, i»-m, 14D, !». no, tic, 

•M, mI, 4I0t 411 4M^ «D, tft, 4H, 

RUM. Amy of ctM, M, 4», «l. 4U 
RhodopB DiauoUUu, Ml 


of, B«U X Bru- 

iw. K). Kt-«ai *n-iB9. 
men. ii«.i«iiii 

RliiL KM. 
Kt.tlU, tl 
RlTBUll, II. 

Ml Ml 

RolHCD brt^ir«, MM, KM. 

Moosk d'Auro, 9 
Bodolpli mouoL lA 
BOMdon. 4il-IH. *«. 
I Bota, Tmu 41D, «M. 
EoSwdt, Col., to, 

=^' ■ -0,118. 



Ptlue* at, m. 

IlDuiiiuilk. (71 in. 
RomrtwUlH, 4W. 
RfliMw]. Oml, ta^l 

RuiDburv, ni 

KuHtMCh, 9*. v. 

Ru»lii, KapobaD'i plan ol e>TnMlir" 
■.■t l^ns, » : RuHlu Polksil hnlit 
out 10, Al ; NkpoIhmi^ invaaliin, 
liili. IM-UO, Ue i TroeiM U Sain 
■ooa Md L*M. Ul-n* ; Aniir 
with Um alllM^ IBU. MMMi 
Crimaw War, in4-«l_M«-n> I 
War wlUi Turtaj. WTT-Tl 43»- 




^ M,!*-^^.^! 

Saaltald, as. 
BUT, 411. 
BaArbraoh, m . 
BaMbrackao. 4il 4iT.4», «. 
aaarnmllad, til 411 
aaaiToala, 411 
Back«n. n, m. 
Png^-" ulDUlrj, 4M; 
BaaunD. in. 

Bt. Imaad. *n Ml Ml 

Bl Arawid. HatibaL al Alaa, «1 

«!«•: dauli,tr4. 
Bt. Avoid, 4>l. 
Babt Crr. 0«n, at MauMM. ITi 

Mwaau. ai; auooaaAi^MMel 

Bt. Crr. OoutIod da, at BMIIa at 

Draadan, IK I4» ; bt BpMk W t 

CMabnU Sun*. Wl 
Bt. Cload, m, til 411 4n. 
Bl IHMar, HlllS-m. 
81 aanoalu, n. 


,104. Id til Ml <». 

^ An. H. 

Bt. niib«Tt,«M 

Bl John Had-da-ran, tOT, 

Bt. Maria uia CUaaa. ttl. 4m 

»i. MarUaa Mdn. BS, «tt. 

8t. HiDahoaMrMD, M. 

S«. Hantaa, W. 


BL PaMaabotx. Xapnlaon to aWa*. 

in : Kmp«ro''> laltM' te tba Oo*> 

anor. lOT : Kapolnn'aBtK* tv 

marehloa <in, lll4K,BiL 
Bate) nam. 4. 1 


Balal I'naat, (l«a.,«B«ir lliiMlaM at 

Bi. FrlTat )■ Moalaaa. «1 
84. QitaaUB. tn, m<n, 47t, CI 



Bt. Sebiutlan. IBT. 

BaJuinaiica. ITU, IBB 1 BstUa, UB-IW 
101. no. 

Sale. lit. 

Salem. StT. 

Saluwb, se, 

Sambre. t3l. iSS. 

Bampeon. Admiral, uila for Key 
West IslaD(tI^ 497, 406 ; at Ban- 
tinso : iHimbsnlment, Ul. 

San CasclADO, 313. 

8kd Ciuniaiiu, 31T. 

Bbd Gulliano. 18. IS. 1&, IS, IB. 

San Juan. NX). NB. SOI. 

Sao Martino heights, SIO, SlI, Bll, SIS, 

San SteCono, IBS. 

Satita Clara. MD. 

Sanlarpiq. 18S. 

Santa Lucln Chapel. 802. 

Sanllago. U)Ci-«OB. 

Saracossa. icn. ITO. U4, ]7C. 

Sarilinla. Alliance with France and 
England, SMS; wilh France. In 
Fran CO- Italian War. 18M, lSi-«». 

BarrogulmiDeB. SSI. 

Barth. *73. 

Sauor riverj4I6. 

Baurgron. ItfT. 

SaTa^e^s i tat Ion. 33^. 

Saiannah, 370, 373. 

Savarj, Uen., alde-de-csmp (o Napo- 
leuo, IS. IB ; with letter from 
Napoleon Ifl Emperor ol Riualft, 
M ; Inland oE Lobau. 89. 

Bavcni.'. Xrf, Jlli. 

Saio-Welmnr, I'ukeot. SOS. 

1st ; tvasBBd the Rhlna. KID ; hj 

KB, m, an ; bMU HktiKHMU aid 
Ondlnot »t Vamoiifaya, M; ■) 
Arda^ui^ADba, ns-w, Hi. 

SchwefnKhUgl. tA. 

- Scotland for erer." MS. 

ScoU, Gen., commaodlu FManl 
Army. 323, 3S1, HKL 

Bcrlila. 11. 13. 

Scutari HoapitaL KS. 

Bebutianl, fn^m. 

SebMtoi^ attack on, ISM, KI7-C1 ; 
Fall, Sept. S. ^B-KM. 

Sedan, «» ; mareh to, aj-t4a ; laUk, 
S«pL 1. ISn. 44T-4K; niMi ca- 
nned In the batUs, tn. 

Tele, Uajor-Oen., **■, MB, n. 

Saldenberg, 381. 

Seine rlTer, KS. US, KB, KM, XU. UTi 
»«, m, WT, MS. 

seaur, «. 

BeVvl. 478. 

BemenoTaborD, IIB^ 

Seminary Rldse, >GI-ani 


Benultsda, IN. 

Berlobo, Kt. 

Berrla. «1. 

Seaia. »B, 300. SIS, 801. 

Sealo Calendc. UO. 

ScTilla, tm. 

Seville. IM. 1», 181, ISe, IOOl 

SiVvri-s. «7. 479. 




siuoTft, m, M. 

BobaliC OiB.,i)*rl<1n to dOM toutii 
n*nk IM. 

■ttmr. QomUod er. uu. 


««n■^^ a«.. MS. ttt, tn, 
SmlthTkiTbT. no. 

' ' It. iai-ii«. i»-tn. 

■ff.tra; kUled.m. 

I, no. III. ui, us, «^ 4>i 

BoUwlM. Bartto of, «»««. 

SonDBL T. 

ftwir, IB. 

Sopfals, 4K. WT. «(0.«. 

BonhMB, tM. 

8a«lt. lUnbsl aL rainp o( Amhla- 
tsoM, M ; Ulm, *n, Vl ; murph to 
AiMlM-Uti. 47, U ^ U&ltla ot Au9- 
Urllu. K, K I Jnnn nn.l AunnUUI, 
a. U. n j EyUu itu.l FrlalUuid, 
W. "A*: wiih NnprilnDU Jn Spidti. 
H»-I7« ; in l'..rit.c»l. JT»-1TT ; 
TUa'ani. ir\ iia>-i>ti : wlih Hh- 
MK, li«, IM: Sulklniuca, 197- 

Ni : viuoiM, UB, »T, ite. its i id 

(^ PCWMI, HS; MlnlMcr of 
W*r. m 1 at Chialr»llra>. 9M. 
•M I WaUHoo. M. vr, IDS. KB- 
•ovUi Mmuulo, MO: bMUs. July 

^■fcl W aBe t — pt rraaoh anru Ib. 
m, n : KapolMnt pt*a Uia catUliMt 
teek Into Ills oC.^M : pnoiils no 
louvr rsllKloua. im ; Nap<dc« 
■ ilLlram ht* il>[>au rrom, Ull; 
IS: Traatlaa with rmni», Wet. 
■r, tan , in. IM : Franrh annr in. 
IM-T : naiMlMD la, lU-m : Wal- 
Uagtom aatan. Junn is. iNli |«| ; 
naOMIOKiT* up all lallurofeln. 
■Ms Napolaoa call! Iroopa Iron, 
•n t Marahal Euvhal Id, m : 
war nr Hpanlth BarcnaalBit. 414 ; 
■nanlaMi -tth OaHbaUl, «> ; 
War tiih Amnrlra. im, M». 

1^0, Kins or. lo ba Emparor ot both 
tlw ladlaa, tOS. 
iitau. IM. 
d-riallA. no, ITT. 

■a, 41T, 411^ ttl, «t. 

SplDnn. tr. S^. 

HpittiylTaDM. Ml, Ml. 

Spmnrgr. lU. 

SUdlon. Count, *», WT, MB, HT. 

HCaralaJel, ISX, 117. 

Btelnmeu. Qao., MS, 41ft 4H> 

Buililii paaa. Mi. 

Stmat,T, *n, to. 

Stettin, IM.Ml. 

BUrllng-, Aiimlml, ML 

Stockacb.l. »!. 

Siettciiti, im. 

BtolpoB. Ifil. 

Bbone. Ota., SOL 

Btona Brtdira. W4, US, )«■. 

StriKlB LuElnihlll. 

Stra^lA LuiFanp, 118. 

Strad^lla, II, II. 

StrslmiD J. M. 

StnuhunE. I. n. M : NapolPon at, 10. 
IS, Di. tlS : uuutiiutit of. 4M ; 
Fraach army euonnualail at, 
4U, 411, 41S: Inrealfld by Traik 


BtTMhrlainwrB, tM. 

Strablan, IB, 

Stuart. Oea., M.US, M4,aaK wouBded, 

Rludlanka. IH. 
KiUlpiunml. 41)1. 414, 4B. 
Suibat. HankaL I, lo, IM. IM, IM. 

Ru.l1*y'jit<>rt.BS«. *«1. 
SiilTlmim. SI RhlpliK raai. I'll. DH i at 

t>inA, tm : I'lrioa, 4RU-4U. 
Sumner, Urn-^MB, Ml. Ml. 
Sumter Fort, Ml. 
fluaquehanna, KO, 
BuroriiT, 114- 
Birlliptlanil. SCaodoaaU tn op»f ti la 

•aatfim. M : to ba Imtapawlam. 

n : Ardtduks Cbarka lo aspal 

Franob aM aatar. M : B»ir ooraa 

tDMilar.lm,n«: ralreat ot ifia 

rraoeb U^ 4t4. 470. 


Tabor brM n. 4t, M. 

Taf tin ot Europoaa KaliooA 

Tacanroff. HO, 

TacflAmento, TV, 

Tmcui rlT«r. ITT. IT*. IM. »l, 

l>ff. 1W 
TBlarwa. ITT. tT«. IM !■ 

M : at SUB^blU]i ja 
Tampa barboa*. M^HK MB, 
Tanan Tl*ar. IC 
Taajk Dan, *«■ ttr, U<,Mt, 

^VTarimiL, tn, 
taniuao, im 





Taui-ntlen, Opn., M. 

Taunc Uheraunaaua, 270. 

TchBrnala rIvBr. mi-STS, ST4-a?«, ZTIi. 

i7s. an. 

TegBthoft, Ailiniml. )«3. 

Tellnlti, M. 55. 

Tan Ban. 79. 

Teaoe^tiee, SSI, 898, !!S8. S58, BTI, <llff. 

TenneaaeB riypr, 327, 3S9. 

Teijllu, 147. 1J9. 

TiTgolinBolT, (len., 486. 

Terror. The. Sfli. 

Tprry, Ocn.. K*. 

Teale, E4a. 

TcHlDB. .'!W. 

Tpiaa. BSi). 355, 428. 

TiilHia. IM. 

ThlelmnnD, 310 

TJiIohtIUi', luli, 431. 488, 433.4ei,Me. 

Thniras, Oi'n.. 3M. STi, BT4. 

Thorn torlrBH.4, Til, IB*, 

Thnrou^hrnre ^apt ^VST, 88B- 

Tiiiicui. a, aa. 

ThiiriiJKlH. 03. aTB. 3W, SOe, 418. 

ThusiB, B8. 

Tklnorivor, 11. SW, UOO, 305-806, SOB. 

Tilly, BJB. 

Tilsit. I'eaeoof, 74, 101. 100,109. 

Times CrlmiiAn fund, ^. 

TiOUB. 3W. 

Tlrnosi, 4T7, 47B. 

Todleben, Li.-Col., defoneo o( SebM- 
lopol, 273, sr» OTJ, as: ; woundetl 
HOd remoteJ from SBbMlopol, 
£91 : St FlevDB, 4B6, 491. 

Trochu, Oea., SOS, 441, 4SS, UO,m. 

171. 47*. 
TroJaoB' Gule, WS. 
TrouvillB, 4e4. 
Tniyes, DOS, SOS, Offi, SOB, X}0,aiS,Vt, 


Tudtflii, 108, 109, 174. 
TQinpllne. Uen,, 40S. 
Tulchn, 477. 
Tuodls valler, 481 
Tun la. 239. 
TunnBl nill, M8. 
Turliigo, 9, aoe. 
Turcos, 414. 
TurlB, JO. 

TurkBv, war with Russia, 1877-78, 
tTi-IK ; Turku In Crimmui Wv, 

»CT, 274, 875, 277, ISO, an. 

TUrnnu. 8S4. 

Turner's Oap, 340. 

Tuscany, OraDd Duko of. 23. 

Tuscany. 24. 131, 163. 

Tyrol. Vi : surrBndBrBd (o Ifaa FrcDeh, 

Doc., isno, 27. 8«, 41. 43. 47 : IniUP- 

rectlou in, 75, 81, SDI~398. 


UdlQB, 393. 

UUn. It, SO, 21, £2: campaln, ISO, 

85-13, 40, 47. 75, n. 
Union Slilla, 355. 
United Slates Ford. W7-310. 
Unitrul river, 395. 
Unlcrlpli-htlng, leo. 



VtitU Oca., m. 

Tsdro. ThA, IM. 
T*Bdr«Ma, «>. 

vanMift, m, sn, 119. n«, tw 


Vere«IU. Wl. 

Virdea, IM. 

WrduB, X, Ot-M. MO, MI, US. IK 

VernSTlUc. 4W. UO. 

VerDonraTB. SIS. 

Vcruns, IM. SIB. >7«. MO, Nl. 

VerulJlH, Klof of PruMla >t, ISn, 
«S ; BaiBlDBHDI.Ia make tamu, 
MO : K iDf of PnuiU procUlmad 
Kmpsror at. Jan. 18. im,4n,«74 ; 
I^llmliuuiea ot PcMMMfMdat, 
Feb. IS, 1071. 471L 

TUama. I1«,1S0.I11. 

Ylceua. SSI. 

vickibun. s». Ks. isa. 

Victor, ManhaL at Cut««l0, U; 

lUrmKo, IS-IB : UU orTlt«bak, 
IS : at tiM BeraiJna. ISS ; Dra*- 

dra. I'M ; Letpilit. W : wlUi Na- 

S:>l»u Into Spain, IW, ITS, 17T ; 
iLaTen. 17% 180 ; on the RUna, 
IW : driTen bacli, KB i on ttw 
Selna. KH, «CG. 

Victor EmmaoiHl. KiM of Italy, at- 
i.vii. f„i— ir.' SOT; BditJo of 
s-iir^rlno, tiG-9I»: aU»cl» lbs 
Vuu1riUI«nl. BUO-WL 

VU rl.or. ««r. 4M. 

Tkina. Oovpmmtnl. ri»04lls Kr*y 
an.l Mrlu, I*i0. W : In Jnuirer, W ; 
Nft[X-l«,jn'fl nlaa In KO lo. S3 ; 
ha«1«ii]i I'l, U, tH ; PDii-red. NnT. 
17. ISDS. ; Napr.l".pii lomarrh 
myqi. T7. ra, fO ; ^mxiH^Ip^I br lb» 
rn-nch, M«7 IS, Ism. «, M : ro- 
tr«it 1", m, w : f-wio" •■(. 'vt i*. 
I*«. « ; iii-h«nnw»l, (iir kldnap- 
liIiiK Xii[iiit~.n. ar, SWi. 4^. *01. 

Ylannn. I'liiian^wi oF. dwlan* Napo- 
■'.'■p HP ouiIa*. cn. 

V)*miD, tat. 

TI^Tano, niL 

TIB". ITl. 

TiUarraDOhni SlS,m. 

Tlllrni-un, Admiral. MeftpM fraiQ 
Toulon. rMcbM CadlK Si : BMtla 
or Cape FlnlMeirr. H ; ailia lo 
Coninnaasd Br«at. t>tjt retunu lo 
CadlE, B : NapolaoB* wnUmi, 

TIIlFD'>uTe, 4. 

Till«n«uT»4urVanna. I^K 

Tillers. «« 

VIllerHioL CI. 

Vlllm™. 470. 

Tllna. ]iM-1IS,118,m 

VImkro. IM. 

Vlncvbnf.*. <70. 

VI nor. dm . *U. 47%. 

TlBusllo. Wl. tOL 

TloaiUla, ttS-OB, «& 

Vir^nla. SI. 30. W, Vfi. 
Virgloln, Armr of. surrrBdais, •». 

VluiDil. SI a. 

Vlitula, N. TO. n. in. ISS, in 

VltBlwk, no. 111. lEl, 1S«. 

viiry, ae, no. 

VIlDrle-FranpoW, SIT. 
" llleuT, " 


Vltlorla. Balll 


VlTlM, a«D., at Watarioo, »4. MX. 

vueara, BOS. 

Tochva. M, Wl. 

Vobta-Bboli. 414. 

Toilk. •». IIT. 

Top rmr, IIL 

VofarlhBH, ■«■ 

VoH rfnr, US, 419^ MO, 4K, 4Si^ 


Wacbwi, I8^ in. 

WwMlneourt, MT. 

Wacram, Battle of, JdIt ■, UOB, gO, 

«-ffr, ns. 400. 

Walker, Oen. BlrO.T., UBalamaiic*, 

W^ker. M Harper^ Tarrj.tM. 
Wamn, Ocn., at BMtlg of tb* WU- 

Warren town. SB. 
Waraaw. 70, TC, Its. 
WMhiDftOB. SB. tSi, M, Mi, OS. SS^ 

Wanerboni. B. 

T\'*iaricw, fsi. sea: 

Waterloo. SMUe of. Jdh IS. IBIS, 1& 

111 141, tv, ns, SB>-ns. mt, m. 

Watara. CbL. ITC 

Wbtts. MS, bo, KB. ST. 

Webb, ■oundod at " BlooAj Asite," 


Vrimar, •>-«. IM. 

Weimobarx. H, 411, 414, 4IB, «B. 

WelaaBfels. IB. 

Waiverita. 148. 

y»Uloirtoci, Poke of, J l awntiarteJ, 
Anv., iBOi: MuracMDaata at Bo- 
tlot, Vimlari>,T«« ; paOtae* aad 
combiaatioa of torvmi, ITSt dta- 
•nharkwl at Llaboo, April Si. 
18ai.l7B: BalUaDfTala»ra.July 
tr. B, im-IM : oppoalnR HaBrna. 
IB-]9r ; Balamaoca, Juljr tS. INII. 
IST-IB : Vlttoria. Jane Bl. IHIS, 
IM-IM; armT la tha I^reni-e*. 
M8: eampam of Wateriixi. IH1S, 
IB-MB; titles of CTkarbrol. 
JunalB,Bn-3n; UmVT- Jnee 14. 
BB-tIS: Uualre-Bna, June IS, 
M4.Mi : Wauirloo, JoM IH. SU- 
MS. 19. M 

Warder, (ten ron. S81, 4Si, 40, 474. 


peror of lip/m^"^''^ ■"'J E 
Emp-ror of o.™ P"*"*!"!* 




Ill [ 

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